Innate Immunity: inflammation questions

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Which action is a purpose of the inflammatory process?
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To prevent infection of the injured tissue
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How do surfactant proteins A through D provide innate resistance?
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Promote phagocytosis
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Which secretion is a first line of defense against pathogen invasion that involves antibacterial and antifungal fatty acids, as well as lactic acid?
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Sebaceous gland sebum
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Which bacterium grows in the intestines after prolonged antibiotic therapy?
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Clostridium difficile
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What causes the edema that occurs during the inflammatory process?
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Increased capillary permeability
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What process causes heat and redness to occur during the inflammatory process?
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Vasodilation of blood vessels
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Activation of the classical pathway begins with:
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Antigen-antibody complexes
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What plasma protein system forms a fibrinous meshwork at an inflamed site?
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Coagulation
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Which component of the plasma protein system tags pathogenic microorganisms for destruction by neutrophils and macrophages?
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Complement cascade
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What is the vascular effect of histamine released from mast cells?
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Vasodilation
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What is an outcome of the complement cascade?
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Lysis of bacterial cell membranes
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The function of opsonization related to the complement cascade is to:
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Tag of pathogenic microorganisms for destruction by neutrophils and macrophages
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In the coagulation (clotting) cascade, the intrinsic and the extrinsic pathways converge at which factor?
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X
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Which chemical interacts among all plasma protein systems by degrading blood clots, activating complement, and activating the Hageman factor?
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Plasmin
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The chemotactic factor affects the inflammatory process by
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directing leukocytes to the inflamed area
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What affect does the process of histamine binding to the histamine-2 receptor have on inflammation?
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Inhibition
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Frequently when H1 and H2 receptors are located on the same cells, they act in what fashion?
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Antagionistically
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Some older adults have impaired inflammation and wound healing because of which problem?
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Underlying chronic illness exists
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Which chemical mediator derived from mast cells retracts endothelial cells to increase vascular permeability and to cause leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells?
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Platelet-activating factor
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What is the inflammatory effect of nitric oxide (NO)?
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decreases mast cell function, and decreases platelet aggregation
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What is the correct sequence in phagocytosis?
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Recognition, engulfment, fusion, destruction
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When considering white blood cell differentials, acute inflammatory reactions are related to elevations of which leukocyte?
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Neutrophils
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In the later stages of an inflammatory response, which phagocytic cell is predominant?
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Monocytes
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In regulating vascular mediators released from mast cells, the role of eosinophils is to release
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histaminase, which limits the effects of histamine during acute inflammation
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What is the role of a natural killer (NK) cells?
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Elimination of malignant cells
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Which cytokine is produced and released from virally infected hosted cells?
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IFN-alpha
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IFN-a is secreted from which cells?
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Macrophages
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Which manifestation of inflammation is systemic?
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Fever and leukocytosis
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The acute inflammatory response is characterized by fever that is produced by the hypothalamus being affected by:
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Endogenous pyrogens
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What occurs during the process of repair after tissue damage?
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Nonfunctioning scar tissue replaces destroyed tissue
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The role of fibroblasts during the reconstructive phase of wound healing is to:
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Synthesize and secrete collagen and the connective tissue proteins
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A keloid is the result of which dysfunctional wound healing response?
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Collagen matrix assembly
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Which solution is best to use when cleaning a wound that is healing by epithelialization?
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Normal saline
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Many neonates have transient depressed inflammatory response as a result of which condition?
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Complement and chemotaxis are deficient
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During phagocytosis, what is occurring during the step referred to as opsonization?
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Phagocytes recognize and adhere to the bacteria
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Fusion is the step in phagocytosis during which
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lysosomal granules enter the phagocyte
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During the process of endocytosis, the phagosome step results in
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an intracellular phagocytic vacuole is formed
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When cellular damage occurs and regeneration is minor with no significant complications, the process of returning the cells to preinjury function is referred to as
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Resolution
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Newborns often have deficiencies in collectin-like proteins, making them more susceptible to what type of infection?
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Respiratory
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Which cell is the body’s primary defense against parasite invasion?
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Eosinophil
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Microorganisms are ingested
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Engulfment
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Microorganisms are killed and digested
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Destruction
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Phagocytes gain enhanced recognition and adherence of bacteria
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Opsonization
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Lysosomal granules enter the phagocyte
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Fusion
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Intracellular phagocytic vacuole is formed
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Phagosome

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