Intro to Linux L2 RQ

Flashcard maker : Jennifer Hawkins
T/F. All OSs require a certain minimum set of hardware components to function properly.
True
T/F. These minimum installation requirements can be obtained from several different sources, i. e., a manual, a file on the installation DVD or from a vendor website.
True
T/F. Each individual hardware component should be checked against the Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) found on the vendor’s Web site.
True
Hardware Compatibility List (HCL)
Use the ___ to ensure that all of the components of the computer are compatible with the new operating system to be installed.
In addition to the hardware components, it is necessary to identify the software components that will be used in the Linux operating system. These components include the following:
Computer’s host name
Internet or network configuration parameters
And specific software packages to be installed
T/F. You should create a preinstallation checklist to document hardware and software information.
True
State some installation methods for Linux.
DVD media (most common)
An FTP server across the network
An HTTP Web server across the network
An NFS server across the network
An SMB server across the network
Packages located on the hard disk
CD-ROM media
T/F. If a previous version of Fedora Core is detected by the installation, the user is prompted to either upgrade the previous installation of Fedora Core that exists on the hard drive or perform a fresh installation. Only perform an upgrade if there is data and configurations on the previous version of Fedora Core Linux that are difficult to re-create or back-up.
True
During installation, two user accounts should be configured. State them.
1) Administrator account (root)
Full rights to the system
2) At least one regular user account
Authentication
All Linux systems require secure access, which means that each user must log in with a valid user name and password before gaining access to the system. This process is called ___.
Hard Drivers (HDDs)
read and write information to and from ferrous material coating rigid metal platters by spinning those platters rapidly under articulated arms holding electromagnetic heads.
The most common storage devices for storing Linux OS are hard disks. State the three types discussed in our notes.
Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment (PATA)
Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA)
Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI)
A Partition
is a small, manageable section of a hard drive.
A Filesystem
is a structure that specifies how data should reside on the hard disk itself.
Volume.
A partition formatted with a file system is called a
T/F. A primary partition is a major unique and separate HDD division. There is a maximum of four primary partitions.
True
An Primary Partition
is a partition that can be further subdivided into an unlimited number of smaller partitions called logical drives.
A Master Boot Record
is a table of all partition information for a certain hard disk and is stored in the first readable sector outside all of the partitions.
T/F. The MBR is limited to hard disks that are less than 2 TB in size. Hard disks larger than 2 TB use a GUID Partition Table (GPT) instead of an MBR. The MBR and GPT are functionally equivalent.
True
T/F. Each partition will have a file system and each of the filesystems can be accessed by Linux if they are attached (mounted) to a certain directory.
True
At minimum, Linux typically requires only two partitions to be created. State them.
1) A partition that is mounted to the root directory in Linux (/) and can contain all of the files used by the operating system, applications and users.
2) A partition that is used for virtual memory (swap memory).
Virtual Memory
consists of an area on the hard disk that can be used to store information that would normally reside in physical memory (RAM) if the physical memory is being used excessively.
T/F. A general rule of thumb is to have the swap partition be two times the size of the physical memory (RAM).
True
T/F. A swap file does not contain a filesystem and is never mounted to a directory, because the Linux operating system is ultimately responsible for swapping information.
True
T/F. Extra partitions make Linux more robust against filesystem errors.
True
The /boot (500 MB)
directory contains the Linux kernel and boot files.
The /home
directory is the default location for user home directories.
The /var
directory contains log files and spools.
State several different common types of file systems discussed in class.
ext2 (used on most Linux computers)
ext3 (performs journaling)
ext4 (performs journaling)
VFAT (compatible with Windows FAT32)
REISER (performs journaling)
T/F. The ext2 filesystem is the traditional filesystem still used on most Linux computers.
True
T/F. The VFAT filesystem is compatible with the Windows’ FAT file system.
True
T/F. The other three filesystems, ext3, ext4 and REISER, perform a function called journaling and are more robust than ext2 and VFAT.
True
T/F. Besides journaling, these two file systems have faster data transfer and indexing.
True
A Journaling File System
is one that keeps track of the information written to the hard drive in a journal.
T/F. With a journaling file system, each step required to copy a file to the new location is first written to a journal, so that the system can retrace the steps the system took prior to a power outage and complete the file copy.
True
A Boot Loader
is a program, started by the BIOS ROM after system startup, which loads the Linux kernel into memory from a hard disk partition and yet can also boot other existing OSs from another partition.
GRand Unified Bootloader (GRUB)
is a boot loader that is configured during the Fedora Linux installation.
T/F. The boot loader usually resides on the Master Boot Record (MBR) or on first hard disk sector of the / or /boot partition.
True
Kernel Parameters
are used to pass certain information to the Linux kernel via the boot loader.
T/F. A user should log in with a user account for daily tasks.
True
State the basic outline for the Linux installation.
Starting the installation
Choosing the language, keyboard, and storage type
Selecting a host name, time zone, and root password
Configuring storage devices
Configuring the boot loader
Selecting and installing packages
Completing the firstboot wizard
State the detailed outline for the Linux installation.
1) Boot from first Red Hat Fedora Linux DVD
A Welcome screen is displayed, you can select the following options:
Default graphical installation
Installation with basic video driver
Rescue installed items
Boot from local drive
Memory test
2) Check media for errors prior to installation
Optional, but recommended
3) Choosing the language, keyboard, and storage type
Allowed to choose installation language
Choose keyboard configuration
Keyboard model and layout automatically detected
Select types of storage devices used to host the Linux OS
For internal or locally attached hard drive installation, select Basic Storage Devices
For installation on SAN or DASD, select Specialized Storage Devices
4) Selecting a host name, time zone, and root password
Supply a host name that will identify the computer system on the network
By default, use localhost.localdomain
Important to select correct time zone for the local system
Create a good root password
5) Configuring storage devices
a) The Fedora Core installation program can automatically create partitions based on common configurations. It is preferred for the user to manually partition to suit the needs of the specific Linux system.
b) New partitions can only be allocated from free space.
c) It is best to manually create partitions that reflect the use of your system by selecting Custom Layout.
d) When creating a partition, specify the partition technology.
e) Instead of standard partitions, you can create logical volumes using the Logical Volume Manager (LVM) or create a software-based Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) volume that spans multiple disks.
f) For standard disk partitions, you will need to provide information regarding its size, filesystem type, encryption options and the directory that it will be mounted to (mount point).
6) Configuring the boot loader
Using GRUB, the user can choose the operating system at startup. If the computer has more than one operating system, this process is called dual booting.
Using GRUB, the user can also set the default operating system.
7) Selecting and installing packages
8) Completing the firstboot wizard
Complete the installation
License information
Create User
Date and time
Network Time Protocol (NTP)
Hardware Profile
vmlinuz
Every operating system has a core component, which loads all other components and serves to centrally control the activities of the computer. This component is called the Kernel and in Linux is simply a file called ___, which is located on the hard drive and loaded when the user first turns on the computer
T/F. When a user interacts with the computer, the user is interacting with the kernel of the operating system. This can not be done directly.
True
The Terminal
is the channel that allows a certain user to log in to the kernel locally or across a network.
The Shell
is a user interface that accepts input from the user and passes this input to the kernel for processing.
The BASH Shell
is the default Linux shell and is a command line shell.
T/F. Linux is a multiuser multitasking operating system and allows for multiple terminals. Each terminal has its own shell.
True
T/F. Most users prefer a graphical interface. Any user can start the GUI environment on top of the BASH shell or switch to a graphical terminal, e.g., GNOME Display Manager (gdm).
True
T/F. From the local server, use key combinations to change to separate terminals. Each command-line terminal may be accessed from the GUI environment (Ctrl + Alt + Fnx).
True
State the symbols observed next to the command prompt that designate a root user from a regular user. Look at page 64.
Root user: #
Regular user: $
GNOME.
When the user logs into a graphical terminal, the GUI environment of the user’s choice is started, the default GUI environment in Fedora Core Linux is
T/F. Commands indicate the name of program to execute and are case sensitive.
True
Options
are specific letters starting with – appearing after the command name to alter the way the command works.
Arguments
specify a command’s working parameters.
In the command, ls -a /etc/ntp, all of the files in the /etc/ntp directory are listed. State the option and the argument.
a is the option &
/etc/ntp is the argument.
Clear
is a BASH shell command that clears the screen.
Reset
is a BASH shell command that resets your terminal to use default terminal settings.
Finger
is a BASH shell command that displays information on system users.
Who
is a BASH shell command that displays currently logged-in users.
W
is a BASH shell command that displays currently logged-in users and their tasks.
Whoami
is a BASH shell command that displays your login name.
Id
is a BASH shell command that displays the numbers associated with your account name and group names. These are commonly referred to as User IDs (UIDs) and Group IDs (GIDs).
Date
is a BASH shell command that displays the current date and time.
Cal
is a BASH shell command that displays the calendar for the current month.
EXIT
is a BASH shell command that exits out of your current shell.
T/F. If the output of a command is too large to fit on the terminal, use the Shift and Page Up keys simultaneously to view previous screens of information. Also the Shift and Page Down keys work the same way when pressed simultaneously to go in the opposite direction in the output displayed.
True
T/F. The user can recall commands previously entered in the BASH shell using the keyboard keys (the up, down, right and left arrows keys). You can cycle through the list of commands.
True
Shell Metacharacters
are characters with a special meaning, e.g., $ tells the shell that the following text refers to a variable.
In the command given below, state the appropriate output.
echo My shell is $SHELL
My shell is /bin/bash
T/F. If you lose your cursor, you can cancel a command with holding down the Ctrl & c keys simultaneously.
True
T/F. Linux distributions contain many commands.
True
Manual Pages
are the most common form of documentation for Linux commands. They are called “man” pages. At the command prompt, type “man” followed by a command name.
man 5 whoami
This command will find the manual page for whoami in the file format section of the manual pages.
man -k usb
This command will find all of the manual pages that have usb in their name or description.
T/F. Manual pages contain different section numbers.
True
T/F. Linux returns the manual page with the lowest section number.
True
Info Pages
returns an easy-to-read description of each command and also contains links to other information pages (called hyperlinks). At command prompt, type “info” followed by a command name.
T/F. To quit the man command or info command, press the q key to quit.
True
T/F. Some commands do not have manual pages or info pages.
True
T/F. The operating system handles writing data from computer memory to the disk drives in the computer so that simply turning off the power to the computer might result in damaged user and system files.
True
T/F. The user can use the shutdown command.
True
Shutdown -h +15
This commands shuts down the computer in 15 minutes.
Shutdown -h now
This commands shuts down the computer right now.
1. What is the default shell in Linux called?
a. SH
b. BSH
c. CSH
d. BASH
d. BASH
2. What equivalent to the man command generally provides an easier-to-read description of the queried command and also contains links to other related information?
a. who
b. man help
c. man -descriptive
d. info
d. info
3. What command can you use to safely shut down the Linux system immediately?
a. shutdown -c
b. shutdown -r
c. down
d. halt
d. halt
4. What command is equivalent to the man -k keyword command?
a. find keyword
b. man keyword
c. apropos keyword
d. appaloosa keyword
c. apropos keyword
5. The Red Hat Fedora installation can be performed in which two of the following modes?
a. text
b. full
c. subtext
d. graphical
e. administrator assisted
a. text d. graphical
6. Linux commands entered via the command line are not case sensitive. True or False?
False
7. Which command blanks the terminal screen erasing previously displayed output?
a. erase
b. clean
c. blank
d. clear
d. clear
8. When sitting at a computer running Linux, what key combination is pressed to open the graphical terminal?
a. Ctrl+Alt+G
b. Ctrl+Alt+F4
c. Ctrl+Alt+F1
d. Ctrl+7
c. Ctrl+Alt+F1
9. After you log into a terminal, you receive a user interface called a _________.
a. GUID
b. shell
c. text box
d. command screen
b. shell
10. Users enter commands directly to the kernel of the Linux operating system. True or False?
False
11. How can you protect a metacharacter (such as the $ character) from shell interpretation?
a. Precede it with a /.
b. Follow it with a .
c. Precede it with a $.
d. It cannot be done as metacharacters are essential.
e. Precede it with a .
e. Precede it with a .
12. You know a Linux command will perform a desired function for you, but you cannot remember the full name of the command. You do remember it will flush a variable from your system. Which command typed at a command prompt displays a list of commands that would likely contain the command you desire?
a. man -k flush
b. man -k find all
c. man flush
d. man -key flush
a. man -k flush
13. Which command displays the users who are currently logged in to the Linux system?
a. finger
b. who
c. id
d. date
b. who
14. Which of the following packages can be used to standardize configuration files across Linux systems?
a. Samba
b. Apache
c. NIS
d. NFS
c. NIS
15. Which prompt does the root user receive when logged in to the system?
a. $
b. @
c. #
d. !
c. #
16. Which prompt do regular users receive when logged in to the system?
a. $
b. @
c. #
d. !
a. $
17. Which of the following refers to the third primary partition on the second SCSI hard disk within Linux?
a. hdb2
b. sda3
c. hdb3
d. sdb3
b. sda3
18. Which two partitions do you typically create at minimum during a Fedora Linux installation?
a. /
b. /boot
c. swap
d. /home
a. / c. swap
19. If you are planning to install 2.3Gb of packages when installing your Linux server, how much free space should you have on your hard disk to create the necessary filesystems?
a. 2.3Gb
b. 3 Gb
c. 3.5 Gb
d. 4.6 Gb
Answer: d
Which boot loader is available to choose from during the installation of Fedora Linux?
a. LILO
b. ABOOT
c. GRUB
d. TeX
c. GRUB

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