Human Language Structures
two words that express opposing concepts
word taken from other languages and adapted to the language’s own uses
a sentence that includes one independent clause and at least one dependent clause
sentence that contains two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause.
has two independent clauses and is joined by a conjunction
Words that are commonly misused or confused. Example: affect, effect; who’s, whose
Words that are commonly confused or misused such as affect/effect.
refers to the implied or suggested meanings associated with a word beyond its dictionary definition
The specific vocabulary related to the particular concepts of various academic disciplines
A vocabulary strategy in which the reader looks at the words around an unfamiliar word to find clues to its meaning.
connects word or word groups that have equal importance in a sentence (and, but , or, for, so, yet, nor)
to break down words or sentences to read
the dictionary definition of a word
the study of word origins
universal grammar is innate, language experience triggers innate knowledge and set language specific parameters, the language learning mechanism is specific to target language
Chomsky’s theory that says it is an attempt to develop a small set of rules that could be used to produce any sentence in a language
great vowel shift
A change in the pronunciation of the long vowels of English, which happened in the centuries around 1500. Most long vowels were raised, but the high vowels became diphthongs.
2 or more words that have same pronunciation and spelling but different meaning
One of two or more words pronounced alike, but different in spelling or meaning (e.g., hair/hare, scale (fish)/scale (musical)).
suffixes that express plurality or possession when added to a noun (e.g. girls, girl’s), tense when added to a verb (e.g. walked, walking), or comparison when added to an adjective (e.g. happier, happiest).
the study of the nature, structure, and variation of language
Transitional period between Anglo-Saxon and modern English. 1066-1500. Chaucer is a good example of this period’s work.
The English language as spoken between about 1450 and the modern day.
A word or word group that makes the meaning of another word or word group more specific.
the formation and composition of words
The Anglo-Saxon language spoken from approximately 450 to 1150 A.D. in what is now Great Britain
the art or study of correct spelling according to established usage
the humanistic study of language and literature
(linguistics) one of a small set of speech sounds that are distinguished by the speakers of a particular language
the study of the sound system of a given language and the analysis and classification of its phonemes
the study of language use
one of the two main constituents of a sentence
an affix that added in front of the word
This is a punctuation mark that is used between clauses of a compound sentence when a conjunction is not used, before conjunctive adverbs that join independent clauses, and in a series when the series already contains commas.
the study of language meaning
the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
one independent clause
(grammar) one of the two main constituents of a sentence
two words that can be interchanged in a context are said to be synonymous relative to that context
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
Memorized words that are recognized on sight. This is what irregular words tend to be learned as
an affix that is added at the end of the word
the process readers use to figure out unfamiliar words based on written patterns
groups of words that have the same ending soudn (rime) but a different beginning sound (onset), such as can, man, fan.
history or etymology of words; the meanings of roots and affixes
an alphabetized chart posted in the classroom listing words students are learning