Intro to Oceanography Chapter 1-5 Test

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Chapter 1
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Chapter 1
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is the study of the ocean and how it works?
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Oceanography
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A vast body of saline water that occupies the depression of Earth’s surface.
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Ocean
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Of earths surface water is salty and found in oceans. Saline means salty.
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97.5
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Of earth’s surface water is fresh water.
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2.5
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How much freshwater is locked up as glaciers?
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2.5%
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What is the average depth of the oceans?
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3,682 meters
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What percent of all humans live near the coastline
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50%
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Why is there only one world ocean?
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Because its all connected
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Which is greater: average depth of ocean or average height of continents above sea level?
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Average Depth
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Is most of earths water in ocean?
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No most of it is trapped in ice.
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Someone who studies waves, currents, ocean-air interactions
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Marine Engineer
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Someone who studies marine organisms, effect of pollution on marine organisms.
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Marine Biology
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Someone who designs and builds oil platforms, ships and harbors.
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Engineer
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Someone who studies the ocean’s role in earth’s climate
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Climate Scientist
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Someone who studies oceans dissolved solids and gases and effect on geology and biology.
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Chemical Oceanography
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Someone who studies earths crust, sediments, map of seafloor, earthquakes.
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Marine Geology
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A systematic way of asking questions about the natural world and testing the answers to those questions.
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Science
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When did the universe begin?
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13.7 billion years ago.
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Universe had a beginning called?
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The Big Bang
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After time, atoms formed, especially this one in particular?
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Hydrogen
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A huge rotating cluster of starts?
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Galaxy
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Our galaxy is in the?
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Milky Way
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Composed of a star and its planets?
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Solar System
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What does a star and its planets form?
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Solar System
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Where do stars form?
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Nebulae – large diffuse clouds of dust and gas within galaxies.
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Cloud like sphere flattens and condenses at center into knot of gases?
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Protostar
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Protostar contrast, compresses & heats up until what forms?
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Nuclear Fusion = Hydrogen atoms fuse to form helium releasing energy.
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Hydrogen
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Atomic number 1 # of protons 1
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Helium
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Atomic number 2 # of protons 2
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Carbon
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Atomic number 6 # of protons 6
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Oxygen
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Atomic number 8 # of protons 8
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Iron
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Atomic number 26 # of protons 26
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Gold
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Atomic number 79 # of protons 79
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Uranium
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Atomic number 92 # of protons 92
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When 2 hydrogen atoms fuse together, what element forms?
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Helium
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Do medium or massive stars only make elements as heavy as oxygen?
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Massive
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How do the medium stars end their lives?
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When a star starts to consume C and O. energy outputs rises and it swells and becomes a red giant.
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Is our sun a medium or large star?
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Medium
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Do massive stars make atoms as heavy as carbon and oxygen through nuclear fusion?
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No
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Do massive stars make atoms as heavy iron through nuclear fusion?
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Yes
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5 billion years ago, our solar nebula was rotating disk of?
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75% hydrogen, 23% helium and 2% other.
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What caused the shock wave to hit our solar nebula?
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A supernova
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What is term for clumping of small particle into large masses such as sun & planets?
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Accretion
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Clumping of small particles into large masses
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Accretion
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Gravity pulls what down to the core?
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Iron and nickel
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What term describes the young cold earth as being the same throughout?
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Homogeneous
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What were heat sources on earth?
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Asteroids and comet impacts gravitational compression and decaying of radioactive activity.
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Name process by which earth became layered based on density?
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Density Stratification
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What 2 metals sank down to the core?
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Iron and nickel
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Name elements that rose to form the crust?
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Silicon, magnesium, aluminium and oxygen.
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A planetary body hit young earth when?
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4.4 years ago
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Building the molecules of life
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Biosynthesis
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First life was when?
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3.8 billion years ago
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Simplest life forms were?
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Bacteria
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Chapter 2
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Chapter 2
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These Norwegians explored Iceland, Greenland, and even North America in fast long-ranging ships
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Vikings
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Organized ship-borne commerce on Nile River and stored information about marine science in the great Library of Alexandria
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Egyptians
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Explored Mediterranean Sea and named the ocean “okeanos”
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Greeks
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Oceanian navigators colonized Pacific Islands and even Hawaii in great dual-hulled sailing ships
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Polynesians
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Using ships with sails on multiple masts and a central rudder, Sailors impressed countries of the Indian Ocean on behalf of their emporer
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Chinese
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British captain who circumnavigated the world 2 times, came very close to Antarctica without finding the southern continent , “discovered” Hawaii
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James Cook
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Led Challenger Expedition on longest continuous oceanographic survey on record measured: salinity, temperature, density, depth soundings
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Matthew Maury
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“discovered” the new world ( the Americas) while trying to find a sea route to the riches and lands of the east (China and India)
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Christopher Columbus
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Portuguese navigator who lead the first voyage that circumnavigated the world
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Ferdinand Magellan
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father of physical oceanography who senses worldwide pattern of surface winds and currents and wrote The Physical Geography of the Sea
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Charles Thompson
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Norwegian who led Polar expedition on the ship frame which was trapped in Arctic ice for 4 years
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Fridtjov Nansen
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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
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NOAA
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Oceanographic research located at Cape Cod Massachusetts and affiliated with MIT
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Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute
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National Aeronautical and Space Administration started 1958
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NASA
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Louisiana University Marine Consortium
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LUMCON
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Oceanographic research located at La Jolla California and affiliated with the University of California
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Scripps Institute of Oceanography
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Chapter 4
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Chapter 4
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Discovery & study of ocean floor contours.
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Bathymetry
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Early Bathymetry studies used what?
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Multibeam
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?
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?
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Measures the sea surface height from orbit.
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Satellite Altimentry
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An undersea mountain or ridge “pulls” water towards it from the sides, forming a what?
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Mount of water over itself
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Small robot that descends to the bottom of the ocean.
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Submersibles
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Satellite altimetry measures the sea surface height from what?
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Orbit
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Description or representation of features & configuration of land surfaces.
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Topography
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Is the submerged equivalent of an above water topographic map.
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Bathymetric Chart
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Submerged outer edge of a continent.
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Continental Margin
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Deep-sea floor beyond continental margin.
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Ocean Basin
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?
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?
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Shallow, submerged edge of the continent.
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Continental Shelf
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Abrupt transition from continental shelf & deep ocean floor.
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Shelf Break
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Abrupt transition from continental shelf & deep ocean floor.
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Continental Rise
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How is an active continental margin different from a passive margin?
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Volcanoes occur at the active margins.
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How do the widths of continental shelves differ between active margins and passive margins?
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Passive margins have narrow shelves.
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How has sea level varied with time?
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It has risen and fallen over time.
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Is sea level unusually high or low at present?
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High
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Where are submarine canyons found?
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Turbidity currents
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Where would you look for continental rise?
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At the bottom of a continental slope
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What forms continental rises?
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Accumulation of sediment at the bottom of a slope.
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Mountainous Chain of young basalt rock at active spreading center of an ocean.
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Oceanic Ridge
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Hot springs on active volcanic ridges.
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Hydro Thermal Vents
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Flat small, sediment covered, extinct volcanoes or intrusion of once molten rock.
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Abyssal plain
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Flat topped seamounts that once were tall enough to approach or penetrate the sea surface.
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Guyots
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Are arc shaped depressions in the ocean floor caused by the abduction of a converging ocean plate.
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Trench
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?
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?
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Is the shape of the ocean basins like a bathtub?
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No
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How does continental margin differ from a deep ocean basin?
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Continental margin extensions of continental still made of granite like the continent.
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Are mid-ocean ridges always literally in mid ocean?
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No
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What are fracture zones?
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An area of irregular seismically inactive topography marking the position of once was an active fault.
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What causes these lateral breaks?
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past activity of transform fault.
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What are abyssal plains?
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Flat featureless expanses of sediment-covered ocean floor.
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What is unique about abyssal plains?
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They are flat
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How do guyots form?
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From flat topped seamounts
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How were lines of guyots and seamounts important in deciphering plate tectonics?
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The seamounts and guyots once were seismically active volcanoes that formed at the ocean ridges and then moves away.
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Open water zone
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Pelagic Zone
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near the shore over the continental shelf.
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Neritic zone
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Open ocean beyond the continental shelf
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Oceanic zone
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Where light reaches in open water.
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Photic Zone
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where light does not reach in open water.
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Aphotic Zone
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Lowest level of ocean
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Benthic Zone
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Costal band alternately covered & uncovered by tidal action.
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Litoral zone
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Is the area beyond the intertidal
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Sublittoral Zone
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Seabed on the slopes down to great depths.
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Bathyal Zone
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Begins at the end of the bathyal zone.
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Abyssal Zone
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Deepest seabed includes the trenches.
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Hadal Zone
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Where would you look for a benthic organism?
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The bottom floor of the ocean.
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Chapter 5
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Chapter 5
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What type of participles compose most marine sediments?
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Most are the size of small silk, clay and sand.
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Which particles are most easily transported by water?
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The smaller the size of the particle the more easily it can be transported.
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How do well sorted sediments differ from poorly sorted sediments?
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?
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The particles can be mostly one size and thus?
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Well sorted Sediments
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The particles can be a mixture of sizes and thus?
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Poorly sorted sediments
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Terrigenous
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From land
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Biogenous
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Living Organisms
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Hydrogenous
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From water
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Cosmogenous
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From space
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What type of sediment is most abundant?
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Terrigenous
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What type of sediment is rarest?
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Cosmogenous
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Are neritic sediments generally terrigenous or biogenous?
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Terrigenous
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What is Lithification?
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The conversion of sediments into sedimentary rock.
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How is sedimentary rock formed?
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Sediment converted into sedimentary rock by pressured induced compaction.
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What is the origin of oozes?
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From from the rigid remains of living organisms. Deep ocean sediment containing 30% or more biogenous material is an ooze.

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