Intro to Neuro Ch 4 – Neurochemistry

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exogenous substance
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substances from external substances
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endogenous substance
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substances produced inside the body
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presynaptic
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located on transmitting side of a synapse
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exocytosis
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cellular process that results in the release of a substance into the extracellular space
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neurotransmitter receptor
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protein embedded in cell membrane; enables it to sense and react to molecules
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reuptake
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reabsorption of molecules by neurons that released them
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transporter
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specialized membrane component that returns transmitter molecules to pre-synaptic neuron for reuse
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ionotropic receptor
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receptor protein containing an ion channel that opens when the receptor is bound by an agonist
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metabotropic receptor
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receptor protein that doesn’t have ion channels but uses a protein system to open nearby ion channels
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amine neurotransmitter
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neurotransmitter based of modifications to a single amino acid
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aminco acid neurotransmitter
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neurotransmitter that is itself an amino acid
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peptide neurotransmitter
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neurotransmitter consisting of a short chain of amino acids
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gas neurotransmitter
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neurotransmitter that is a soluable gas
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acetylcholine
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neurotransmitter found in autonomic nervous system, motor systems, and throughout the brain
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cholinergic
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referring to cells that use acetylcholine as their synaptic neurotransmitter
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basal forebrain
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a region, ventral to the basal ganglia, major source of ACh in the brain
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dopamine
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monoamine transmitter found in the midbrain and basal forebrain
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dopaminergic
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referring to cells that use dopamine as their synaptic neurotransmitter
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substantia nigra
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brainstem structure that innervates the basal ganglia, is source of all dopamine projections
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ventral tegmental area
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portion of the midbrain that projects dopamine fibers to the nucleus accumbens
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serotonergic
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cells that use serotonin as their synaptic neurotransmitter
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raphe nuclei
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string of nuclei in the midline of the midbrain/brainstem that contain most of the serotonergic neurons in the brain
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serotonin
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produced in the nuclei and is active in structures throughout the cerebral hemispheres
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noradrenergic
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referring to cells that use norepinephrine as their synaptic neurotransmitter
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norepinephrine (non-adrenaline)
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produced and released by sympathetic post-ganglionic neurons to accelerate organ activity
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locus coeruleus
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small nucleis in brainstem whose neurons produce norepinephrine and modulate large areas of the forebrain
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lateral tegmental area
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brainstem region that provides some of the norepinephrine-containing projections of the brain
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glutamate
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amino acid neurotransmitter, most common excitatory transmitter
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GABA
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widely distributed amino acid transmitter, main inhibitory transmitter
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opioid peptide
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endogenous peptide that mimics effects of morphine in binding to opioid receptors and producing reward
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retrograde transmitter
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diffuses from the postsynaptic neuron back to the presynaptic neuron
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ligand
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substance that binds to receptor molecules
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agonist
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molecule that binds to receptor molecules and initiates a response like that of another
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antagonist
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drug that interferes with or prevents action of a neurotransmitter
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binding affinity
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propensity of molecules of a drug to bind to receptors
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efficacy/intrinsic activity
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extent to which a drug activates a response when it binds to a receptor
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dose-response curve
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graph of a drug’s effects (y) vs the dose (x)
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bioavailable
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substance present in the body in a form available to interact with mechanisms
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biotransformation
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process where enzymes convert a drug into metabolites that are active
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blood-brain barrier
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mechanisms that make the movement of substances from blood vessels into brain cells more difficult than exchanges in other body organs
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drug tolerance
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repeated exposure to a drug, individual becomes less responsive to dose
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metabolic tolerance
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metabolic machinery becomes more efficient at clearing the drug
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functional tolerance
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form of drug tolerance when receptors are up-regulated or down-regulated
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down-regulation
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compensatory decrease in receptor availability at the synapses of a neuron
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up-regulation
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compensatory increase in receptor availability at the synapses of a neuron
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cross-tolerance
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condition in which the development of tolerance for one drug causes an individual to develop tolerance for another drug
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autoreceptor
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receptor for a synaptic transmitter located in pre-synaptic membrane and tells the axon terminal how much has been released
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neuroleptics (antipsychotics)
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alleviate symptoms of schizophrenia, by blocking dopamine receptors
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atypical neuroleptic
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antipsychotic drug that has actions other than/in addition to typical dopamine D2 receptors antagonism
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antidepressant
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drug that relieves symptoms of depression
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monoamine oxidase
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enzyme that breaks down monoamine transmitters, thereby inactivating them
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tricyclic antidepressant
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increases accumulation of serotonin and norepinephrine
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SSRI
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blocks reuptake of transmitter at serotonergic synapses
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depressant
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reduces neuron excitability
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barbiturate
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central nervous system depressants
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anxiolytic
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used to combat anxiety
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benzodiazepine
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anti-anxiety drugs that are agonists of GABA receptors
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opioid receptor
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receptor that responds to endogenous opioids and/or exogenous opioids
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peraqueductal gray
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neuronal body rich region of midbrain surrounding cerebral aqueduct that connects 3rd and 4th ventricles, pain perception
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endogenous opioid
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peptide transmitters, body’s own narcotics
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stimulant
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enhances excitability of neurons
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alcohol
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stimulates, then depresses
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nucleus accumbens
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region of forebrain receives dopaminergic innervation from vented tegmental area
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insula
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region of cortex lying below within lateral sulcus of frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes

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