Intro To Film 8-10

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Genre
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a kind of literary or artistic work
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Film Genre
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A set of conventions and formulas, repeated and developed through film history, which organize and categorize films according to repeated subjects, icons, and styles.
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What Makes A Genre
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Different degrees Typically, we think of a genre as consisting of clear, core cases, however, fuzzier examples exist
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Subgenres
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subcategories of media content genres,to distinct and fairly long-lasting types
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The Usefulness of Genre Categories
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Advertisement Conventions
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Conventions of story
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behavior of character
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Conventions of style
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Center on plot patterns. Broad meanings that summoned again and again. Stylistic patterns-techniques that would be jarring in one genre may become common in another.
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Plot patterns
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change in knowledge goal oriented plots: like investigations
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Genre Iconography
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recurring symbolic images that carry meaning from film to film
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Genre History
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A cycle is a batch of related genre films that enjoys intense popularity and influence over a fairly short period
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Genres and Cycles
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A genre inevitably passes from a phase of maturity to one of parody, when it begins to mock its own conventions
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Genre Mixing
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– The combination of genres to achieve a new effect. Examples of genre mixing include The Office, The Swan, The Daily Show with John Stewart, Cowboys and Aliens
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Dramedy
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a television combination of the elements of drama and comedy
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Seriocomedy
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a comedy with serious elements or overtones
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Rituals
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another name for ceremonies or rites
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Ambivalence
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mixed feelings or emotions
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Genres as Social Reflection
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The hypothesis is that genre conventions, repeated from film to film, reflected the audience’s persuasive doubts and anxieties
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Genre Innovations
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• Problem of generic repetition= risk of bored audience o They want the familiar, but don’t want the same thing over and over again o RESULT: interplay between imitation & innovation to add difference • Imitation: follow established codes & conventions • Innovation: deviate from generic codes & conventions
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Reflectionist
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different points in history, stories, themes, values or imagery harmonize with social attitudes.
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3 Genres
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The Western, The Horror Film, The Musical
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The Western
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The central theme of the genre became the conflict between civilized order and the lawless frontier
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The Horror Film
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Most recognizable by the emotional effect it tries to arouse It aims to shock, disgust, and repel
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Emotional effect
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created by a character convention: a menacing unnatural monster
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Thematic pattern
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plays on fears about the environment
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The Musical
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Came into being in response to a technological innovation Devised plots that could motivate the introduction of musical numbers
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Two subgenres
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Backstage musical Straight musical
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Backstage Musical
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musical film where each song and dance number narratively motivated by plot
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Straight Musical
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everyday situation where people just start singing.
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Documentary
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a film or TV program presenting the facts about a person or event
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Stage Events
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in covering those events that are unusual or involve conflict, the media will furnish some rationale for the story, and the rationale may at least partially explain the agitators’ ideology.
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Staging Events for the Camera
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Unreliable if it manipulates the events that are filmed… w/o scripting or staging
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Truth and Opinion in Documentary
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Factually trustworthy, but have been challenged as inaccurate
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Inconvenient Truth
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Weak arguments or skewed data does not turn it into a fiction film.Takes a stand, state an opinion, or advocate a solution to a problem
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Fictional Film
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a movie that tells an untrue story
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Blurring the Boundaries
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Test our ability to distinguish documentary from fiction
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Fake documentaries
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mockumentaries
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Compilation film
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produced by assembling images from archival sources
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interview or talking-heads
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records testimony about events or social movements
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Direct-cinema
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characteristically records an ongoing event as it happens, with minimal interference by the filmmaker
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Portrait
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centers on aspects of the life of a compelling person
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Narrative structure
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a textual organization based on sequences of connected events, usually presented in a straightforward, chronological framework
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Non-narrative structure
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–Unison –Canon –Accumulation –Retrograde (reversely) –Mirroring
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Categorical form
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categorized formal pattern
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Rhetorical form
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an argument that will convince the spectator of something
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Avant Garde
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a group active in the invention and application of new techniques in a given field, especially in the arts
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Nonconformist
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someone who refuses to conform to established standards of conduct
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Found-footage films
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Scavenged works. relies on editing, express distinct feelings or ideas through staging.
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Abstract Form
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Organize a film around colors, shapes, sizes, and movements in the images The whole film’s patterning will be determined by such qualities
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Associational Form
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Suggests ideas/emotions to the viewer by assembling images and sounds that may not have any logical connection
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Animation
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general activity and motion Create a series of images by shooting one frame at a time Between the exposure of each frame, the animator changes the subject being photographed
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Cels
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process allowed animators to save time and to split up the labor among assembly lines of people doing drawing, coloring, photography, and other jobs
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Cut-out
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a part that is cut out or is intended to be cut out
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Pixillation
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a form of single-frame animation in which three-dimensional objects, often people, are made to move in staccato bursts through the use of stop-action cinematography
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Clay animation
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claymation can involve modeling clay or plasticine is used sine it is less messy and available in a wider range of colors. they create objects with plasticine and then presses plasticine to change it slightly between exposures. Example: wallace and gromit
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claymation
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is a type of animation made by taking photos of clay characters, moving the characters slightly between each shot.
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Plasticine
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bends, twists, or stretches between exposures
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Computer Animation
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All images, objects and animation are created on the computer. Typically uses 3-D images. It adds two steps to the animation process.
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CGI(computer-generated imagery)
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the application of the field of computer graphics to special effects
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3D computer animation
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Digitally generated series of images that imitate the rounded look of people, puppets, or models ( not to be confused with stereoscopic 3D images viewed through glasses).Toy Story
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2D computer animation
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Digitally generated series of images that give the appearance of flat drawings or paintings. Prince of Egypt.
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Analyzing Style
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Step 1: Determine the Organizational Structure Step 2: Identify the Salient Techniques Used Step 3: Trace Out Patterns of Techniques Step 4: Propose Functions for the Salient Techniques and the Patterns They Form
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Film Form
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The overall system of relations that we can perceive among the elements in the whole film
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Primary Techniques
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return the body to a state of ease and balance by eliminating the uneven pulls on the skeleton caused by contracted muscles and constricted fascia
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Pattern
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a customary way of operation or behavior
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Watching
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the act of observing
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Listening
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the act of hearing attentively
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Decision Making
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the cognitive process of reaching a decision
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Creative Decisions
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Identify product benefits Develop and evaluate advertising appeals Execute the message Evaluate the campaign’s effectiveness
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Whip Pan
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Panning the camera so rapidly across a scene that the image blurs on the screen. Also called a flash, zip or swish pan.

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