ID’s – History 7A Midterm – UC Berkeley

Flashcard maker : Rebecca Baker
Ancestral Pueblo
Anasazi – lived during Medieval Warm Period – adapted corn, beans, and squash to the high altitude of the Colorado Plateau. Had villages of \”exquisitely executed masonry buildings.\”
Medieval Warm Period
300 – 400 years of abnormally warm weather that allowed for tribes such as the Anasazi to thrive agriculturally.
Chaco Canyon
Monumental, innovative location of living for the anasazi. 9 great houses (required major up-keep). Also innovative for agricultural use/innovation. Keen on astronomy – remarkable knowledge. Kept track via solar calendar. July 1054 – they noted a super nova panel – crescent moon. Had \”social stratification.\” Burials, jewelry, pottery, etc.. Construction stops 1130 – start of drought – coordinated exit. 4 corner states were abandoned.
Pueblo Bonito
Name for Chaco Canyon – it was a truly beautiful place.
Cahokia
2500 years ago. Woodland people making mounds. Building with earth – eastern north america – architecture. Near present day St. Louis. (900 to 1250 AD – 20000 people). Mississippi-an culture (bow and arrow was a great change). New corn arrives, flint hoes (agriculture). Many towns, thousands of people. Monopolies grew, govt, etc…
Prince Henry the Navigator
Brough together engineers, cartographers, etc… Helped create Caravel (new ship) – lanteen sail – plethora of new technology. Wanted to travel down coast of of Africa to cut costs of travel/taxes. 1488: Rounded tip of Africa to get to India. Portugal was on brink of massive international empire, however the goal was to get to Asia.
Columbus
An Italian explorer. Wanted to sail from Portugal to to reach China. 1492: Spain unified under monarchs of Ferdinand and Isabella. Expedition was funded by rich spaniards. People said world was too large – they didn’t realize that the Americas were in between Europe and China. Columbus returned with 6 enslaved columbians, he believed he reached indies. 3 voyages repeated after first one.
Amerigo Vespucci
Italian cartographer that discovers America (hence the name).
Bartolome de las Casas
Colonist. Becomes sensitized to destruction of natives – enemy of Spanish. Advocate for Indigenous people. Wanted African slaves instead. Alienates himself – calls out hypocrisy. Crown was interested in what he had to say. Publishes book – blackens Spanish name in eyes of Europe (Conquest/Destruction of Indies).
Columbian Exchange
Exchange of people/animals/diseases from new world/eurasia/Africa.
Virgin Soil Epidemics
50 years following Columbus, all on island were dead. Epidemics and Colonialism (Destroyed 70-90% of population). War, refugee status, trauma, travel increased susceptibility.
Cabeza de Vaca
400 man expedition in 1527. Enters new world during hurricane. Ships are destroyed – had to document all of events because he was sponsored by the King. Doesn’t find gold or 3rd great city – by the end of his journey there were 3 men left and a slave. They end up in texas.
Alvar Nunez
Cabeza de Vaca’s second hand man.
Estevan
Was the slave remaining in Cabeza de Vaca’s journey. Had amazing language skills and was able to communicate with a multitude of groups. Was sent to find 3rd great city – dies on voyage. Served as a translator.
Hernando de Soto
Most audacious veteran of the of the conquest of Peru. So bold that he rode up to the Emperor of Inca’s on horse as if he was a human. Soto lands on Florida in the mid 1500s. He finds a men left over from the Narvaez expedition – is extremely angered by how bad he is treated and goes on a rampage through 10 states.
Samuel de Champlain
1608. Found city (allies with Huron). (Kabet) Confederacy – allies of independent political units. Had already visited Mexico city. Two great confederacies (Huron and Iroquois). Hurons wanted Champlain and men to help destroy the Mohawk tribe of the Iroquois. Champlain uses gun – a never before seen weapon by natives – wins.
Colonies of Inclusion
Spanish/French/Dutch. ALL Different. However, they all required the integration of native people (indigenous labor).
Elizabeth I
1558: Elizabeth I takes the throne. Large nationalist – she didn’t care about religion. She was worried about Ireland and the king of Spain. England attempted to take over Ireland and colonies the new world at the same time.
Wingina
English send party to Raleigh/Roanoke in 1584. Key Player: White. Received embrace and was welcomed by leader Wingina. He wanted to set up trade. Knew about motives of Spanish. When colonists arrived, things fell apart due to lack of experience and winter. Conflicts arise and English behead Wingina.
Powhatan
Leader of majority of Chesapeake – chiefdom. \”Tall well proportioned man with sour look.\” Had control of approximately 8000 square miles. Used marriage as strategic tool to connect him to powerful families. His docile was far away and not protected which sent a powerful message.
Opechacanaough
Powhatans brother. Starves English (70 – 90% die during winter). Powhatan allowed for the English to stay with them, but it wasn’t long before conflicts arose (his brother was unhappy). English in retaliation capture his daughter Pochahontas.
John Rolfe
Married Powhantas daughter Pochahontas. Farms tobacco (massive new world discovery). Tobacco is (1) Labor intensive and (2) Land intensive.
Patuxet
2000 people – fixed village near coast. Champlain drew map. John Smith dubs it \”New England.\” Smith begins trading here after small conflict. One of his men grabs 20 natives and brings them to England.
Squanto
One of the slaves brought to England. He learns English, and asks to travel home from England. When he returns to village, it is abandoned due to smallpox outbreak.
Great Migration
1629 – 1643. 20000 Puritans come to Massachusetts. There was a charter given in 1629.
John Eliot
Converted Indians to Christians. Created praying towns (had Indian/English books).
Caribbean
1668: English Imported 3x commodity from west indians then all of North America. Barbados: Tobacco island – then becomes sugar island with African slaves.
Restoration Colonies
Following the end of the great migration. English have North/South. Need to take middle from Dutch. 1664: English fleet takes New Amsterdam – New York is most diverse. 1665: New Jersey Found. 1663: Carolina found (Extension of Caribbean). 1676: West NJ given to quakers.
William Penn
Elected Representation, religious freedom, fair trading with Indians, civil liberties.
Beaver Wars
Indians vs Indians because of colonialism. Beavers go nearly extinct. 1650: Iroquois prey upon trade, displace hunters, capture people, for slavery (10’s of thousands killed/displaced/enslaved). Indians suffer greatly Half of all French killed during wars. Huron destroyed. Large area’s of land opened. Penn finds Pennsylvania because he didn’t have Indians to deal with.
Nathaniel Bacon (Bacon’s Rebellion)
Wealthy and connected man. Puts himself at head of disgruntled whites. Attacks Indians as retaliation of prohibitions. Destroys villages (one being Jamestown). Bacon dies of Dysentery and revolution collapses.
Pueblo Revolt
Spanish demands become greater in New Mexico. Native groups begin to collapse (conflict.) 1660’s/70’s drought happens – crop failure and famine. 1680: Most successful Indian rebellion in history of North America. Indians led by Pope. Natives begin killing Spanish in villages. Hundreds killed, rest of Spanish flee.
Yamasee War
English believed human beings on a mass scale can be commodified. Allied with great powers – Cherokee. Charlestown, South Carolina. 1710: Indian slave raiders destroyed missionaries. Thousands of Indians shipped out of Carolina’s for slavery (25000 to 50000 in the late 17th early 18th century). Florida was emptied of human population. 1717: Indians turn on traders – go for destruction of Charlestown.
Pope
Leader of Natives in Pueblo Revolt
Social Death
Slavery was legal in Americas. It was \”social death\” because they had no connections, and had no protections. Slaves were people who did not belong in the society that they were bound. They could have been killed and nothing would have happened to them. They have no lineage/connection to home.
Mani Kongo
Control over trade routes. Elite (had mass power) – Mbanza – capital of Kongo. Converts to Catholicism when Portuguese came. Trade: Space/Ivory/Gold – after time it becomes slavey. He engages in war to feed slave needs. Dies in 1506.
Alfonso
Son of Mani Kongo. Has coup over his older brother, takes over, is more favorable with Portuguese. Grants King of Portugal monopoly over slave trade – private merchants are not happy. Monopoly end and \”gold rush\” for slaves occurs. Kongo falls apart, Alfonso collapses.
Middle Passage
Heroing and dehumanizing. Slaves were rowed to massive ship. Slaves stocked below deck in shelves. 1/4 people were kids. Captives chained at night. Fed beans, forced to jump up and down to stay active. Ship smelled horrid, people lie in filth and died. 12 – 15% died on journey. Peopled rebelled by jumping overboard. Open rebellion rare – fear.
The Scramble
Prices set prior to sale. Slaves in penn. People rushed in to penn to grab what they wanted. Slaves = human commodities.
Society With Slaves
Economy relies on multiple labor system – slaves only one portion. In some instances, slaves could buy freedom.
Slave Society
Late 17th Century. Society dependent on slaves. As slave colonies become more slave dependent – slave codes are created. Aimed at free blacks. Ex: 1662 – Slave children will inherit status of mother. (Wide scale sexual abuse by white males).
Gullah
Common language combining English and African used by slaves.
Natchez Rebellion
1729. Natchez tribes attacks French. Some slaves join in. Natchez believed french were too greedy. French government takes over – Society with Slaves.
Maroons
Communities of runaway slaves. Florida/Caribbean islands. 1739: Treaty with large Maroon community – peace.
Weapons of the Weak
Quiet Resistance. Working slow, running away, breaking equipment \”accidentally.\” Clumsy, forgetful.
Plantation Act
1740. Foreign protestants to colonize new world. British citizenship promised (2 shillings, 7 years in colony, sworn loyalty to king). Would become royal subjects. Encouraged settlement.
Trade In Strangers
Merchant vessels on way to colonies pick up strangers. Scottish. Lowland: carpenters. Highland: poor/oppressed. Scots Irish: largest, immigrate out of desperation.
Casta System
Spanish America. Inter-race relations were most common. (Many types defined). Spaniards/Africans/Natives.
Jonathan Edwards
North Hampton, Massachusetts. Regular people were disengaging with religion. Elites were over intellectualizing it. Devoted energy to getting youth back in church. Preached to the hearts.
George Whitfield
First truly national event. Toured colonies, louder speaker than Edwards. Evangelical Anglican from New England. Franklin (a rational man) was captivated by his speaking.
Civil Law Tradition
Spanish. Roman tradition. Far more protective of women’s property rights. Inheritance from parents – equally divided among woman and brothers. Could control her own property in marriage. Could sell/buy property/represent self in court. Widow hood – could get dowry back – half of joint property.
Common Law Tradition
English. German tradition. Inheritance from parents depended on will. If there was no will – oldest son gets everything. Woman had no control over dowry in marriage. Could not write will or control land, or represent self in court without husband. Widow hood – kept her own goods, property prior to marriage, and 1/3 of common property.
Tanaghrisson
Representative of Iroquois. Treated very well by English. English said they respected land rights. He agrees to give them some land. French are angered by potential deal. French bribe and bully Indians out of deal. They stir the pot and build tensions. Goes with English to ask french to politely leave with Washington.
Jumonville
Frenchman, go to Washington with letter from older brother, Tanaghrisson thinks it’s an attack, all of the French are dead. (Jumonville’s Glen)
Edward Braddock
English general who was supposed to attack French and take over Ohio River Valley. Braddock was told by colonists he can’t win without native powers. He meets with natives but is very cruel and not respectful. He and 1000 men are killed on the way to the Ohio River Valley – sad defeat.
William Pitt
English prime minister. Believed colonists deserved respect. Changed war in two ways (1) Changes oppressive policies imposed on colonists – enthusiasm explodes (2) Pitt wanted ALL of North America – no french.
Fort William Henry
1756. French attack fort owned by British. 2000 Indian allies join (33 different tribes). Men inside greatly resist but ultimately surrender. Indians withdrew but then attacked – 100 brits die, many captured.
Treaty of Paris 1763
France gives up all possessions in North America – all lands west of Mississippi expect Louisiana which goes to Spain. Great Britain gives Havana back to Spain in exchange for Florida.
Pontiacs War
1763. Begins with attacks on 13 western fronts by Indians. 2000 colonists are killed, British race hatred grows. General Amherst wants to send message – small pox blankets.
Paxton Boys
Western Pennsylvania. Find village of Christian Indians, Kill 6 while 14 were away. They Find 14, kill them horribly. Following massacre – Britain comes in.
Proclamation Line 1763
Prohibits colonization west of proclamation line to give Indians land. Colonists do NOT like this. Despite this – colonists move west. Pontiac’s war removed any chances of good will/positive relations. This proclamation alienates British colonists. Following this – Britain adds 10,000 troops.
Republicanism
Gradual change in ideologies – writings of radical thinkers. Warned of tyranny by unchecked political power. Individuals with extraordinary powers were determined to destroy liberty and implement slavery.
Republicanism became popular – appointed representatives fought with Royal Governor. Unity among colony following 7 years war and Proclamation line grew.
Sam Adams
Manipulated/Shaped public opinion. Helped organize massive groups. \”Tar and Feather\” loyalists to king.
Daughters of Liberty
1768 – 1769. Women showed they can be self sufficient – stopped imports. Began working on their own – showing they can contribute to cause.
Committees of Correspondence
Men who would closely correspond/watch British and report their actions. Pan colonial organization begins in 1770.
Olive Branch Petition
Directed to King. Begs king to stop \”madmen\” in parliament. King throws away petition following battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775. (Washington and Men point guns towards Boston and British attempt to attack.)
Common Sense
1776 – Thomas Payne. Independence was inevitable. It should happen NOW. 3 months = 100,000 copies. Helped spark declaration of independence.
Joseph Brant
European educated Mohawk Indian. Years people to align with British. Iroquois split – some join Americans.
Yorktown (1781)
Washington convinces French army to join him at Virginia. British surrender at Yorktown. Government falls in England.

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