Please enter something

Intelligence and Social Psychology

question

Mental Age vs. Achievement
answer

(MA) Accumulated months of credit that a person earns on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale vs performance: completion, picture arrangement, etc.
question

Aptitude
answer

A natural ability or talent.
question

Intelligence Quotient
answer

IQ= Mental Age (MA) Ă· Chronological Age (CA) x 100
question

Emotional Intelligence
answer

question

Down Syndrome
answer

A condition caused by an extra chromosome on the 21st pair and characterized by mental deficiency abroad face and slanting eyes.
question

Self Fulfilling Prophecy
answer

A belief that leads up to its own fulfillment.
question

G Factor
answer

Spearman’s symbol for general intelligence, which he believed underlay more specific abilities.
question

S Factor
answer

Spearman’s symbol for specific factors, or S factors, which he believed accounted for individual abilities.
question

Factor Analysis
answer

A statistical technique that allows researchers to determine the relationships among a large number of items such as test items.
question

Primary Mental Abilities
answer

According to Thurstone, the basic abilities that make up intelligence.
question

Creativity
answer

The ability to generate novel and useful solutions to problems.
question

Convergent Thinking
answer

A thought process that narrows in on the single best solution to a problem.
question

Divergent Thinking
answer

A thought process that attempts to generate multiple solutions to problems.
question

Cultural Bias
answer

A factor that provides an advantage for test takers from certain cultural backgrounds, such as using test items that are based on middle class culture in the U.S.
question

Heritability
answer

The degree to which variations in a trait from one person to another can be attributed to, or explained by, genetic factors.
question

Cumulative Deprivation
answer

question

Hypothesis
answer

A specific statement about behavior or mental processes that’s tested through research.
question

Reification
answer

question

Reaction Range
answer

question

Heritability Ratio
answer

question

Phenylketonuria
answer

question

Flynn Effect
answer

question

Hydrocephaly
answer

question

Mental Retardation
answer

question

Howard Gardner’s Theory
answer

question

Sir Francis Galton
answer

wrote a book called “Hereditary Genius,” examined how exceptional intelligence and cognitive disability run in families, coined phrase “Nature vs Nurture,” created procedure for factor analysis, believed in eugenics (selective inbreeding of individuals to increase overall intelligence in humans), believed sensitivity to high pitched sounds and reaction time would be good predictors of I.Q and invented concepts of percentile ranks and correlation.
question

Charles Spearman
answer

Created concept of the g factor to underlie general intelligence.
question

Alfred Binet
answer

Created 1st intelligence test for adults, given task of creating an assessment to identify children in need of additional educational services in Paris 1904 and created the formula to compute ratio I.Q by dividing mental age over chronological age and multiplying by 100.
question

L.L. Thurstone
answer

Focused research on intelligence on statistical deviation and other psychometric variables.
question

Lewis Terman
answer

Spread the idea that the U.S. should use I.Q tests as a method for testing school children and revised the Simon-Binet Intelligence Scale, modified Binet’s exam at Stanford University and conducted a longitudinal study on the gifted to see how their lives would differ from others in the population.
question

David Wechsler
answer

Changed the focus of intelligence testing away from sensory tasks to abstract reasoning skills and developed the concept of mental age, associated with the following I.Q. test (WISC, WAIS) added a performance scale to address non-verbal reasoning skills to I.Q. and created a test for intelligence that measured intelligence without complete dependence on verbal ability.
question

Robert Sternberg
answer

Created triarchic theories for both intelligence. What are the 3 components of each theory?
question

Daniel Goleman
answer

question

Theodore Simon
answer

Collaborated with Alfred Binet in the creation of assessments for French school children.
question

Raymond Cattell
answer

Created concepts of fluid and crystallized intelligence. Which one of these decreases in old age?
question

Howard Gardner
answer

Identified 8 different types of intelligence and believed individuals can improve in all of them.
question

Crystallized Intelligence
answer

One’s lifetime of intellectual achievement, as shown largely through vocabulary and knowledge of world affairs.
question

Fluid Intelligence
answer

Mental flexibility as shown in learning rapidly to solve new kinds of problems.
question

Confirmation Bias
answer

Look for info that supports your preconceptions, ignore info that contradicts.
question

Hindsight Bias
answer

I knew it all along!
question

Spotlight Effect
answer

Nobody else notices embarrassing things you do.
question

Social Psychology
answer

Study of how we think about, influence and relate to one another.
question

Situationist Perspective
answer

question

Attitude
answer

Mental representation of a person, place, or thing that evokes an emotional response and related behavior.
question

A-B Problem
answer

Issue of how well we can predict behavior on the basis of attitudes.
question

Bystander Intervention
answer

question

Stereotype
answer

Fixed, conventional idea about a group.
question

Foot in the Door
answer

2 step process in which a small request is followed by a larger request.
question

Fear Appeal
answer

Type of persuasive communication that influences behavior on the basis of arousing fear instead of rational analysis of the issues.
question

Selective Avoidance
answer

Diverting one’s attention from info that’s inconsistent with one’s attitudes.
question

Selective Exposure
answer

Deliberately seeking and attending to info that’s consistent with one’s attitudes.
question

Cognitive Dissonance Theory
answer

View that we are motivated to make our cognitions or beliefs consistent.
question

Attitude-Discrepant Behavior
answer

Behavior inconsistent with an attitude that may have the effect of modifying an attitude.
question

Effort Justification
answer

In cognitive dissonance theory, the tendency to seek justification (acceptable reasons) for strenuous efforts.
question

Primacy Effect
answer

Tendency to recall the initial items in a series of items, or to evaluate others in terms of first impressions.
question

Recency Effect
answer

Tendency to recall the last items in a series of items, or to evaluate others in terms of the most recent impression.
question

Attribution
answer

Belief concerning why people behave in a certain way.
question

Dispositional Attribution
answer

Assumption that a person’s behavior is determined by internal causes such as personal attitudes or goals.
question

Situational Attribution
answer

Assumption that a person’s behavior is determined by external circumstances such as the social pressure found in a situation.
question

Fundamental Attribution Error
answer

Assumption that others act predominantly on the basis of their dispositions, even when there’s evidence suggesting the importance of their situations.
question

Actor-Observer Effect
answer

Tendency to attribute our own behavior to situational factors but to attribute the behavior of others to dispositional factors.
question

Self-Serving Bias
answer

Tendency to view one’s successes as stemming from internal factors and one’s failures as stemming from external factors.
question

Consensus
answer

General agreement.
question

Social Influence
answer

Area of social psychology that studies the ways in which people influence the thoughts, feelings and behavior of others.
question

Conform
answer

To change one’s attitude or overt behavior to adhere to social norms.
question

Social Norms
answer

Explicit and implicit rules that reflect social expectations and influence the ways people behave in social situations.
question

Social Facilitation
answer

Process by which a person’s performance is increased when other members of a group engage in similar behavior.
question

Evaluation Apprehension
answer

Concern that others are evaluating our behavior.
question

Diffusion of Responsibility
answer

The spreading or sharing of responsibility for a decision or behavior within a group.
question

Social Decision Schemes
answer

Rules for predicting the final outcome of group decision making on the basis of the members’ initial position.
question

Polarization
answer

Taking an extreme position or attitude on an issue.
question

Risky Shift
answer

Tendency to make riskier decisions as a member of a group than as an individual acting independently.
question

Groupthink
answer

Process in which group members are influenced by cohesiveness and a dynamic leader to ignore external realities as they make decisions.
question

Deindividuation
answer

Process by which group members may discontinue self evaluation and adopt group norms and attitudes, loss of identity.
question

Altruism
answer

Unselfish concern for the welfare of others.
question

Environmental Psychology
answer

Studies the ways in which people and the environment influence each other.
question

Personal Space
answer

Psychological boundary that surrounds a person and serves protective functions.
question

Central Route Persuasion
answer

question

Peripheral Route Persuasion
answer

question

Reciprocity Norm
answer

question

Normative Social Influence
answer

question

Social Loafing
answer

question

Group Polarization
answer

Movement to more extreme positions.
question

Prejudice
answer

Prejudge someone before you know them.
question

Discrimination
answer

question

Scapegoat Theory
answer

question

Frustration Aggression Principle
answer

question

Social Script
answer

Mental tapes on how to act.
question

Social Trap
answer

Pursue self interest, everyone loses.
question

Superordinate Goals
answer

question

Mere Exposure Effect
answer

Kids will buy same brand name their parents bought.
question

Milgram’s Experiment
answer

Obedience; confederates being the learners, not teachers, found that a majority of participants would be willing to shock a complete stranger with high levels of electricity in response to the directions of an experimenter, demonstrated the strong tendency for individuals to obey authority, 65%reaching the highest level of shock and, presence of authority, reducing the amount of obedience.
question

Zimbardo’s Prison Experiment
answer

Role-playing; Shut down his experiment for 6 days because the participants were suffering and demonstrated the effect that a situation has on a person’s behavior.
question

Asch
answer

Demonstrated the tendency of individuals to conform to group pressures, conformity term yielding to group pressure when no direct request has been made, discovered that individuals would be willing to ignore their own beliefs in order to be accepted by a group, discovered that the amount of conformity decreased if the participants were allowed to submit their answers privately in writing instead of sharing them aloud with the group which showed that the participants did know the correct answer and discovered an individual is more likely to conform to a group norm if they are from a collectivist culture than someone from an individualist culture.
question

Festinger
answer

Had participants engage in a boring knob turning experiment in which those who were paid the least expressed the most positive attitude and associated with research on cognitive dissonance.
question

Jane Eliot Study
answer

Children and stereotyping, self fulfilling prophecies.
question

Gifted
answer

Healthy, well-adjusted, successful.
question

Low Ball
answer

question

Door in Face technique
answer

question

Content Validity
answer

Requires careful examination of the assessment, accurately measures what it claims to test and individuals doing evaluation are experts or members of the target population.
question

Construct Validity
answer

Accurately measures a given hypothesis or theoretical idea, examples include personality traits such as intelligence, used when evaluating skills such as dancing and are ideas difficult to define operationally.
question

Face Validity
answer

Appears on the surface to measure what it intends to measure and determined, as well as the decision made, by a non-expert, or an expert that gives a quick evaluation of the test.
question

Predictive Validity
answer

Forecasts or anticipates success.
question

Criterion Validity
answer

Scores on a particular assessment are positively correlated with scores on another preexisting and well-established assessment tool for a particular skill, trait, or ability.
question

Split-Half Reliability
answer

Involves giving a test one time and compares the results of half of the test with results from the other half of the test to make sure of internal consistency.
question

Test-Retest Reliability
answer

Same outcome is achieved on at least 2 occasions and comparing results when the same individuals take it twice with one major problem being the variable of practice effects.
question

Alternate Form Reliability (Equivalent Forms Reliability)
answer

Different versions of an instrument result in the same or a similar result, comparing results of 2 different but equivalent versions of a test given to the same subjects and if a strong positive correlation is found between the scores on the 2 versions it’s alternate forms reliable (Version A vs B) and eliminates the variable of practice effects.
question

Inter-Rater Reliability
answer

Same assessment given to multiple individuals achieves the same results, comparing scores given by 2 different examiners of the same participants and involves examiners giving the same participants the same score, determining if subjective data collected through observation is consistent regardless of who is recording behavior of participants.