Human Development Exam

question

self-concept
answer

sense of self; description and evaluative mental picture of one’s abilities and traits – a “cognitive construction… a system of descriptive and evaluative representations about the self” that determines incorporation of self image into understanding how others see them comes into focus during toodlerhood when they discover self-awareness and dealing with developmental issues of childhood
question

self definition
answer

the way children describe themselves; a cluster of tactics begins at ages 5-7 when children use: smart, dumb, recognize conflicting emotions with a positive self concept
question

Neo-Piagetian description of self definition of 3 step shift in 5-7 year olds
answer

1. single representation 2. representational mapping 3. representational systems
question

single representation
answer

children describe themselves in terms of individual, unconnected characteristics and in all-or-nothing terms (can’t be happy and scared)
question

representational mapping
answer

making logical connections between one aspect of himself and another but still sees these characteristics in all-or-nothing terms (can’t see how you’re good at something and not something else)
question

representational systems
answer

in middle childhood when children integrate specific features of the self into a general, multidimensional concept (I’m good at hockey but bad at math)
question

impact of culture on self-defintion
answer

different cultural values influence the way children in each culture perceive and define themselves
question

self-esteem
answer

evaluative part of self-concept: the judgement a person makes about his or her self-worth -most children wildly over estimate their abilities -self-esteem tends to be uni-diminsional – either believe they re all good or all bad
question

self-concept
answer

question

child’s emotional understanding and emotion regulation in early childhood
answer

question

erik erikson’s third psychosocial stage
answer

question

overall gender differences in EC
answer

question

gender role
answer

behaviors, interests, attitudes, skills and traits that a culture considers appropriate for each sex; differs for males and females
question

gender stereotypes
answer

preconceived generalizations about male or female role behavior
question

gender-typing
answer

socialization process whereby children, at any early age, learn appropriate gender roles
question

theoretical perspectives of gender development
answer

question

importance of play
answer

impact to health development of body and brain – engage with the world around them, use imagination, discover flexible ways to use objects and solve problems, preparing for adulthood
question

four cognitive levels of play by Smilansky
answer

functional play constructive play dramatic play formal play
question

functional play
answer

lowest cognitive level of play, involving repetitive muscular movements, also called locomotor play
question

constructive play
answer

second level of play, involving use of objects of materials to make something; also called object play
question

dramatic play
answer

play involving people or situations; also called fantasy play, pretend play or imaginative play
question

formal games with rules
answer

organized games with know procedures and penalties
question

6 categories by Parten
answer

unoccupied behavior onlooker behavior solitary independent play parallel play associative play cooperative or organized supplementary play
question

unoccupied behavior
answer

the child does not seem to be playing but watches anything of momentary interest
question

onlooker behavior
answer

child spends most of the time watching other children play. Talks to other children, asking questions or making suggestions, but does not enter into the play. Observes particular group rather than just where the excitement is
question

Solitary independent play
answer

the child plays alone with toys that are different from those used by nearby children and makes no effort to get close to them
question

Parallel play
answer

the child play independently but among the other children, playing with toys like those used by other children but not necessarily playing with them in the same way. Playing beside rather than with the others, the parallel player does not try to influence the other children’s play
question

Associative play
answer

The child plays with the other children, talking about their play, borrowing and lending toys and controlling who is allowed to enter the group. All children playing similarly if not identically, no division of labor and no organized goal. Each child act as they wish and more interested in being with other children than the activity itself
question

Cooperative or organized supplementary play
answer

the child plays in a group organized for a goal – making something, playing a formal goal, or dramatic situation – 1 or 2 children control who belongs in group and activities. Children have different roles from division of labor
question

gender segregation play
answer

tendency to select playmates of one’s own gender
question

discipline
answer

methods of molding children’s character and teaching them to exercise self-control and engage in acceptable behavior
question

authoritarian parenting
answer

emphasizes control and obedience
question

permissive parenting
answer

emphasizes self-expression and self-regulation
question

authoritative parenting
answer

blending warmth and respect for child’s
question

other type
answer

question

corporal punishment research
answer

can include spanking, hitting, slapping, punching, shaking – frequently used with children who are aggressive and hard to manage. Discipline becomes abusive when it results in injury
question

Corporal punishment
answer

use of physical force with the intention of causing pain but not injury so as to correct or control behavior
question

psychological aggression
answer

verbal attack that may result in psychological harm
question

inductive techniques
answer

disciplinary techniques designed to induce desirable behavior by appealing to a child’s sense of reason and fairness
question

power assertion
answer

disciplinary strategy designed to discourage undesirable behavior through physical or verbal enforcement of parental control
question

withdrawal of love
answer

disciplinary strategy that involves ignoring, isolating, or showing dislike for a child
question

prosocial behavior
answer

voluntary behavior intended to help others, positive actions
question

instrumental aggression
answer

aggressive behavior used as a means of achieving a goal 2.5-5 years old, struggling over toys and control of space – surfaces primarily during social play, children fight the most tend to be the most sociable and competent
question

temperament
answer

children intensely emotional and low in self-control tend to express anger aggressively
question

lacking definitions of aggression
answer

question

influences of aggression
answer

genetic and environmental sources parental behaviors stressful and unstimulating home atmospheres exposure to violence
question

fears commonly experienced in early childhood
answer

stem largely from intense fantasy life and tendency to confuse appearance with reality – more likely to be scared of something that looks scary than something that can cause actual harm to them
question

sibling relationship contribution to to social development
answer

arguments among siblings joint dramatic play quality carries over to other relationships
question

only child development
answer

child performs slightly better academically, higher self-esteem, have more time and attention from parents – few negative aspects
question

dental health importance
answer

primary teeth all out around age 6 and are replaced by permanent teeth – averaging 4 teeth per year for 5 years
question

middle childhood brain developments
answer

through not the amount of gray matter – but the pattern of development of prefrontal cortex
question

children nutrition needs
answer

2,400 calories – 30% form fat, 10% of that saturated
question

sleep patterns of children
answer

age 5 – 11 hours age 9 – 10 hours age 13 – 9 hour
question

major gross motor mile stones of middle childhood
answer

question

tough and tumble play
answer

vigorous play involving wrestling, hitting and chasing, often accompanied by laughing and screaming helps muscle and skeleton development, offers aggression channeling and establishes dominance
question

organized sports trends
answer

38% do sports outside of school 78% participate in unorganized sports
question

obesity rates
answer

doubled in past 25 years – 50% of people are overweight in North and South America US: 17% obese, 16% overweight
question

causes of obesity in children
answer

-inhereted tendencies and little exercise/poor diet -overweight parents -eating outside of the home leading to more calories consumed -more tv, less outside time
question

acute medical conditions
answer

occasional illnesses that last a short time
question

chronic medical conditions
answer

long-lasting or recurrent physical, developmental, behavioral and emotional conditions that require health services
question

athsma
answer

chronic respiratory disease characterized by sudden attacks of coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing – prevalence doubled and affects 13% of population
question

diabetes
answer

one of most common childhood diseases – high levels of glucose in blood as result of defective insulin production, ineffective insulin action or both. Usually children get type 1 diabetes
question

hypertension
answer

high blood pressure – “evolving epidemic” of cardiovascular risk – usually treated through weight loss, diet and exercise
question

stuttering
answer

involuntary, frequent repetition or prolongation of sounds or syllables – neurological condition between ages 2 and 5
question

body image
answer

descriptive and evaluative beliefs about one’s appearance
question

causes of death in middle childhood
answer

traffic accidents, drowning and burns
question

Oppositional Defiant Disorder
answer

pattern of behavior, persisting into middle childhood, marked by negativity, and defiance
question

Conduct Disorder
answer

repetitive persistent pattern of aggressive, antisocial behavior violating societal norms or the rights of others
question

School phobia
answer

unrealistic fear of going to school, may be a form of separation anxiety disorder
question

separation anxiety disorder
answer

condition involving excessive, prolonged anxiety concerning separation from people to whom a person is attached
question

generalized anxiety disorder
answer

anxiety not focused on any single target
question

childhood depression
answer

mood disorder character by such symptoms of prolonged sense of friendliness, inability to have fun or concentrate, fatigue, extreme activity or apathy, feelings of worthiness, weight change, physical complaints, and thoughts of death or suicide
question

treatments for children psychologically
answer

individual psychotherapy – therapist sees troubled person one-on-one
question

family therapy
answer

psychological treatment where a therapist sees the whole family together to analyze patterns of family functioning
question

behavior therapy
answer

therapy that uses principles of learning theory to eliminate undesirable behaviors
question

art therapy
answer

therapeutic approach that allows a person to express troubled feelings without words, using a variety of art materials and media
question

play therapy
answer

therapeutic approach that uses play to help a child cope with emotional distress
question

drug therapy
answer

administration of drugs to treat emotional disorders
question

piagetian stage for 7-12 year olds
answer

concrete operations (where children develop logical but not abstract thinking)
question

spatial thinking
answer

able to use a map/mode lot search for hidden objects, give someone directions, estimate distances, find way home, judge time of distances
question

cause and effect
answer

knows that physical attributes of objects on each side of a balance beam will affect the results but doesn’t know which position and placement will make a difference
question

categorization
answer

can sort objects into categories, like shape and color, and that subclasses have fewer members than the class itself
question

seriation and transitive inference
answer

can arrange a group of sticks in order from shortest to longest, insert intermediate sized stick into the proper place, knows if one stick is longer than the other that it’s longer than the third
question

inductive and deductive reasoning
answer

can solve inductive and deductive problems and knows that inductive conclusions (based on particuar premises) are less certain that deductive ones (on general premises)
question

inductive reasoning
answer

type of logical reasoning that moves from particular observations about members of a class to a general conclusion about that class
question

deductive reasoning
answer

type of logical reasoning that moves a general premise about a class to a conclusion about a particular member or members of the class
question

conservation
answer

knowing at 7 that a ball can be rolled into a log and have the same amount of clay – at 9 knowing it weights the same amount too but not knowing that it has the same water displacement
question

stages of moral reasoning
answer

question

selective attention
answer

the ability to deliberately direct one’s attention and shut out distractions – may hinge on the executive skill of inhibitory control (the voluntary suppression of unwanted responses)
question

mnemonic strategies
answer

aids in remembering the order of operations in solving things. A strategy to aid in memory
question

external memory aids
answer

mnemonic strategies using something outside the person
question

rehearsal
answer

mnemonic strategy to keep an item in working memory through conscious repetition
question

organization
answer

mnemonic strategy of categorizing material to be remembered
question

elaboration
answer

mnemonic strategy of making mental associations involving items to be remembered
question

psychometrics
answer

a branch of psychology involved in the quantitative measurement of psychological variables – huge impact on intelligence and is used to measure intelligence
question

IQ controversy
answer

o Positive: have been standardized and widely used and has extensive information on their norms, validity, and reliability. Middle childhood test are fairly accurate and are most reliable in preschool years. o Negative: say tests underestimate the intelligence of children who are in ill health, tired, or for one reason or another, do not do well on tests. Timed tests so associate intelligence with speed – appropriateness of diagnosing learning disabilities has been questioned
question

influences of intelligence
answer

heredity and environment o influences: genes and brain development, schooling, race/ethnicity, culture
question

gardener’s theory of multiple intelligence
answer

eight distinct forms of intellgence
question

linguistic
answer

ability to use and understand words and nuances of meaning writing, editing, translating
question

logical-mathematical
answer

ability to manipulate numbers and solve logical problems science, business, medicine
question

spatial
answer

ability to find one’s way around in an environment and judge relationships between objects in space architecture, carpentry and city planning
question

musical
answer

ability yo perceive and create patterns of pitch and rhythm musical composition, conducting
question

bodily-kinesthetic
answer

ability to move with precision dancing, athletics, surgery
question

interpersonal
answer

ability to understand and communicate with others teaching, acting, politics
question

intrapersonal
answer

ability to understanding the self counseling, psychiatry, spiritual leadership
question

naturalist
answer

ability to distinguish species and their characteristics hunting, fishing, gardening, cooking
question

Three elements of Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intellgence
answer

componential element experiential element contextual element
question

componential element
answer

analytic aspect of intelligence (determines how efficiently people process information) Tells people how to solve problems, monitor solutions, and evaluate results
question

experiental element
answer

insightful aspect of intelligence – determines how people approach novel or familiar tasks, allows people to compare new information with what they already know and to come up with new ways of putting factors together
question

contextual element
answer

practical aspect of intelligence – determines how people deal with their environment. Ability to size a situation and decided what to do. Person may adapt to situation, change it, or get out of it.
question

tactic knowledge
answer

information that isn’t formally taught or openly expressed but is necessary to get ahead
question

syntax
answer

the deep underlying structure of language that organizes words into understandable phrases and sentences
question

social context of language
answer

includes conversational and narrative skills
question

english-immersion approach
answer

approach to teaching English as a second language in which instruction is presented only in English
question

bilingual approach
answer

System of teaching non-English speaking children int their native language while they learn English and later switching to all-English instruction
question

two way (dual-language) learning
answer

Approach to second-language education in which English speaking learn together in their own and each other’s languages
question

decoding
answer

process of phonetic analysis by which a printed word is converted to spoken form before retrieval from long-term memory
question

phonetics
answer

approach to reading that emphasizes decoding unfamiliar words – child sounds out word, translating it from print to speech before retrieving it from long-term memory. Must master phonetic code matching printed alphabet to spoken sounds
question

whole-language approach
answer

approach to teaching reading that emphasized visual retrieval and use of contextual clues. Supports idea that children can learn to read and write naturally, much as they learn to understand and use speech.
question

visually based retrieval
answer

child simply looks at the word and then retrieves it. Tends to involve real literature and open-ended, student-initiated activities
question

metacognition
answer

involves thinking about thinking. Involves awareness of one’s own thinking processes and thus can help children monitor their understanding of what they read and develop strategies to address challenges (example: may reread difficult passages, read slowly, visualize information and think of additional examples)
question

Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological theory as it applies to school success
answer

in addition to children’s own characteristics, each level of the context of their lives influences how well they do in school – from immediate family, to the classroom, to messages from peers and culture as a whole
question

influences on school achievement
answer

self-efficacy beliefs, gender, parenting practices, socioeconomic status, peer acceptance, education system
question

homework views
answer

o positive: disciplines the mind, develops good work habits, improves retention, enables students to cover more ground than they could in the classroom alone, also increases parental involvement o negative: leads to boredom, anxiety/frustration, unnecessary pressure, discourages intrinsic motivation and usurps time from other worthwhile activities
question

intellectual disability
answer

significantly subnormal cognitive functioning – also referred to as cognitive disability or mental retardation
question

learning disability
answer

disorders that interfere with specific aspects of learning and school achievement
question

ADHD
answer

the most common learning disabilities
question

Dyslexia
answer

development disorder where reading achievement is lower than predicted by IQ or age
question

Individuals with Disabilities Education act
answer

14% of US kids receive this. Ensures a free, appropriate public education for all children with disabilities
question

Gifted student identification
answer

Tends to excluse highly creative children, children from minority groups, and children with specific aptitudes • Sometimes based off of all: test scores, grades, classroom performance, creative production, parent
question

creativity
answer

the ability to see things in a new light – to produce something never seen before or to discern problems others tail to recognize and find new and unusual solutions • usually involves divergent thinking: thinking that produces a variety of fresh, diverse possibilities
question

academic intellgence
answer

measures: • cognitive thinking – aimed at finding the one right answer to a problem
question

enrichment
answer

broadens and deepends knowledge and skills through extra activities, projects, field trips and mentoring
question

acceleration
answer

moves them through the curriculum at an unusually rapid pace
question

Erikson’s psychosocial stage in middle childhood
answer

the developing self – enables children to develop more complex concepts of themselves and to grow in emotional understsanding and control
question

benefits of family meal time
answer

o Promotion of language development, reduced risk of eating disorders, reduced risk for substance abuse, increased awareness of cultural traditions, fewer emotional problems
question

internalizing behaviors
answer

behaviors by which emotional problems are turned inward; for example, anxiety or depression
question

externalizing behaviors
answer

behaviors by which a child acts out emotional difficulties; for example, aggression or hostility
question

coregulation and effects on discipline
answer

o transitional stage in the control of behavior in which parents exercise general supervision and children exercise moment-to-moment regulation • affected by overall parent-chlid relationship. Basically training children to know that they “know better”
question

poverty statistics
answer

22% of US live in poverty
question

divorced parents
answer

1/3 of all children’s parents
question

importance of fathering
answer

Frequent and positive involvement from infancy is directly related to a child’s well being and physical, cognitive and social development. 1/3 children live in a home without a biological father
question

cooperative parenting
answer

active consultation between a mother and nonresident father on parenting decisions
question

US adoptive trends
answer

2.5% of US children lived with at least one adoptive parent. Usually positive.
question

peer relations effects
answer

o positive: develop skills needed for sociability and intimacy and gain a sense of belonging. Motivated to achieve, attain a sense of identity, learn leadership and communication skills, roles and rules o negative: may reinforce prejudice (unfavorable attitudes towards “outsiders” especially of other races and ethnic groups) Discrimination, and antisocial tendencies.
question

boy peer groups
answer

pursue gender-typed activities – large groups with well-defined leadership hierarchies and engage in more competitive and rough-and-tumble play.
question

girl peer groups
answer

more intimate conversations by prosocial interactions and shared confidences. More likely to engage in cross-gender activities
question

selman’s stages of friendship
answer

o Ages 3-7: Undifferentiated level of friendship, where they value their friends on selfish, concrete criteria, like what toys they have or what they look like o Ages 4-9: Unilateral stage – friendship based off of self interest and what a friend can do for a child o Ages 6-12: Children are starting to engage in reciprocal friendships but are primarily concerned with their own interests o Ages 9-15: Mutual stage of friendships, true friendships, which include commitment and reciprocity, begin
question

instrumental aggression
answer

aggressive behavior used as a means of achieving a goal
question

hostile aggression
answer

aggressive behavior intended to hurt another person
question

Social Information Procession understanding of aggression
answer

What features of the social environment they pay attention to and how they interpret what they perceive
question

bullying
answer

aggression deliberately and persistently directed against a particular target, or victim, typically one who is weak, vulnerable and defenseless
question

reactive
answer

responding to real or imagined attack
question

proactive
answer

done to show dominance, bolster power or win admiration
question

cyber bullying
answer

– posting negative comments or derogatory photos of the victim on a Web site
question

risk factors of victimization
answer

Victims do not fit in. Anxious, depressed, cautious, quiet and submissive and cry easily. Few friends and have harsh, punitive family environment
question

“hurried child”
answer

o The pressure of modern life are forcing children to grow up too soon and asking their lives too stressful
question

resilient child characteristics
answer

Children who weather adverse circumstances, function well despite challenges or threats, or bounce back from traumatic events
question

2 protective factors that help children overcome stress
answer

Help children and adolescents overcomes stress and contribute to resilience: good family relationships and cognitive functioning

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member