Human Nutrition Exam 2

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Lungs
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To which body part does blood travel to pick up oxygen and release carbon dioxide?
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Endocrine
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The ___________________________ system is made up of several glands that act in the regulation of metabolism, reproduction, water balance, and many other functions.
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Immune
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The ______ system is assisted by the lymphatic system and the physical barriers of the skin and gastrointestinal tract.
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Epiglottis
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What structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow?
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Lymphatic
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After digestion and absorption, which circulatory system carries fat and fat-soluble vitamins?
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Mouth
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Where does digestion begin?
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Small intestine
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Most chemical digestion takes place in the
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Pyloric sphincter
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The stomach empties into the small intestine through the
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sphincters
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The ring-like muscles that retard or prevent backflow of partially digested food in the gastrointestinal tract are called
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Chyme
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A watery mixture of partially digested food released by the stomach into the intestines
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Pancreas and small intestine
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Where are most digestive enzymes produced?
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Peristalsis
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muscular movement of materials through the GI tract.
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Nutrigenomics
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The study of the ways nutrients and food influence gene expression is called
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95%
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What percentage of a meal has been absorbed by the time it leaves the small intestine?
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Enzymes
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These protein-based substances enhance digestion by making chemical reactions more likely to happen.
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Water and minerals
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A function of the large intestine is to absorb
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Active absorption
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Which absorptive process in the small intestine requires a carrier and energy to transport nutrients into absorptive cells?
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Facilitated diffusion
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When a nutrient moves, with the help of a carrier, from an area of higher solute concentration into an absorptive cell where the concentration is lower, this is called
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Neurotransmitter
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A compound that allows for communication between one cell and the next is a
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Basal metabolism
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The name for minimum energy expended to keep a resting, awake body alive is _______________. This represents about 60% to 70% of total energy expenditure.
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Thermic effect of food
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represents the calories needed to digest, absorb, and process ingested food.
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Physical activity
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____________ increases energy expenditure above basal energy needs by about 15% to 35%.
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Adaptive thermogenesis
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The expenditure of energy to produce heat in response to a cold environment and as a result of overfeeding is called _______________.
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Indirect calorimetry
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The method for determining energy expenditure in which the amount of oxygen a person uses is measured is called
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24%
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When attempting to use body fat content to define obesity, body fat above ____ for men warrants an obesity diagnosis.
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37%
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When attempting to use body fat content to define obesity, body fat above ____ for women warrants an obesity diagnosis.
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27%
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For a woman who is 1.63 meters tall and weighs 72 kilograms, the body mass index would be
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One pound
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According to revised weight-loss prediction equations, a deficit of 10 kilocalories per day leads to an average weight loss of ______ over a 3-year period.
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Android
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_______________ obesity is a pattern of body fat distribution that is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension.
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Gastric Bypass
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A common and effective surgical procedure for morbid obesity is
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water glycogen and muscle tissue
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When individuals lose weight quickly, most of the weight lost is from
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31
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John weighs 80 kilograms and is 1.6 meters tall. His body mass index is _______________ kg/m2.
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18.5
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Underweight is defined as a body mass index below _______________ kg/m2.
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Mindful eating
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The principles of _______________________ include being aware of the entire eating experience from food preparation to consumption, including recognizing and respecting the physical hunger and satiety cues, and being wise in eating decisions.
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Binge eating
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Which of the following is characteristic of bulimics?
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Fluctuating weight
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Which characteristic is more indicative of bulimia than anorexia nervosa?
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Anorexia nervosa
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A condition of self-induced severe weight loss, particularly common in adolescent girls, is called
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Female athlete triad
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What is the name of the condition characterized by disordered eating, lack of menstrual periods, and osteoporosis?
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Low body fat content
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Loss of menstrual periods associated with anorexia nervosa is caused by
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Stop further weight loss
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The first goal in nutrition therapy for anorexia nervosa is
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Bulimia nervosa
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A disorder in which frequent bingeing is followed by compensatory behaviors to rid the body of excess kilocalories is called
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Genetics
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Current research suggests that most eating disorders are caused by
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Extreme dieting
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The most important predictor of an eating disorder is
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Pica
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The practice of eating nonfood substances is called
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Muscle dysmorphia
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Individuals who perceive themselves as being too thin and who engage in disordered eating behaviors to achieve weight gain may have
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Orthorexia
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______ is the term used to describe a condition in which the desire to consume healthy foods becomes an obsession and begins to interfere with daily living.
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Adenosine triphosphate
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What is the name of the high-energy compound that cells use directly to fuel other chemical reactions?
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Phosphocreatine
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Which of the following supplies energy for quick bursts of intense activity lasting up to 10 seconds?
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30 seconds to 2 min
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Anaerobic glucose breakdown provides most of the energy for sports activities lasting
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2 min to 4 hours
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Aerobic glucose breakdown provides most of the energy for sports activities lasting
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Carbohydrate loading
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involves tapering the intensity of workouts while increasing carbohydrate intake for several days before a competition.
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Marathon
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For which of the following activities would carbohydrate loading be warranted?
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1 to 1.2
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According to sports nutrition experts, the daily protein intake for a male muscle-building athlete to maintain current fitness and strength should be _____ grams per kilogram body weight.
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2 to 3
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For every pound lost during a workout, ______ cup(s) of water should be consumed during or after exercise.
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10 cups
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Joe loses 4 pounds of fluid by sweating during a vigorous basketball game. How many cups of fluid are needed to replenish this loss?
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Muscle endurance
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A free-weight workout that includes 8 to 10 different exercises performed for many repetitions with low resistance is designed mainly to enhance
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60 min or longer
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The use of sports drinks is critical for activities lasting
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Anaerobic glucose breakdown
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Maxine Miles runs a 10-kilometer race in 40 minutes. Most of the ATP for this activity is supplied by
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Breakdown of fatty acids
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Bill goes on an 8-hour continuous hike. Most of the ATP for this activity will be derived from
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Aerobic fitness
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A fitness program that includes 30 minutes of jogging at 6 miles per hour on 5 days per week is primarily designed to improve
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Heat exhaustion
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Heat-related condition caused by fluid loss; characterized by headaches, dizziness, muscle weakness, and visual disturbances
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Heart cramps
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Painful skeletal muscle contractions occurring in people who have experienced large sweat losses from exercising for several hours in a hot climate and who have consumed a large volume of unsalted water
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Heatstroke
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Condition that occurs when internal body temperature reaches 104°F; skin is hot and dry
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Hyponatremia
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Low blood sodium that can result from consuming a large volume of water without also replacing electrolytes
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Villi
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Fingerlike protrusions that participate in digestion and absorption of food
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Absorptive cells
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Also known as enterocytes intestinal cells that line villi and participate in nutrient absorptions
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Microvilli
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Extensive folds on the mucosal surface of the absorptive cells
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Passive diffusion
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Diffusion of nutrients across the absorptive cell membranes
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Phagocytosis and pinocytosis
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Forms of active transport in which absorptive cell membrane forms an indentation that engulfs a nutrient to bring it into cell
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Probiotics
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Substances increases growth of probiotic microorganisms
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Feces
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Some water and undigested fiber, tough connective tissues

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