IB History. The Move to Global War: Italian Expansion

question

Mussolini
answer

Italian fascist dictator (1883-1945)
question

Abyssinia
answer

Ethiopia
question

Avanti
answer

Italian newspaper of the extreme left, (revolutionary socialism) whom the editor was Mussolini until 1915. (Lee 89)
question

Fascio di Combattimento
answer

name of Mussolini’s first local political party founded in 1919 in Milan, who failed to enter national government. (Lee 89)
question

Partitio Nazionale Frascista
answer

political party founded by Mussolini in 1921 whose aim was to enter parliament. (Lee 90)
question

Political reason for the rise of Mussolini
answer

the very unstable liberal-parliamentary regime during the interwar period, each ministry lasting 1,1 years each. (Lee 91)
question

The economic repercussions of the first world war
answer

Italy’s economy shaken, total social disruption and huge deficit with uneven trading and poor industrialization. (Lee 91)
question

Lack of national identity
answer

cause of the social unrest in Italy as only newly unified and very divided territorially. (Rogers and Thomas 85)
question

The catholic church before the 20th century
answer

relations had broken down during unification and had encouraged the rise in anti-clerical policies. (Rogers and Thomas 85)
question

Working class protest
answer

only men over 30 and with wealth could vote, promoting the upper and middle class men to politics. This caused the rise in extreme parties lead by the working class. (Rogers and Thomas 85)
question

Treaty of London
answer

treaty between Italy, France, Britain and the USSR where italy officially joined the triple entente (1915) in the hopes to gain some land after the war (Rogers and Thomas 86)
question

Battle of Caporetto
answer

immense defeat of Italy in 1917 with many losses, humiliation (Rogers and Thomas 88)
question

Battle of Vittorio
answer

one of the few victories for Italy in 1918 however a great cost : 600 000 men dead.(Rogers and Thomas 88)
question

Political climate during the first world war
answer

Italy even more devided with a rise in: socialist parties who didn’t support the war; trade unions because of the increased workforce; militant forces.(Rogers and Thomas 88)
question

Key feature of fascism Nationalism
answer

desire to remove foreign influences; own nation seen as superior to other nations; view of the nation state, its culture and history, as a unifying force.(Rogers and Thomas 89)
question

Key feature of fascism Militarism
answer

promotion of political violence and war as a method of revitalizing society; violence is seen as necessary in order to progress; development of paramilitary organizations. (Rogers and Thomas 89)
question

Key feature of fascism Social Darwinism
answer

the belief that races have evolved as superior to other races; survival of the fittest. (Rogers and Thomas 89)
question

Key feature of Social Unity
answer

opposes class-based divisions in society and promotes collectieve national society. (Rogers and Thomas 89)
question

Key feature of fascism Authoritarianism
answer

Totalitarian (the sate has influence or control over all aspects of society; the people are subservient to the state; Mussolini: “obedience not discussion” (Rogers and Thomas 89)
question

Impact of first world war
answer

Italy didn’t get it’s territory abroad, many casualties so the support for the government declined (Rogers and Thomas 90-91)
question

Two Red Years
answer

fear of communism in Italy between 1919 and 1920 (Rogers and Thomas 92)
question

Economical causes for the rise of fascism
answer

high inflation and unemployment furthered by the US strict policy of immigration (nowhere to go to escape poverty) (Rogers and Thomas 92)
question

March on Rome
answer

30th of October 1922 when the blackshirts walked into the government in Rome and Mussolini was offered the position of Prime minister. (Rogers and Thomas 95)
question

Mussolini’s relationship with the church
answer

made compromises with them and gave them the Vatican state and in return the church would support the new government. (Rogers and Thomas 97)
question

Factors influencing Mussolini’s foreign policy
answer

increase in national pride, consolidate domestic support for the regime, revise the post war settlement of 1919-1920, dominate the balkans, dominate the mediterranean, build an empire into Africa, foster the spread of Fascism in other countries (Rogers and Thomas 97)
question

France and Italy relationship
answer

Mussolini was hostile as he had claims over French territory (Corsica, Nice and Sardinia), was jealous of the French empire in Africa, and envied the French control over the Balkans. (Rogers and Thomas 101)
question

Impact of economic issues on Italian foreign policy
answer

weak even with many policies implemented by Mussolini, put a restraint on the expansion of Italy as they were unable to produce a war economy. (Rogers and Thomas 99)
question

Appeasement
answer

diplomatic policy of making concession to nations in order to avoid conflict. Associated with Britain (and French) foreign policy in the 1930s. It allowed Mussolini (and Hitler) to get away with territorial demands. ( Rogers and Thomas. 194)
question

Reasons for Appeasement
answer

1)Public opinion against WW1 and towards LON 2)Demands of Dictators seen as justified 3)no alternative policy 4)Great Depression did not allow for international conflict 5) Business opportunities with aggressors (believed by Neville Chamberlain, BR prime minister (Rogers and Thomas. 194-196)
question

Neutrality Act
answer

designed 1935 by US to keep it our of possible European war by banning sale of armaments to belligerents. (Rogers and Thomas. 199)
question

Hoare- Laval Pact
answer

December 1935. French foreign secretary Pierre Laval and British Samuel Hoare wanted to appease Mussolini to reassure his assistance against Hitler. The pact gave Mussolini most of Abyssinia. Plan leaked in french press and public outrage led to denouncing the pact and sanctions continued. (Rogers and Thomas. 204)
question

Haile Selassie
answer

Emperor of Abyssinia. Appealed to the League of Nations multiple times after italian invasion to arbitrate and for support. Fled on 2 May 1936. Held powerful speech criticizing the international community for its inaction. (Rogers and Thomas. 203/206)
question

BR response to italian invasion 1940 (of Albania + Egypt + Greece)
answer

condemned the italian invasion. Turning point for Chamberlain: no longer trusted dictators and guarantee british support for greek borders. BR counterattacked in North Africa and defeated Italy in Libya 1941. BR navy sank half of italian fleet. (Rogers and Thomas. 209)
question

Weaknesses of the League of Nation (in regard to italian aggression)
answer

1) lacked credibility and economic power 2) no USA 3)Powerful countries (Ger, Italy, France, Japan) were ‘revisionist’ towards treaty of versailles 4)Soviet Union joined only in 1934 5)ineffective structure and organization (Rogers and Thomas. 198)
question

Stresa Pact/Front
answer

Agreement between FR, BR, and Italy. To reaffirm the Locarno Treaties and remain independence of Austria. Also agreed to resist any further attempt by Germans to change Treaty of Versailles. (Rogers and Thomas 203-204)
question

League of Nation response to invasion of Abyssinia
answer

condemnation from LON. Leagues arbitration committee found neither side responsible (Italy/Abyssinia). LON found italy aggressor on october 7 1935 and started imposing limited sanctions. Sanctions did not include coal, oil, steel. (Rogers and Thomas 203)
question

Wal Wal incident
answer

In Dec 1934, italian troops were attacked at the Wal Wal oasis on Ethiopian border. Italy demanded apology as the claimed right to use oasis. Italy used incident as an excuse to invade Abyssinia. (Lee. 119)
question

Munich Conference
answer

September 1938. Agreement permitted Hitler to annex german speaking part of czechoslovakia, the Sudetenland. Germany, France, the United Kingdom And Italy. Mussolini had status of mediator. Excluded Soviet Union. Seen as a failed act of appeasement. (Lee. 123)
question

Pact of Steel
answer

May 1939. Alliance between Italy and Germany. Bounded militarily to Germany. (Lee. 125)
question

Neville Chamberlain
answer

Prime Minister of BR 1937-40. Followed policy of appeasement. Wanted to have peaceful Europe and solve conflicts with diplomacy. Had little faith in the League or allies. (Rogers and Thomas. 192)
question

Soviet Union foreign policy 1930s
answer

USSR felt threatened by expansionist policies of GER and Japan. Stalin signed non-aggression pacts with several neighbours. Shift towards a ‘Popular Front’ against fascism. USSR joined LON in 1934. (Rogers and Thomas. 200)
question

USA foreign policy 19302
answer

Policy of isolationism. USA did not join LON. Wanted to engage in free trade and investment. Anti-war attitude. Passes Neutrality Act. (Rogers and Thomas. 204)
question

Results of international response to Abyssinian crisis
answer

1)Signaled end of LON 2)attention drawn towards Hitler and remilitarization of Rhineland 3)French stopped sanctions 4)Addis Ababa (Abyssinia capital) fell to italian forces on May 2, 1936 5) July 15, sanction ended 6) Guerrilla war against italian forces continued. (Rogers and Thomas. 205)
question

January 1933
answer

Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany (Rogers and Thomas. 192)
question

World Disarmament Conference
answer

1932-34. (Was an effort by member states of the League of Nations, together with the U.S., to actualize the ideology of disarmament. It took place in the Swiss city of Geneva) (Rogers and Thomas 192)
question

Rome-Berlin Axis
answer

Coalition formed in 1936 between Italy and Germany, linking the two fascist countries. (Lee, 123)
question

Winston Churchill (in the 1930s)
answer

called for rearmament. Opposed concessions to Germany but voted for appeasement of Italy over Abyssinia. Supported the idea of a Grand Alliance of Anti-Fascist Powers. (Rogers and Thomas. 195)
question

Allied Partner
answer

Germany which led to Italy being included in WW2. Italo-German Agreements like Rome- Berlin Axis, Pact of Steel were made. Because of this ally, Italy moved away from good relationship with Britain and France. (Rogers and Thomas, 130)
question

Four Power Pact
answer

signed on 15 July 1933 in Rome for developing European diplomacy as an alternative for the League of Nations. Signed by Britain, France, Germany and Italy. (Rogers and Thomas, 132)
question

Invasion of Abyssinia in 1935
answer

to build an Empire and to become a greater imperial Power, also to spread personality cult of Mussolini: il cult and to rally support behind the fascist regime. Abyssinia wasn’t modernized and therefor easy to invade, it would help Italian military forces and provided export for Italian goods. (Rogers and Thomas, 136)
question

Stresa Coference
answer

Hitlers rearmament was alarming and Italy Britain and France met in Stresa (April 1935). It confirmed the independence of Austria, protests against Hitlers violation of the Treaty of Versailles. Mussolini felt supported by Britain and France to expand. The agreement was vague and wasn’t effective. (Rogers and Thomas, 133)
question

Italian influence in Spanish civil war
answer

Mussolini supported Spain fascism to protect spread of communism and sent lots of military without plan. This support damaged Italian economy, showed weakness of military and tightened tensions with France and Britain. (Rogers and Thomas, 141)
question

Rome – Berlin Axis Alliance
answer

signed on 25 October 1936 was an agreement between Italy and Germany to work together. (Rogers and Thomas, 143)
question

Anti – Comitern 1937
answer

against International Communism between Japan and Germany and with Italy it became the Axis Powers. (Rogers and Thomas, 143)
question

Italy leaving League of Nations
answer

in 1937 and moving closer to Germany and therefor Mussolini stopped caring about the Anschluss (which he wanted to hinder since WW1). (Rogers and Thomas, 143)
question

Munich Agreement weakness
answer

of France and Britain gave Mussolini the “push” to invade Corsica, Nice and Tunis from France. (Rogers and Thomas, 145)
question

Invasion of Albania 1939
answer

was to assert Italian strength and to imitate Hitler’s successful expansion it was meaningless of choosing Albania which was a Satellite state. Albania did several demonstrations against Italian occupation and King Zog of Albania resisted Italian occupation. Italian still won and used Albania as Base for invasion of Greece. (Rogers and Thomas, 146- 147)
question

Response to outbreak of European War
answer

Italy was against warlike society and against the terms of the Pact of Steel, and firstly didn’t want to join the war. They did join the war in June 1940. (Rogers and Thomas, 149)
question

Joining war in 1940
answer

not joining war would’ve been embarrassing for Mussolini and it could help him to radicalize the regime and remove the Church’s’ influence. He therefor tried to stay neutral within the war (another Switzerland), Mussolini was looking for territorial gains. (Rogers and Thomas, 150)
question

March 1940 Parallel War
answer

Italy declared war on Britain and France. He than expanded in the Mediterannean and North Africa, Italian colony invaded Egypt and Greece but failed due to Britain. (Rogers and Thomas, 152)
question

Mussolini’s’ Fascism
answer

was anti- communist and anti – Socialist it was to force a transformation in Society. (Lee, 111)
question

Italy’s dependence on Germany
answer

was huge as it couldn’t go back to Britain and France and needed a trading partner. (Lee, 127)
question

Italy declaring war on US
answer

in 1941 was because Mussolini had the naive believe America was a degenerated power and could give consumer based military needs. (Lee, 127)
question

Sudetenland 1938
answer

Mussolini stepped in as a peacemaker which made a good impression of him within Europe.(Rogers and Thomas, 151)
question

Nazi – Soviet Pact
answer

Mussolini was informed by Hitler two days before it was signed. This made him feel left out and not respected. (Rogers and Thomas, 149)
question

Italian foreign policy
answer

directed by Mussolini for glorification of war and pursuit of imperial expansion and a move away from diplomacy and cooperation. (Rogers and Thomas, 130)
question

Great Depression affect on italy
answer

Mussolini managed to prevent social and political upheaval. But the economic crisis required changes; “revolutionary spirit”. (Rogers and Thomas, 131)

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member