Inorganic Chemistry (Exam 3)

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Study of matter and the changes it undergoes; also the study of connections between molecular and macroscopic events
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Chemistry
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Scientific data is normally reported using the ? system – units of measure based on powers of 10
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Metric
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? is a set of units and notations that are standard in science
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Systeme Internationale (SI)
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Base unit in SI and metric system for length
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SI: Meter (m) Metric: Meter (m)
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Base unit in SI and metric system for volume
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SI: cubic meter (m3) Metric: Liter (L)
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Base unit in SI and metric system for mass
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SI: kilogram (kg) Metric: gram (g)
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Base unit in SI and metric system for time
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SI: second (s) Metric: second (s)
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Base unit in SI and metric system temperature
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SI: Kelvin (K) Metric: Celsius degree (C)
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Base unit in metric system for energy
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Joule (J)
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Base unit in metric system for amount of substance
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Mole (mol)
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Matter has ? and takes up ?
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Mass; space
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Gas phase of matter: Shape or volume? ? to fill whatever container it is put into Compressible?
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No definite shape or volume Expands Highly compressible
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Liquid phase of matter: Shape or volume? Compressible?
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No definite shape but a definite volume Slighty compressible
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Solid phase of matter: Shape or volume? Compressible?
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Has a definite shape and volume Essentially incompressible
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Simplest substance; cannot be broken down into small substance
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Element
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Combining elements will form ?
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Compounds
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Ductile and malleable, shiny, good conductors of electricity
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Metals
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Metals: Form ? Most are (solids or gases) ? In chemical reactions, what do they tend to do (electrons)?
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Alloys Solids Tend to give up electrons
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? have properties of metals and of nonmetals
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Metalloids (semi-metals)
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? are poor conductors of electricity
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Nonmetals
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Nonmetals: Many are ? – ? tend to be dull and brittle In chemical reactions, what do they tend to do (electrons)?
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Gases; solids Tend to accept electrons
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Amount of heat necessary to raise temperature of 1.0 g of a substance by 1.0 C
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Specific heat
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Amount of heat necessary to convert 1 mole of liquid to vapor at normal boiling point
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Heat of vaporization
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Amount of heat necessary to convert 1 mole of solid to liquid at normal melting point
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Heat of fusion
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Heat released or absorbed in a chemical reaction (exothermic/endothermic)
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Heat of reaction
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Heat of reaction involving giving off/releasing heat
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Exothermic reaction
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Heat of reaction involving absorbing heat
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Endothermic reaction
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Endothermic change; the direct conversion of a solid to a gas What is an example?
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Sublimation Dry ice (solid CO2)
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Endothermic change; the conversion of a solid to a liquid What is an example?
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Melting or fusion Melting of ice
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Endothermic change; the conversion of a liquid to a gas What is an example?
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Evaporation or vaporization Boiling water
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With endothermic changes, most materials will first ? then ? as the temperature is raised
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Melt; vaporize
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Exothermic change; the conversion of a gas to a liquid or solid What is an example?
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Condensation or liquefaction Steam becoming water
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Exothermic change; where a liquid becomes a solid What is an example?
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Freezing or crystallization Formation of ice
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With exothermic changes, substances usually first condense to ? and then become ?
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Liquids; solids
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Theory that stated all mater was composed of very tiny particles, called atoms. All atoms of the same element have same chemical properties. Atoms of different elements have different chemical properties. Atoms cannot be created nor destroyed. Compounds are formed by chemical combination of two or more different kinds of atoms. A molecule is a tightly bound combination of two or more atoms that acts as a single unit.
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Dalton’s Atomic Theory
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Dalton’s Atomic Theory states that all matter is composed of very tiny particles, called ?
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Atoms
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Dalton’s Atomic Theory states that ? are formed by chemical combinations of two or more different kinds of atoms
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Compounds
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Dalton’s Atomic Theory states that a ? is a tightly bound combination of two or more atoms that acts as a single unit
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Molecule
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Positively charged particles in the nucleus of the atom are called ?
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Protons
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Protons carry an equal, but opposite, charge to ?, but protons are much larger and heavier
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Electrons
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Electrons surround the ? and are only found in ? Orbitals have fixed energy values called ?
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Nucleus; orbitals Quantum
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? help stabilize the protons in the atom’s nucleus
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Neutrons
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? are positive, ? are negative, and ? have no charge
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Protons; electrons; neutrons
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Smallest particle of an element; composed of three types of subatomic particles known as electrons, protons, and neutrons
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Atom
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Number of protons in a nucleus of an atom represents the ?
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Atomic number (Z)
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Atoms of the same element have the same number of ? while atoms of different elements have different number of ?
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Protons; protons
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In a neutral atom, the number of ? equals the number of ?
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Protons; electrons
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The sum of the number of protons and neutrons of an atom
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Mass number (A)
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Why is the mass number (A) only protons and neutrons, and not electrons? Is this included on the periodic table?
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Mass of electrons is so small compared to protons and neutrons that electrons are not counted in determining mass number Not found on periodic table
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Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
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Isotopes
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A ? is the amount of substance whose mass in grams is numerically equal to its molecular or formula weight
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Mole
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With a mole, the molecular weight of a molecule is the average ? of a substance’s molecules
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Mass
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Atoms, ions, and molecules which are too small to measure in grams can be related by using the ?
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AMU (atomic mass unit) g/mole
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The ? of an element, when expressed in grams, is one mole of that kind of atom
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Average atomic mass
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Chemical symbols of elements in the chemical formula represent the ? present Subscript numbers represent the ? proportions of the proceeding elements
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Elements; mole
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A ? shows the type and number of atoms in a molecule; the number of atoms per molecule is indicated by subscripts (if greater than 1)
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Molecular formula
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As one moves ? to ? in a row of the periodic table of the elements, the properties of the elements gradually change
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Left; right
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In the periodic table: Vertical COLUMNS are called ? Horizontal ROWS are called ?
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Groups/families Periods
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Groups/families are assigned ? Periods are assigned?
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Roman numerals (with either an A or B) Numbers (1-7)
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What information is available in the periodic table?
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Atomic number, name of the element, elemental symbol, and atomic mass (weight)
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Which group/family makes up volatile anesthetics?
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Halogens
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Physical properties of non-metals are observed at room temperature: What are some examples? They are poor conductors of ? Many exist as ? They ? electrons when reacting with metals but will ? electrons when reacting with other non-metals
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Chloride (Gas), Bromide (liquid), Iodide (solid) Heat and electricity Diatomic molecules Gain; share
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? are elements with variable chemical properties They act like ? when they react with metals These materials also have semi-? properties
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Metalloids Non-metals (gain electrons) Conductor
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Which theory tells us that electrons are not located randomly around an atom’s nucleus and they they occur in specific electron shells
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Bohr’s theory of the atom
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With Bohr’s theory, each shell has a limited capacity for ?. As lower shells are filled, additional electrons reside in more distant shells.
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Electrons
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The electrons of an atom occupy ? levels or orbitals starting from the lowest energy level and proceeding to the highest Each orbital has a maximum of ? paired electrons (opposite spins)
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Quantum; two
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Helium is unique since its valence shell consists of a single ? The other members of group 8 have a characteristic ?
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S-orbital Valence shell electron
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The Octet Rule of Electron Filling states that atoms are most stable if ?
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They have filled or empty outer layer electrons
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Except for H and He, a filled layer contains ? electrons (known as an ?)
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8; octet
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Atoms ?, ?, or ? electrons based on what is easiest
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Gain; lose; share
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Group 8 is also known as the ?
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Noble gases (krypton, xenon, radon)
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The ? are one electron short of a valence shell octet and are among the most reactive of the elements
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Halogens (F, Cl, BR, etc)
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Why are the alkali metals (Li, Na, K, etc) also reactive?
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These atoms have only one electron in the valence shell
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The alkali metals (Li, Na, K, etc.) have only one electron in the valence shell and upon losing this electron, these elements arrive at the ? As a consequence of this electron loss, these elements are commonly encountered as ?
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Lower shell valence octet Cations
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What does it mean if an element is in Group/Family 8?
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It has 8 electrons in its outer shell

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