intro to chem words

diatomic molecule
a molecule that consists of 2 atoms
electron
a subatomic particle that has a very low mass and caries a single negative charge
empirical formula
an expression showing the types of elements present and the simplest ratios of the different kinds of atoms
family
the elements in a vertical column of the periodic table
groups
the elements in a vertical column of the periodic table
halogens
the nonmetallic elements in group 7A (f,Cl,Br,I,&At)
Hydrate
compounds that have a specific number of water molecules attached to them
Inorganic compounds
compounds other than organic compounds
ion
an atom or a group of atoms that has a net positive or negative charge
ionic compound
any neutral compound containing cations and anions
monatomic ion
an ion that contains only one atom
neutron
a subatomic particle that bears no net electric charge. its mass is slightly greater that its protons
noble gasses
Nonmetallic elements in group 8A (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn)
nonmetal
elements that are usually poor conductors of heat and electricity
nucleus
the central core of an atom
organic compounds
compounds that contain carbon, usually in combination with elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur
periods
a horizontal row of the periodic table
periods
a horizontal row of the periodic table
periodic table
a tubular arrangement of the elements
polyatomic molecule
a molecule that consists of more than 2 atoms
polyatomic ion
an ion that contains more than one atom
proton
a subatomic particle having a single positive electric charge. The mass of a proton is about 1840 times that of an electron
acid
a substance that yields hydrogen icons (H+)when it is dissolved in water
alkali metal
the group 1A elements (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr)
alkaline earth metals
the group 2A elements (Be,Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra)
allotrope
two or more forms of the same element that differ significantly in chemical and physical properties
anion
an ion with a net negative charge
atom
the basic unit of an element that can enter into chemical combination
atomic number
(z) the number of protons in the neucleus of an atom
base
a substance that yields hydroxide ions (OH-)when dissolved in water
Binary compound
compounds formed from just 2 elements
cation
an ion with a net positive charge
c
cation
an ion with a net positive charge
chemical formula
an expression showing the chemical composition of a compound in terms of the symbols for the atoms of the elements involved
law of conservation of mass
the total quantity of energy in the universe is constant
law of definite proportions
different samples of the same compound always contain it’s constituent elements in the same proportions by mass
law of multiple proportions
if 2 elements can combine to form more than one type of compound, the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other element are ratios of small whole numbers
mass number (a)
the total number of neutrons and protons present in the nucleus of an atom
metal
elements that are good conductors of heat and electricity and have the tendency to form positive ions in ionic compounds
metalloid
an element with properties intermediate between those of metal and nonmetals
molecular formula
an expression showing the exact numbers of atoms of each element in a molecule
molecule
an aggregate of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by special forces
Radio activity
the spontaneous breakdown of an atom by emission of particles and/or radiation.
Structural formula
a chemical formula that shows how atoms are bonded to one another in a molecule
ternary compound
compounds consisting of 3 elements
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