Human Development Chapter 19

question

What does Erikson’s last stage of Integrity vs. Despair involve?
answer

Involves reflecting on the past & either piecing together a positive review or concluding that one’s life has not been well spent
question

life review
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Looking back at one’s life experiences, evaluating them, & interpreting/ reinterpreting them
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What is Socioemotional Selectivity Theory?
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Older adults become more selective about their social networks, spending more time w/ individuals w/ whom they have had rewarding relationships
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What are 2 important classes of goals and how does the trajectory for those goals change as we become older?
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Knowledge-related Emotional As older adults perceive that they have less time left, they spend more time pursuing emotional satisfaction
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What is Activity Theory?
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The more active & involved the elderly are, the more likely they are to be satisfied w/ their lives
question

According to Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory, successful aging is linked to what 3 factors?
answer

Selection – elderly have a loss of functioning, which require a reduction in performance in most life domains Optimization – it’s possible to maintain performance in some areas through practice & use of new technologies Compensation – elderly need to compensate when life tasks require a higher level of capacity
question

From 70-84 years and 85+ years, what are our top 3 personal life investments?
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Family, health, cognitive fitness
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What personality traits predict lower mortality?
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Conscientiousness predicts lower mortality risk from childhood through late adulthood
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What personality traits predict earlier death?
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Low conscientiousness & high neuroticism predicts earlier death
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Why does self-esteem typically tend to decline when a person is in their 70s and 80s?
answer

Being widowed,institutionalized, or physically impaired Having a low religious commitment Declining health
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What are some important policy issues to be concerned about in an aging society?
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-Status of the economy -Health care & eldercare -Generational inequity -Income -Living arrangements -Technology
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define ageism
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Prejudice against others because of their age
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What is elder abuse? Who are particularly vulnerable? Who is it typically perpetrated by? What is its simplest form?
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Maltreatment can range from direct physical attack to ongoing emotional neglect Frail elderly particularly vulnerable Most abuse is perpetrated by family member(s) Simplest form is financial: A relative or stranger gets elderly to sign over life savings, & other assets
question

What are the typical living arrangements of older adults?
answer

95% of older adults live in the community 2/3rds of older adults live w/ family members ½ of older women 75 years & older live alone Cohabiting older adults In 2010, 3% of older adults were cohabiting
question

If older adults are healthy, do they still engage in sexual activities?
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When older adults are healthy, they still engage in sexual activities
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Is marital satisfaction in late adulthood better or worse compared to middle adulthood?
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Older adults who are married or partnered are usually happier & live longer than single elderly
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How do the married elderly compare to the single elderly?
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live longer than single elderly
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Why is remarriage on a rise among older adults?
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Remarriage is up due to: higher divorce rates higher longevity Better health
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What are some characteristics of family relationships in late adulthood?
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About 80% of older adults have living children, many of whom are middle-aged Adult daughters are more likely to be involved in the lives of aging parents Adult children often coordinate & monitor services for aging disabled parents 4 generation families are common -Great-grandparents can transmit family history
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What is the Convoy Model of Social Relations?
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Individuals go through life embedded in a personal network of individuals to whom they give & from whom they receive social support
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What is the nature of social relationships in late adulthood?
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Older adults have fewer peripheral social contacts & more emotionally positive contacts with friends & family
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How can social integration in late adulthood affect an individual’s health
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A low level of social integration is linked w/ coronary heart disease in older adults
question

What positive outcomes is volunteering associated with?
answer

Constructive activities Productive roles Social integration Enhanced meaningfulness
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What are some characteristics of elderly ethnic minorities?
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More likely to become ill but less likely to receive treatment Many never reach the age of eligibility for Social Security & Medicare benefits
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What changes may occur to the gender roles of men and women in late adulthood?
answer

Some developmentalists believe that there is less femininity in women & less masculinity in men during late adulthood Older men often become more feminine, but women do not necessarily become more masculine
question

What 7 factors predict high status for older adults in a culture?
answer

Have valuable knowledge Control key family/community resources Engage in useful/valued functions as long as possible Role continuity throughout the life span Age-related role changes that give greater responsibility, authority, & advisory capacity Extended family Respect for older adults
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What are some factors that can influence an individual’s ability to age successfully?
answer

Proper diet Active lifestyle Mental stimulation & flexibility Positive coping skills Good social relationships & support Absence of disease

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