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Intro 2 corrections test 1

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The goal of rehabilitation is oriented slowly toward the ____ and does not imply any consistent relationship between the severity of the punishment and the gravity if the crime
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Offender
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According to clear, cole, and reisig,___ is the most visible penalty imposed by the criminal justice system
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Imprisonment
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Experts usually cite ___ as reasons wrongful convictions occur
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All of these
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Probationary sentences emphasize guidance and ___ in the community
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Supervision
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The most notable used sentencing guidelines used throughout the United States is the
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Minnesota sentencing guidelines
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___ assets that a person who has infringed the rights if others deserves to be penalized or punished.
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Retribution
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According to the concept of ___ offenders are returned to society once they are cured.
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Rehabilitation
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Punishments less sever than prison, but more restrictive than traditional probation are
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Intermediate sanctions
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Restorative justice sees crime as a violation against which of the following
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Victim and community
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Ideas of the enlightenment fostered the thinking that crime is caused by
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Forces in the environment
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During the 19th century American society became increasingly
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Heterogeneous
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According to the author, in a retributive justice model those who commit a particular crime should be punished
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Alike
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During the progressive reform era, 2 main strategies were implemented. They included improving conditions in social environments and
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rehabilitating individual offenders
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In the booker decision, the justices said that sentencing guidelines are
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Discretionary
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In the convict lease system, prisoners are
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Used for labor by private interests
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The medical model of corrections was beginning to be taken seriously through implementation in the
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1930s
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Wergild developed as
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A system of compensation
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The ___ was born out of concern for the sinfulness of sloth
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Workhouse
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Corrections has a ___ relationship with it’s environment
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Reciprocal
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The belief that a punishment inflicted on an offender must achieve enough good to outweigh the pain inflicted is called
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Utilitarianism
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For the purpose if deterrence, which principles did beccaria believe were most important
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Both swiftness and certainty
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The following is an example of corporal punishment
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Whipping
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The practice of removing offenders from the community to another land was known as
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Transportation
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Legal sanctions, in the form we are familiar with today emerged in the
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1200/
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By the 1900s punishments were carried out under the supervision of
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Correctional staff
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Lex talionis embodies which of the following principles
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All of these
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___ was a leader of reform in England and the developer of a utilitarian approach to crime and punishment
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Jeremy Bentham
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The dominant social institution during the Middle Ages in England and Europe was
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The church
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Benefit of clergy was extended to
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All literate persons
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During the age of reason, advances in scientific thinking led to a questioning attitude that emphasized which of the following
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All of these
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The law of the civil society as distinguished from church law is known as
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Secular law
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The term wergild focuses one which of the following
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Money paid to relatives or victims of a crime
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The leading of convicts to private entrepreneurs took hold in the
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South
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The penitentiary was to be a place where
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All of these
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An institution intended to isolate prisoners from society and each tiger so that they could reflect in their pat misdeeds repent and undergo reformation is the
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Penitentiary
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Which concept holds that human behavior is governed but the individuals calculation of the benefits versus the cost of ones acts
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Utilitarianism
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Punishment of criminals that is intended to be an example to the public and to discourage the commission of offenses by others is known as
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General deterrence
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According to community based corrections the goal of the criminal justice system is to
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Reintegrate the offender
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With the ride of the medical model the emphasis in corrections shifted to
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The treatment and diagnosis of criminals
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Depriving an offender of the ability to commit crimes against society usually by detention is prison is
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Incapacitation
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The purpose of punishment as a public spectacle was
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Both crime control and exhibition of the sovereigns power
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Approximately ___ of all people under correctional supervisor are living the the community on probation or parole
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2/3
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___ is a method of applying scientific knowledge to practical purposes in a particular field
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Technology
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As systems grow and mature they become
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More complex
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Counting jails and prisons approximately how many citizens adore incarcerated
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2.3 million
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Systems learn grown and improve according to what
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Feedback
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Which system of government divided power between federal and state governments
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Federalism
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Probation and parole officers state that their original decision to become involved In this particular career field is based on their desire to
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Help people
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Corrections can be seen as a serious of
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Both process and agencies
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One result of funding squabbles is that organizational turf is
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Disputed
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The ___ was an institution for young offenders that emphasized training a mark system of classification indeterminate sentences and parole
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Reformatory
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Divergence in the lengths and types of sentences imposed for the same crime or crimes of comparable seriousness when no reasonable justification can be discerned is
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Sentencing disparity
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The concept of good time is proved to inmates in certain correctional facilities based on
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Vocational programs
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Clear, cole, and reisig, divide some of the controversies issues and themes that arise in the study of corrections into 2 main areas
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Managing the correctional organizations and working with offenders
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Organizations develop ___ do keep operating with inmates having regular and predictable responses the the staff
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All of these
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Within 40 years of being built, penitentiaries had become
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All of these
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The country that have the world it’s 1st penitentiary is
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The United States
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In New England the puritans maintained a society governed by what type of principles
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Religious
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Between 1790 and 1830 the population in urban America had
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Sharply increased
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The ___ was a penitentiary system developed in Pennsylvania in which each inmate was held in isolation from other inmates
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Separate confinement systems
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What is the central purpose of punishment
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To carry out the criminal sentence e
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Corrections ideally serves what goal
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Both protection and punishment
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When all forms of correctional supervision are taken into account, what percent of all adults in the us are under come form Of correctional control
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More than 3 percent
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The effectiveness of correctional strategies is
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Uncertain
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The concept of selective incapacitation rests on the idea that
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The crime rate with remain relatively stable if serious felons are incarcerated for long periods