why did the industrial revolution begin in england?
Agricultural Revolution–changes in methods of farming/stock breeding–>food–>population growth, labor for factories (LOWER PRICES W/LESS LABOR). supply of capital. early industrial entrepreneurs. Relatively high income and GDP per capita. (families could buy manufactured goods) Relatively well-developed Financial Sector. lots of capital. Plentiful Resources for Industrialization. –>iron+coal, rivers. New Technology. Plenty of skilled mechanics were able to produce practical inventions that paved the way for industrialization. Stable Gov. (passed laws that protected private property etc.) Economic Conditions. Oversea colonies and their vast empire allowed them to accumulate the capital necessary

Discuss+trace role of factory in early Industrial Revolution. What made factory system possible? What impact on lives of workers/women/children?
factories=super important
before factories humans were used for everything and main cottage industry: people worked at home. in factories humans only needed to manage machines. factory system was possible bc of urbanization. new type of discipline
women+children w/no skills were sent to factories
entire families moved from cotton industry–>cities

Compare+contrast patterns of industrialization in Europe+United States w/Great Britain.
England: first – good transportation, small country, support of gov. etc etc
Europe: didn’t want to become industrialized
difficult transportation/internal barriers
traditional investors
guild restrictions
upheaval because of Napoleon/French Revo
—-continental system/ruined trade
by the time they were ready machines were too expensive
USA: agrarian
borrowed from england, after that started to surpass england w/reduced cost and also saving labor yay

Discuss role of government in industrial development of the Western world.
Gov beginning of indus.revo in England: stable, promoted freedom and passed laws promoting private property which encouraged entrepreneurs
On the continent: gov. used to being part of economic affairs. gov paid for technical education, awarded grants to inventors and foreign entrepreneurs, exempted foreign industrial equipment from import duties, and sometimes even financed factories. paid for cost of building canals and roads, deepening and widening river channels, and constructing railroads.
also used tariffs (apply tax on import of foreign goods)
later on: as poverty became too intense to ignore started passing laws aka factory acts

How are changes in population growth and the development of urbanization related to the Industrial Revolution?
beginning: agricultural revolution–>more food–>more living people
more people=more labor
urbanization happened because everyone moved from the country to the city, whole families, for work
in effect cities started to develop

Discuss the impact of the early Industrial Revolution on family/women/living+working conditions of industrial workers?
change in family structure: Children=low-cost labor. men become “bread-winners” of the family, while middle class women were encouraged to stay at home to look after the children.
as laws passed women were forced to stay at home. before they were working constantly as well or were active during cottage industry
living/working conditions of industrial workers: sudden expansion of cities=terrible conditions. rich/middle class moved to suburbs, poor lived in center of industrial areas
coalmines-explosions/gas fumes/caveins
cotton mills:really hot and bad conditions
no minimum wage, etc. children had small hands so they could spin cotton

What efforts did workers make to ameliorate the harsh working conditions of the early Industrial Revolution?
Trade Unions
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union–strike against 8 hrs work day. nobody really supported it so it completely died out and went to single crafts.
Amalgamated Society of Engineers
–example of successful
provisions of generous unemployment benefits inreturn for a small weekly payment was precisely the kind of practical gains thesetrade unions sought

Assume you are a small landowner….
everything is smaller, cramped
children/wife have to work to suppor the family
no servants
tiny house
the hygiene is appalling

Discuss the concept of the “middle-class” and its relation to the Industrial Revolution
before the industrial revolution no rigid hierarchy.
describe those people below the aristocracy but above the workers
—the businessmen associated with the growth of manufacturing
—increased numbers of small entrepreneurs.
—Shopkeepers and merchants
Now, the poor working class was working in the factories, the upper class owned the factories, and the middle class=people who managed others, worked at banks, or were highly skilled craftsmen whose jobs could not be replaced by unskilled lower class workers

The working-class is a product of the Industrial Revolution.
Before indus. revo not really existing
The working class became very poor, due to the inflation of taxes and due to hard working conditions and very poor diets, their life span went on for only 17 years. Also, the working class faced harsh treatment and very low wages from factory owners. Their homes were FILTHY and CROWDED, another factor that made the working class’s life span quite short. In addition, due to the sudden rise in cities, it brought jobs to the working class, bringing in income to support their families.
created working class stereotype: stupid, unskilled, not able to fine jobs elsewhere.

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