IB History of the Americas Unit 10

Flashcard maker : Rebecca Baker
Porfirio Diáz
a Mexican soldier and politician, who served seven terms as President of Mexico, totaling three and a half decades between 1876 and 1911
Francisco Madero
a Mexican statesman, writer, and revolutionary who served as the 33rd president of Mexico from 1911 until his assassination in 1913
Pancho Villa
José Doroteo Arango Arámbula – better known by his pseudonym Francisco Villa or his nickname Pancho Villa – was one of the most prominent Mexican Revolutionary generals
Emiliano Zapata
a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, the main leader of the peasant revolution in the state of Morelos, and the founder of the agrarian movement called Zapatismo
Victoriano Huerta
a Mexican military officer and president of Mexico; Huerta’s supporters were known as Huertistas during the Mexican Revolution
Henry Lane Wilson
an American diplomat
Félix Diáz
Félix Díaz Velasco was a Mexican politician and general born in Oaxaca, Oaxaca
Venustiano Carranza
one of the leaders of the Mexican Revolution; he ultimately became President of Mexico following the overthrow of the dictatorial Victoriano Huerta regime in the summer of 1914, and during his administration the current constitution of Mexico was drafted but he was assassinated near the end of his term of office at the behest of a cabal of army generals resentful at his insistence that his successor be a civilian.
Álvaro Obrégon
the President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924; He supported Sonora’s decision to follow Venustiano Carranza as leader of a revolution against the Huerta regime, and Carranza appointed Obregón commander of the revolutionary forces in northwestern Mexico and in 1915 appointed him as his minister of war. In 1920, Obregón launched a revolt against Carranza, in which Carranza was assassinated; he won the subsequent election with overwhelming support
Emilio Gutierrez
elected provisional president of Mexico during the Aguascalientes Convention and led the country for a few months between November 6, 1914, and January 16, 1915
\”Young Radicals\”
younger members of the Mexican congress that put together the Constitution of 1917
Jose Vasconcelos
a Mexican writer, philosopher and politician; he is one of the most influential and controversial personalities in the development of modern Mexico
Plutarco Calles
a Mexican general and politician; he was the powerful interior minister under President Álvaro Obregón, who chose Calles as his successor
Dwight Morrow
an American businessman, diplomat, and politician of Scots-Irish descent, best known as the U.S. ambassador who improved U.S.-Mexican relations, mediating the religious conflict in Mexico known as the Cristero rebellion (1926-29), but also contributing to an easing of conflict between the two countries over oil
Lázaro Cárdenas
a general in the Mexican Revolution and an able statesman who served as President of Mexico between 1934 and 1940
Gil, Rubio, and Rodriguez
three presidential puppets of Calles
Porfiriato
the ideals and commands made by Porfirio during his reign over Mexico
Creelman Interview
interview Porfirio had with an American journalist where he said he’d welcome a challenger in the next presidential election but didn’t know anyone in Mexico would hear the interview
Peon/peasant
a Spanish-American day laborer or unskilled farm worker
La Decena Trágica
the Ten Tragic Days (\”La Decena Trágica\”) were a series of events that took place in Mexico City between February 9 and February 19, 1913, during the Mexican Revolution; they culminated in a coup d’état and the assassination of President Francisco I. Madero and his vice president, José María Pino Suárez
Tierra y Libertad!
Land and Liberty (Spanish: \”Tierra y Libertad\”) is an anarchist black slogan that was used as a name of the Mexican Revolution; the revolution was fought over land rights, and the leaders such as Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa were fighting to give the land back to the natives from whom it was expropriated either by force or by some dubious manner because without land, the peasants were at the mercy of landowners for subsistence.
Zapatistas
followers of Zapata
Villistas
followers of Pancho Villa
Aguascalientes
town where the differences between Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, Venustiano Carranza and Alvaro Obregon were settled (translates to \”hot water\”)
Battle of Celaya
a series of military engagements fought between 6-15 April 1915, near Celaya in present-day Guanajuato, Mexico during the 1910 Mexican Revolution
anti-clericalism
opposed to the influence and activities of the clergy or the church in secular or public affairs
Cristeros
normal people who fought in the defense of the church
Viva Cristo Rey!
battle cry of the Cristeros (translates to \”long live Christ the King!\”)
No re-election
ejidos
an area of communal land used for agriculture, on which community members individually possess and farm a specific parcel
CROM
labor union
Maximoto
Zimmerman Note
a 1917 diplomatic proposal from the German Empire offering a military alliance with Mexico, in the event of the United States entering World War I against Germany; the proposal was intercepted and decoded by British intelligence
fuga
translated to flight
hacendado
the owner of a hacienda (a large estate or plantation with a dwelling house)
Columbus, New Mexico
began as a raid conducted by Pancho Villa’s Division of the North on the small United States border town of Columbus, New Mexico in March 1916; the raid escalated into a full-scale battle between Villistas and the United States Army and Villa himself led the assault, only to be driven back into Mexico by elements of the 13th Cavalry Regiment stationed at the town – the attack angered Americans and President Woodrow Wilson ordered the Punitive Expedition in which the US Army invaded Mexico in an unsuccessful attempt to capture General Villa
Plan of San Luís Potosí
a political document written in San Antonio, Texas, United States, and published in the Mexican city of San Luis Potosí in 1910; the document ushered in the Mexican revolution and the collapse of the Presidency of Porfirio Díaz
Treaty of Cuidad Juarez
a peace treaty signed between the then President of Mexico, Porfirio Díaz, and the revolutionary Francisco Madero on May 21, 1911; the treaty put an end to the fighting between forces supporting Madero and those of Díaz and thus concluded the initial phase of the Mexican Revolution
Plan of Ayala
a document drafted by revolutionary leader Emiliano Zapata during the Mexican Revolution
Pact of Embassy
an agreement, also known as the Pact of the Ciudadela, signed in the U.S. Embassy in Mexico City early in the morning of February 19, 1913, that ended the Decena Trágica
Plan of Guadelupe
a document drafted on March 23, 1913 by Venustiano Carranza in response to the overthrow and execution of Francisco I. Madero, then President of Mexico
Constitution of 1917
the current constitution of Mexico; it was drafted in Santiago de Querétaro, in the State of Querétaro, by a constitutional convention, during the Mexican Revolution
Articles 3 and 130
Article 27
lands seized illegally from peasantry were to be restored, land which did not serve a useful social function could be appropriated by the state, regulated sub-soil rights, angered foreigners by stating \”Only Mexicans by birth or naturalization have the right to acquire ownership of land, water…\”, gave land rights to foreigners who promised not to call upon their governments for help
Article 123
provided an eight hour work day and a six day work week, permitted a minimum wage to be set, required equal pay for good work regardless of sex or nationality

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