Human Growth & Development Chpt. 1

Human Development
scientific study of the processes of change and stability throughout the human life span
Life-span Development
concept of development as a life-long process, which can be studied scientifically
Interdisciplinary
psychology, psychiatry,sociology, anthropology, biology, genetics, family science, education, history, philosophy, and medicine
1st goal of scientific study of human development
Describe behavior
2nd goal of scientific study of human development
Explain behavior
3rd goal of scientific study of human development
Predict behavior
4th goal of scientific study of human development
Modify behavior (most difficult to accomplish)
Quantitative change
change in number of amt, such as in height, weight, or size of vocab
Qualitative change
change in kind, structure, or organization, such as the change from nonverbal to verbal communication
Main Domains
physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development
Physical Development
growth of body and brain and change or stability in sensory capacities, motor skills, and health
Cognitive Development
change or stability in meantal abilities, such as learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning, and creativity.
Psychosocial Development
change and stability in emotions, personality, and social relationships
Social construction
concept about the nature of reality, based on societally shared perceptions or assumptions
1st period of lifespan
Prenatal (conception to birth)
2nd period of lifespan
Infant & Toddler (0-3)
3rd period of lifespan
Early Childhood (3-6)
4th period of lifespan
Middle Childhood (6-11)
5th period of lifespan
Adolescence (11-20)
6th period of lifespan
Young Adulthood (20-40)
7th period of lifespan
Middle Adulthood (40-65)
8th period of lifespan
Late Adulthood (65+)
3 Influences on development
heredity, environment, maturation
milestones
landsmarks of development, or average age for occurence of certain events
nature
genetic inheritance
nurture
environmental or experiental factors
Who developed the biological perspective?
bronfenbrenner
Major contextual influences
family, socioeconomic status, culture/race, social/ historical context
normative influences
an event that is experienced in a similar way for most people in a group
non-normative influences
an unusual event that happens to a particular person, or a typical event that happens at an unusual time of life
critical period
a specific time when a given event, or it’s absences, has a great impact on development
sensitive period
time in development when a person is particularly responsive to certain kinds of experiences
Quantitative
hard, objectively measurable data
Qualitative
soft data about the nature of quality of participants’ subjective experiences, feelings or beliefs
1st step in scientific method
select a problem
2nd step in scientific method
formulate a hypothesis
3rd step in scientific method
test the hypothesis
4th step in scientific method
draw conclusions
5th step in scientific method
disseminate findings
descriptive studies
information is gathered on subjects without manipulating them in any way (interviews, questionnaires)
Manipulative experiments
an experiment is performed before the information is gathered
control group
does not receive treatment
experimental group
does receive treatment
independent variable
the variable that is varied/manipulated by researcher
dependent variable
the response that is measured
positive correlation
both variables increase or decrease together
negative correlation
as one variable increase the other decreases and vice versa
Ethical issues in developmental research
right to informed consent, avoidance of deception, and right to privacy and confidentiality
heredity
inborn characteristics inherited from the biological parents at conception
environment
totality of nonhereditary or experiential influences on development
maturation
unfolding of a natural sequence of physical and behavioral changes, including readiness to master new abilities
nuclear family
kinship and household unit made up of one or two parents and their natural, adopted, or stepchildren
extended family
a multigenerational kinship network of grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, and more distant relatives
cohort
group of people growing up at the same time
human capital
the presence of educated, employed adults who can build the community’s economic base and provide models of what a young person can hope to achieve
imprinting
instinctive form of learning in which, during a critical period in early development, a young animal forms an attachment to the 1st moving object it sees
predisposition toward learning
the readiness of an organism’s nervous system to acquire certain information during a brief critical period in early life
1st principle of the life-span development approach
Development is lifelong
2nd principle of the life-span development approach
Development involves both gain/loss
3rd principle of the life-span development approach
Relative influences of biology and culture shift over the life span.
4th principle of the life-span development approach
Development involves a changing allocation of resources
5th principle of the life-span development approach
Development is modifiable
6th principle of the life-span development approach
Developement is influenced by the historical and cultural context