Inorganic Chemistry and Bonding

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Inorganic Chemistry
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the study of matter and the changes that those chemicals undergo; includes the study of salts, metals, and other compounds (like water) that do NOT have carbon as a central atom.
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Atoms
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the building blocks of matter
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matter
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anything that has a mass (made up of particles) and a volume (takes up space); everything is made of matter except for light.
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Atoms are made up of 3 Subatomic particles
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protons (+1 charge, in nucleus), neutrons (0 charge, in nucleus), electrons (-1 charge, surrounding the nucleus)
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energy levels
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where all of an atom’s electrons are arranged around the nucleus
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valence electrons
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electrons in the very outermost energy level that interact with other atoms.
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The Octet Rule
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atoms (aside from hydrogen and helium) want 8 electrons in their valence shell in order to be stable
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Very few atoms have 8 valence electrons, so they _________ or __________ electrons with other atoms to become stable.
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transfer, share
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what occurs when there is a transferring or sharing of electrons?
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chemical bond
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compound (or molecule)
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refers to two (or more) atoms chemically bonded together
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stabilizing
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atoms form bonds to become stable; almost all matter exists as some type of molecule/compound because there are very few stable atoms
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different chemicals have different properties because of the __________ holding them together
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types of bonds
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ionic bond
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formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
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cation
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positively charged ions
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anions
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negatively charged ions
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examples of ionic compounds
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any type of salt-dissolve in water meaning they pull apart into their ions, these ions, when dissolved in water are called electrolytes which are what allows electrical impulses from our body to our brain
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covalent bond
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formed when two or more electrons are shared between two atoms (represented by a dash)
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nonpolar covalent bond
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electrons are shared equally between the atoms (therefore there are NOT positive or negative poles); weakest types of bonds atoms can form
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examples of nonpolar molecules
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oxygen molecule, a gas at room temperature (O2, nitrogen, carbon dioxide), lipids like vegetable oil and butter
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polar covalent bond
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electrons are shared unequally between the atoms (therefore there are slightly positive or negative poles); 2nd strongest types of bonds atoms can form.
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examples of polar molecules
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water-the polarity of a water molecule are the root of all of water’s unique properties, vital for life
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electrons
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regardless of whether they are shared equally or unequally, they are still always moving rapidly around the nucleus of the atoms; this is the cause of regions of slight positive charges and slight negative charges on a molecule
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attractions
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partially positive pole of one molecule is attracted to the partially negative pole of another molecule
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hydrogen bonds (IM Force)
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attractions; type of intermolecular forces that occurs when the slightly positive hydrogen region of one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative region (like oxygen) of another molecule.
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chemical bond
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attractive forces between atoms that allows molecules to exist. For example: a molecule of water is the result of the chemical bonds between 2 H and 1 O.
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Intermolecular Forces (IM Forces)
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(like van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding) are attractive forces between molecules and are what allows solids and liquids to exist. NOT as strong as ionic bonds or covalent bondsFor example: liquid water is the result of intermolecular forces between MANY water molecules.
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adhesion
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when water molecules attract other polar, metallic, and ionic substances
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cohesion
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when water molecules are attracted to other water molecules like small magnets through hydrogen bonding
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capillary action
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movement of water upward against gravity; caused by cohesion bonds (bonds between water molecules and water molecules) and adhesion (bonds between water molecules and other molecules) Due to an upward force on the water from attractions with hydrogen bonding.
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properties of water
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capillary action, high specific heat capacity, high heat of vaporization, high surface tension, universal solvent, expand when it freezes
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high surface tension
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created when water molecules form a “skin” using cohesion or the hydrogen bonding of water molecules with other water molecules
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universal solvent
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water has the ability to dissolve both liquid and solid substances.
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acids
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when solutions have a high concentration of hydrogen ions and therefore a lower pH value
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bases
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when solutions have a low concentration of hydrogen ions and therefore a higher pH value
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pH values
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determined by the inverse of the concentration of hydrogen ions [H+] that are present in a solution
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neutral
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when solutions have a concentration of hydrogen ions that is equal to the concentration of hydroxide [OH-] ions
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pH scale
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0-6 shows that the H+ is greater than the OH- making the solution acidic; 7 shows that the H+ = OH- making the solution neutral; 8-14 shows that the OH- is greater than the H+ making the solution basic
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excretory system
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helps maintain homeostasis in the body by filtering out waste that body does not need and reabsorbs substances the body does need. The filtered waste is urine that is only slightly acidic and very close to neutral.
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digestive system
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helps maintain homeostasis in the body by releasing gastric juices as a pH level of 1 or very acidic to chemically breakdown food along with the digestive enzyme pepsin that can only function in breaking down proteins in this pH level.
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antacids
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helps maintain homeostasis in the body by working to neutralize the pH levels, so it reduces uncomfortability in a process called neutralization
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circulatory system
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helps maintain homeostasis when buffers in blood resist change in pH; transports oxygen to cells and removes carbon dioxide that is transfered to carbonic acid when moving to lungs, amount of dissolved CO2 in blood will change pH, buffers stabilize this.
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buffers
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chemicals (typically salts) that act to resist a change in “normal” pH, and therefore help maintain a stable pH value regardless of an influx of acid
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neutralization
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reactions occur when the concentration of hydrogen ions are equaled by the concentration of hydroxide ions, forming the neutral substance water. substances that counteract or balance out excess hydrogen ions are antacids.
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eliminating
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acids and carbon dioxide are directly eliminated from the body through exhaling, excretion
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six most common elements in organic molecules
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carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), oxygen(O), phosphorus (P), sulfer (S)
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organic chemistry (biochemistry)
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the study of all compounds that contain carbon atoms as their central atom
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Why is carbon so important?
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4 valence electrons and each can bond with an electron from another atom to form a strong covalent bond. Bonds to carbon and other atoms giving ability to form long chains that can close and form rings. Bonds can be single, double, or triple covalent bonds.
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4 major categores of biomolecules that compose living organisms
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carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids that all contain small molecules (monomers) joined together to form large molecules (polymers)
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carbohydrates structure
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an organic molecule made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Atoms in ratio of 1C:2H:1O. Have unique ring structure. Monomers of carbohydrates are monosaccharides.
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Simple Carbohydrates
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monosaccharides: 1 sugar molecule (Examples: glucose, fructose, galactose) disaccharides: 2 sugar molecules (Examples: lactose, sucrose)
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Complex Carbohydrates
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polysaccharides: many sugar molecules
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Examples of polysaccharides
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Glycogen (animals)- storage in form of sugar in animals, excess glucose gets stored as glycogen in liver and muscles, insulin (a hormone) triggers release of glycogen from liver into blood when glucose levels are low. Starch (plants)- storage in form of sugar in plants and food reservoirs suc as seeds and bulbs, potatoes, cereal, pasta, bread, rice. Cellulose (plants)- structural form of sugar in plants used for strength and rigity in cell wall, indigestive molecule also known as fiber, cotton fruits etc.
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Carbohydrate Function
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living things use as main source of energy. Simple sugars (simple carbs) provide immediate energy for all cell activities and complex carbs store extra sugar in living things.
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Lipids Structure
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also called triglyceride, compound made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Nonpolar meaning they do not dissolve in water. Monomers are 3 fatty acids and glycerol.
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Types of Lipids (Fats)
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Unsaturated: do not contain maximum number of hydrogen atoms; carbon atoms joined by double bonds (Examples: plant oils, nuts, fish) Saturated: contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms; carbon atoms formed by single bonds (Examples: dairy, meats) Trans: man-made (artificial); done by “hydrogenating vegetable oils” solid at room temperature (Examples: many processed foods)
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Lipid Function
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very long term energy storage, insulation, make up cell membranes, and protective waterproof coverings
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Proteins Structure
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large complex polymer made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Form complex 3D shapes. Monomers are amino acids.
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For each amino acid…
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amino and carboxl groups are identical so they can join together by covalent bonds, but the “R” group is different. There are 20 common amino acids used by all organisms in nature, in different combinations.
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Protein Function
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control rate of chemical reactions (ex: enzymes), regulate cell processes (ex: hormones), transport oxygen in the blood (ex: hemoglobin), help fight disease (ex: antibodies), form bone, nails, horns, hair, muscle (ex: elastin, collage, keratin)
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Nucleic Acid Structure
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a polymer made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Monomers are nucleotides.
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Two types of nucleic acids
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DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid)
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Nucleic Acid Function
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To store and transmit hereditary information
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Anabolism
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set of reactions that contruct biomolecules from smaller units (monomers) and store energy that can be used at a later time.
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dehydration synthesis reactions
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reactions that build up polymers during anabolism when a water molecule is removed from each monomer so they can form bonds with each other.
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Catabolism
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set of reactions that break down biomolecules into smaller units (monomers) and release energy that is used for other chemical reactions or stored in polymers.
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hydrolysis reactions
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reactions that break down polymers during catabolism when a water molecule is required to break apart the existing bonds holding together the polymers.
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Chemical indicators for glucose, starch, protein, and lipids + color change
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benedicts=glucose apple green; lugols=starch dark blue; biurets=protein light purple; sudan IV=lipids light red
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general formula for a chemical reaction
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reactants (substrates)—-products
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enzymes
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proteins that act as biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in cells by lowering activation energy; provide site where reactants brought together; usually catalyze one reaction only, shape specific to substrate it reacts with (lock and key model)
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catalysts
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some chemical reactions that make life possible occur too slowly to make them useful for organisms; catalysts are chemicals that speed up the rate of a chemical reaction
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substrates
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reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactioons
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Enzyme Function (steps)
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Step 1: substrate finds enzyme that breaks it down; Step 2: substrate fits into active site of enzyme, forming an enzyme-substrate complex; Step 3: substrate is changed into product(s), enzyme is left unchanged
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factors that can affect enzyme functioning
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enzymes require a specific pH, temperature, and concentration to work at their optimum (best) level
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denatured
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when an enzyme loses its shape and stops working
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What causes enzyme to become denatured?
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too high temperatures, not ideal pH levels, too low enzyme concentration
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organic chemistry
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study of all compounds that contain carbon atoms as their central atom
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chemical reaction
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process that changes, or transforms, one set of chemicals into another

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