Human Geography Ch. 1

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
accessibility
The opportunity for contact or interaction from a given point or location, in relation to other locations. (p. 26)
capitalism
A form of economic and social organization characterized by the profit motive and the control of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of goods by private ownership. (p.18)
cognitive distance
The distance that people perceive to exist in a given situation. (p. 24)
cognitive images (mental maps)
Psychological representations of locations that are made up from people’s individual ideas and impressions of these locations. (p.24)
cognitive space
Space defined and measured in terms of people’s values, feelings, beliefs, and perceptions about locations, districts, and regions. (p. 26)
distance-decay function
The rate at which a particular activity or process diminishes with increasing distance. (p. 25)
economies of scale
Cost advantages to manufacturers that accrue from high-volume production, since the average cost of production falls with increasing output. (p. 28)
formal region
Groups of areal units that have a high degree of homogeneity in terms of particular distinguishing features, such as religious adherence or household income. (p. 32)
friction of distance
The deterrent or inhibiting effect of distance on human activity. (p. 24)
functional region
(sometimes referred to as nodal regions) regions within which, while there may be some variability in certain attributes (religious adherence, income), there is an overall coherence to the structure and dynamics of economic, political, and social organization. (p. 32)
geodemographic research
Uses census data and commercial data (such as sales data and property records) about the populations small districts in creating profiles of those populations for market research. (p.7)
geographical imagination
The capacity to understand changing patterns, changing processes, and changing relationships among people, places, and regions. (p. 35)
geographic information systems (GIS)
Integrated computer tools for the handling, processing, and analyzing of geographical data. (p.21)
Global Positioning System
A system of satellites which orbit the earth on precisely predictable paths, broadcasting highly accurate time and locational information. (p.23)
globalization
The increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political, and cultural change. (pg. 10)
human geography
The study of the spatial organization of human activity and of people’s relationships with their environments. (p.21)
identity
People’s sense that they make of themselves through their subjective feelings based on their everyday experiences and wider social relations. (p. 3)
infrastructure (fixed social capital)
The underlying framework of services and amenities need to facilitate productive activity. (p. 28)
irredentism
The assertion by the government of a country that a minority living outside its formal borders belongs to it historically and culturally. (p. 33)
latitude
The angular distance of a point on the earthÂčs surface, measured north or south from the equator, which is 0Âș. (p. 22)
lifeworld
Taken for grant pattern and context for everyday living through which people conduct their lives.
longitude
The angular distance of a point on the earth’s surface, measured east or west from the prime meridian (the line that passes through both poles and through Greenwich, England, and which has the value of 0Âș.(p. 23)
neoliberal policies
Economic policies that are predicted on a minimalist role for the state, assuming desirability of free markets as the ideal condition not only for economic organization, but also for political and social life. (p. 12)
ordinary landscapes (vernacular landscapes)
The everyday landscapes that people create in the course of their lives. (p.33)
physical geography
Deals with Earth’s natural processes and their outcomes. (concerned with climate, weather patterns, landforms, soil formation, and plant and animal ecology) (p. 21)
place
Specific geographic settings with distinctive physical, social, and cultural attributes. (p. 2)
region
Larger-sized territory that encompasses many places, all or most of which share similar attributes in comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere. (p. 20)
regional geography
The study of the ways in which unique combinations of environmental and human factors produce territories with distinctive landscapes and cultural attributes. (p. 21)
regionalism
A feeling of collective identity based on a population’s politico-territorial identification within a state or across state boundaries. (p. 32)
regionalization
The classification of individual places or areal units. (p. 31)
remote sensing
The collection of information about parts of the earth’s surface by means of aerial photography or satellite imagery designed to record data on visible, infrared, and microwave sensor systems. (p. 21)
risk society
Contemporary societies in which politics is increasingly about avoiding hazards. (p. 19)
sectionalism
Extreme devotion to local interests and customs. (p. 33)
sense of place
Feelings evoked among people as a result of the experiences and memories that they associate with a place, and to symbolism that they attach to it. (p. 34)
site
The physical attributes of a location: its terrain, its soil, vegetation, water sources, for example. (p. 23)
situation
The location of a place relative to other places and human activities. (p. 23)
social relations
Patterns of interactions among family members, at work, in social life, in leisure activities, and in political activity. (p. 4)
spatial analysis
The study of geographic phenomena approached in terms of their arrangement as points, lines, areas, or surfaces on a map. (p. 22)
spatial diffusion
The way that things spread through space over time. (p. 30)
spatial interaction
All kinds of movement and flows involving human activity. (p. 27)
states
Independent political units with territorial boundaries that are internationally recognized by other states and by their own people. (p. 5)
supranational organizations
Collections of individual states with a common goal that may be economic and/or political in nature and that will diminish, to some extent, individual state sovereignty in favor of group interests of the membership. (p. 5)
symbolic landscapes
Representations of particular values and aspirations that the builders and financiers of those landscapes want to impart to a larger public. (p. 33)
time-space convergence
The rate at which places move closer together in travel or communication time or costs. (p. 28)
topological space
Space that is defined and measured in terms of the nature and degree of connectivity between. (p. 26)
utility
The usefulness of a specific place or location to a particular person or group. (p. 25)
world region
Large-scale geographic divisions based on continental and physiographic settings that contain major groupings of peoples with broadly similar cultural attributes. (p. 5)
Vertical relations
Spatial relationships that link different elements in the same location; how humans interact with their environment (nature/man-made).
Horizontal relations
Spatial relationships that link different elements in separate locations; inter-place interrelationships -> flows of people and human creations across earth’s surface=how people move “stuff” between places w/ difficulty or ease
Correlation
a reciprocal relation between two or more things (variables)
Causation
the act of causing something to happen
Direct vs indirect relationship
positive and negative relationships (graphs) between variables
Bifurcation
The place where something divides into two branches; split in two
Categorization
The act of distributing things into classes or categories of the same type
Disaggregation (spatial)
To break into pieces
De Jure
legally: by law; legally set boundaries/territories
Nomothetic approach
pertaining to or involving the study or formulation of general or universal laws; legality (generalize relationship; positivism)
Deduction
reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)
Induction
generalization: reasoning from detailed facts to general principles
Aggregate
To build up (not break apart)
Surrogate variable
variable that measures something you can’t measure directly
Epistemology
The study of knowledge; what can we know/how we know it
Ontology
The study or theory of existence (what you accept as real/factual statement)
Methodology
Epistemology and ontology combined. A set of rules and procedures which indicate how research and argument are to be conducted
Positivism
Epistemology: We know what we know through experience, but experiences must be established as verifiable evidence on which we can agree. Ontology: Agreed upon evidence establishes existence.
Methodology: “testing” and “verifying” factual statements using scientific method.
Humanism
Epistemology: Knowledge is subjective
Ontology: Existence is established through perception/ There are as many different realities as there are perceptions of them.
Methodology: Investigate” individual worlds”, emphasize individuality not “truth”.
Longitudinal study
Study of variables over time
Toponym
Simplest way to communicate a location “placename” (country;state;town;neighborhood) Doesn’t have to be a legal name
Relative Location
The location of a place relative to somewhere else
Absolute location
grids/L&L/time and space/angular measure/meridians & tropics. A measurable location. 15°=1 hour
Cognitive location
where you think places are (mental map)
Absolute distance
measuring a distance/place using a measure (ft/mi/km)
Relative distance
Expressed in terms cost or time. F of D. ideas of Time Space Convergence, Cost SC, and geo. unevenness
Cognitive Distance
How far you think it is; can have a direction angle
threshold
Minimum level of demand needed for a service to be provided
census tracks
geographical areas that represent the smallest territorial unit for which population data is available; used for taking a census
reapportionment
to redistribute or reallocate (maintain equa population per district for # of seats in congress)
gerrymander
redrawing political lines (regions) to deliberately gain an advantage
Absolute space
physical space independent of what occupies it
topological space
way places are connected (roads/trains etc…)
sometimes determines horizontal relationships
cognitive space
space defined and measured in terms of the nature and degree of people’s values, feelings, beliefs, and perceptions about locations, districts, and regions
ghetto
a poor densely populated city district occupied by a minority ethnic group linked together by economic hardship and social restrictions
apartheid
a social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites (ex/ spatial control in south africa in the 20th century>ended 1990’s>nelson mandela)
ethnographic boundaries
Break up people into racial/ethnic groups
geometric boundaries
straight lines using meridian/parallels or compass/directional bearing lines
physiographic boundaries
using rivers/water bodies/heigh of land/mountains ranges to make boundaries
Complementarity
On the face of it a straightforward idea but embedded in the historical development of spatial interaction; trading/”lets dance”
Transferability
Friction of Distance is key but also topological space and the ability of the good or service to bear the cost of transport
Intervening Opportunity
Spatial competition between places and influences on peoples’ choices/decisions regarding places. (tourism: las vegas/Atlantic city) disrupted change in opportunity
Diffusion
the spread of social institutions (and myths and skills) from one society to another

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