Inorganic Chemistry Final Review

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Chemistry
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The study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter, the processes that matter undergoes, any energy changes that accompany these processes
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Organic chemistry
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The study of most carbon containing compounds
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Inorganic chemistry
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The study of non-organic substances, many of which have organic fragments bonded to metals
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Physical chemistry
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The study of the properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy
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Analytical chemistry
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The identification of the components in composition of materials
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Biochemistry
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The study of substances and processes occurring in living things
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Theoretical chemistry
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Use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and design and predict the properties of new compounds
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Scientific method
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The logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating series that are supported by data
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SI Base Units
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Mass – kilogram; length – meter
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SI Derived Units
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Volume – liter; density – g/ml
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Tera
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10^12
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Giga
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10^9
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Mega
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10^5
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Kilo
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10^3
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Mili
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10^-3
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Micro
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10^-6
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Nano
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10^-9
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Accuracy
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Being close to the right answer
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Precision
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Being close to other answers
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% error
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Experimental value – accepted value _________________________________ x 100 accepted value
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Dalton’s Atomic Theory
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All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; atoms of different elements different size, mass, and other properties Cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed
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Modern Atomic Theory
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Atoms are divisible into even smaller particles, All matter is composed of atoms, atoms of any one element differ in properties from atoms of another element remain unchanged
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Rutherford
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Bombarded a thin piece of gold for oil with fast-moving alpha particles, because not all of the particles went through, there must be a densely packed bundle of matter with a positive charge: the nucleus
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Thomson
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Discovered electrons by cathode ray experiments, plum pudding model; negative electrons spread evenly throughout the positive charge of the rest of the atom
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Bohr
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Proposed the idea of an electron shell around the nucleus of an Adam
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Neutrons and protons
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In the nucleus
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Electrons
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In orbitals that surround the nucleus
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Atomic number
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# of protons in the nucleus of an atom
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Mass number
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Total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus
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Isotopes
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Differing in number of neutrons; same element, different mass
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Mole
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Amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in 12g of carbon-12
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Avagadro’s number
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6.0221415 x 10^23
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Hund’s Rule
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Every orbital in a sub shell is singly occupied with one electron before anyone orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons instantly occupied orbitals have the same spin
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The Aufbau Principle
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States that an electron occupies the lowest energy orbital that can receive it
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The Pauli exclusion principle
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States that no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
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Mendeleev
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First person to arrange a periodic table, Arranged by increasing atomic mass
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Periodic table
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And arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties are in the same group
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Group 18
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Noble gases; no chemical reactivity
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Group 1
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Alkali metals 1 valence electron Shiny and soft Extremely reactive Melt at successively lower temperatures as you go down the list
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Group 2
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Alkaline- earth metals 2 valence electrons Reactive Harder and more denser than group 1 Higher melting points than group 1
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Groups 3 to 12
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D block elements Transition metals
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Groups 13 to 18
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P block elements Valence electrons = group # – 10
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Metalloids
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Boron, silicone, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium Have both metal and nonmetal properties Semi conductors Brittle solids
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Main-group elements
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Elements of the s and p blocks
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Group 17
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Halogens Most reactive nonmetals React with metals
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Lanthanides
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Atomic numbers 58 to 71 Shiny metals Similar in reactivity to group 2
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Actinides
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Atomic numbers 90 to 103 Radioactive Made in laboratories
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Atomic radii
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One half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together Trend: atomic radii decrease as you move left to right across a period Trend: atomic radii increase when going down a group
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Ionization energy
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The energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element Trend: increases moving left to right across a period Trend: decreases down a group
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Electron affinity
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The energy change that occurs when a neutral atom acquires an electron Trend: increase is moving to the right across a period Trend: generally constant moving down a group
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Ionic radii
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Trend: the metals at the left tend to form cations and the nonmetals at the upper right tend to form anions Trend: increase of ionic ready I’ve heard moving down to group
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Electronegativity
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A measurement of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons from another atom in the compound Trend: tends to increase from left to right across a period Trend: tend to either decreased down a group or remain about the same
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Ionic compound
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Composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal
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Covalent compounds
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Made up of nonmetals
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Polar
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Describes a molecule in which the positive and negative charges are separated
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Polar covalent bond
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A covalent bond in which a pair of electrons shared between atoms is held more closely by one atom
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Nonpolar covalent bind
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Covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are equally attracted to both bonded atoms
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Octet rule
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Chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied energy level
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Lewis Structures / Dot Diagrams
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Formula in which Potomac symbols represent nuclei and inner shell electrons.pairs were dashes between two atomic symbols represent electron pairs in covalent bonds, and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbol represent unshared electrons
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Molar mass
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Total mass in grams of all of the elements in a substance
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Percent composition
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Mass of element _______________ x 100 Molar mass of compound
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Empirical formula
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Given 25.6% K, 35.41% Cr, 38.03% O Assume the percent value equals the same number in grams 26.5 g K x ( 1 mol K / 39.10 g K) = .6777 mol K 35.41 g Cr x ( 1 mol Cr / 52 g Cr) = .6809 mol Cr 38.03 g O x ( 1 mol O / 16 g O) = 2.3768 mol O Divide all by smallest amount of moles. In this case that is .6777 mol K. K – .6777/.6777 = 1 mol K Cr – .6809/.6777 = 1.0047 = 1 mol Cr O – 2.3768/.6777 = 3.5073 = 3.5 Clear fractions if needed to get whole numbers. In this case the 3.5 makes this necessary. 3.5 x 2 = O7 1 x 2 = K2 1 x 2 = Cr2 = K2Cr2O7 or potassium dichromate
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Combustion reactions
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Always produce CO2 and H2O
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Moles to mass
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Amount of given substance (mol) x ( mol unknown / mol given ) x (molar mass of unknown / 1 mol unknown) = mass of unknown substance (g)
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Mass to moles
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Mass of given substance (g) x ( 1 mol given / molar mass of given x ( mol unknown / mol given ) = amount of substance (mol)
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Mass to mass
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Mass of given substance (g) x ( 1 mol given / molar mass of given (g) ) x ( mol unknown / mol given ) x ( molar mass of unknown / 1 mol unknown ) = mass of unknown substance (g)
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Moles to moles
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Amount of given substance (mol) x ( mol unknown / mol given ) = amount of unknown substance (mol)
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Pressure = force _____ area
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Units of pressure
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Millimeters of mercury – mmHg 760 mmHg = 1 atm
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Look at gas laws on other quizlet
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