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Human Nutrition 337_Ch10-13

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Name of thiamin deficiency disease
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Beriberi
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A food unusually rich in thiamin
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Meat-Pork
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Exposure to this leads to destruction of riboflavin
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Ultraviolet light and irradiation
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A food source that supplies a substantial amount of people’s riboflavin intake
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Liver
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Deficiency of the vitamin leads ot cracks and redness at the corners of the mouth
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Riboflavin
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Overconsumption of this food has resulted in pellagra
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Corn
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High doses are known to lower LDL cholesterol
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Nicotinic Acid
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Used for synthesis of niacin
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tryptophan
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deficiency of this vitamin is induced feeding raw egg whites
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Biotin
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This vitamin is a component of acetylCoA
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Pantothenic Acid
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Toxicity form this vitamin is known to cause nerve damage and inability to walk
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Vitamin B6
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Prevention of neural tube defects is related to increased intake of this substance by pregnant women
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Folate
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One of the first symptoms of folate deficiency
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Anemia ” to little blood” and GI tract deterioration
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Required for absorption of vitamin B12
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Folate
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Food source of vitamin C
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Fruits and vegetables
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Vitamin C is required for the synthesis of this substance
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Collagen
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Transport protein of vitamin A
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RBP- retinal binding protein
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Where is RBP made?
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Liver
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Where does RBP after it is made?
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Blood
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Condition that result from severe Vitamin A deficiency
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Xerophthalmia (blindness) Keratomalacia
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Promotes bone dismantaling prior to bone growth
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Vitamin A
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Precursor for vitamin D sythesis
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Cholesterol
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Pigment in carrots and pumpkins
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Beta-carotene
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The protein in hair and nails
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keratin
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Substance that prevents clotting of the blood
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Anticoagulant
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Another term for blood clotting
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thrombus
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Vitamin D deficiency disease in children
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Rickets
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Vitamin D deficiency disease in adults
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Osteomalacia
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Typical food source of vitamin E
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Vegetable oils and margarine
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Vitamin K- dependent transport protein
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Osteocalcin
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Know sources of vitamin D
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Sunlight and milk
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Type of anemia prevented by Vitamin E
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Hemolytic anemia
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Vitamin E deficiency disorder in premature infants
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Erythrocyte Hemolysis
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who has highest risk for vitamin K
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Newborns
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Food source of Vitamin K
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Green vegetable oil
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Use of this increases risk for vitamin K deficiency
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Anticoagulant and antibiotics
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What is hyponatremia
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A decreased concentration of sodium in the blood
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Which organ provides control for homeostasis
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kidneys
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Recommended water intake in mL for infant expending 1,000 kcalories
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1500 (1.5 mL/Kcal expended)
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Enzyme released by kidneys
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Renin
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Typical amount in mL of water lose from lungs everyday
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350 mL
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Stimulates retention of sodium by kidneys
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Aldosterone
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Stimulates retention of water by kidneys
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Antidiuretic hormones (ADH)
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Most prevalent major mineral in the body
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Calcium
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Catalyst for ATP formation
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magnesium
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Crystalline structure of bone
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Hydroyapatite
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Hormone that helps regulate calcium balance
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Parathyroid hormone and calitonin
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Percentage of dietary calcium absorbed by average adult
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30%
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Recommended calcium intake mg/day for college age student
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100 mg/day
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Percentage of dietary calcium absorbed by new born infant
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55-60%
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Substance that inhibits absorption of calcium
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Phytate and oxalate
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Mineral that accounts for the structure of many proteins
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phosphorus
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Substance that enhances absorption of calcium
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Vitamin D
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Food sources of sodium
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Processed food and salt
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Major function of chloride
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Normal fluid and electrolyte balance; part of HCl acid found in stomach, necessary for proper digestion
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Know potassium deficiencies
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increased in blood pressure, salt sensitivity, kidney stones, and bone turnover
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KNow food sources of potassium
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meats, milks, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes
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How is calcium used int he body
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Mineralization of bones and teeth, muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve functioning, blood clotting, and blood pressure
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At what age do we begin to lose bone mass
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30-40
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KNow what body structure regulate thirst
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Hypothamlaus
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Know symptoms of dehydration
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Thrist, dry skin and mucous membranes, rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and weakness
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Iron storage protein
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Ferritin
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Form of iron found only in animal flesh
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Heme iron
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For of iorn found in both plant and animal foods
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Non-heme iron
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Oxygen-carrying protein in muscle
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myoglobin
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Iron-containing protein in erythrocytes
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Hemoglobin
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Enhances absorption of nonheme iron
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MFP factor
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Toxicity from this mineral is twice as prevalent as deficiency in men
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Iron
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Condition characterized by large deposits of iron storage protein in body tissues
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Hemosiderosis
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Craving for non-food substances
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Pica
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A deficiency of this element retards growth and arrests sexual maturation
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Zinc
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Zinc binding protein of the intestine
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Metallothionein
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Iodine deficiency disease
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goiter
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Major dietary source of iodine
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Seafood, iodized salt, vegetable grown in iodine-rich soil
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Disease associated with severe selenium deficiency
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Keshan disease
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Deficiency leads to hyperglycemia
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Chromium
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Condition associated with discoloration of tooth enamel
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fluorosis
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Significant dietary source of fluoride
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Water, fish, and most teas
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Mineral that forms integral part of vitamin B12
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Cobalt