Human Anatomy and Physiology Nervous System Study Guide

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List the three major functions of the nervous system.
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1) Sensations (sensory input) 2) Interpretation (Integration of info) 3) Response (commands responses)
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Nervous system subdivision that is composed of the brain and spinal cord.
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Central Nervous System (CNS)
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Subdivision of the PNS that controls voluntary activities such as the activation of skeletal muscle.
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Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
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Subdivision of the PNS that regulates the activity of the heart and smooth muscle and of glands; it is also called the involuntary nervous system.
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Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
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A major subdivision of the nervous system that interprets incoming information and issues orders.
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Central Nervous System (CNS)
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A major subdivision of the nervous system that serves as communication lines, linking all parts of the body tot he CNS.
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Perpheral Nervous System (PNS)
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Supports, insulates, and protect cells.
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Neuralgia
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Demonstrates irritability and conductivity, and thus transmit electrical messages from one area of the body to another area.
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Neurons
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Release neurotransmitters
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Neurons
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Are amitotic
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Neurons
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Able to divide; therefore are responsible for the most brain neoplasms.
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Neuralgia
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Releases neurotransmitters
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Axonal terminal
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Conducts electrical currents toward the cell body
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Dendrite
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Increases the speed of impulses transmission
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Myelin Sheath
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Location of the nucleus.
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Cell Body
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Generally conducts impulses away from the cell body.
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Axon
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What receptor is activated in \”Walking on hot pavement\”
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Bare nerve endings (pain receptors), and Muscle Spindle
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What receptor is activated in \”Feeling a pinch\”
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Bare nerve endings (pain receptors) and Pacinian corpuscle (pressure receptors)
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What receptor is activated in \”Leaning on a shovel\”
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Pacinian corpuscle, Golgi tendon organ and Muscle Spindle
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What receptor is activated in \”Muscle sensations when rowing a boat\”
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Golgi Tendon organ and Muscle Spindle
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Feeling a caress
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Messner’s Corpuscle
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List in order the minimum elements in a reflex arc from the stimulus to the activity of the effector.
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1) Stimulus 2) Sensory Neuron- afferent 3) Association Neuron 4) Transductor Neuron- efferent (usually neuron) 5) Effector Organ
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Cutaneous sense organs
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Sensory receptors found in skin, which are specialized to detect temperature, pressure changes and pain.
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Schwann Cells
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Specialized cells that myelinate the fibers of neurons found in the PNS.
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Junction or point of close contact between neurons.
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Synapse
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Tract
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Bundle of nerve processes inside the CNS.
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Neuron, serving as part of the conduction pathway between sensory and motor neurons.
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Association neuron
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Gaps in a myelin sheath
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Nodes of Ranvier
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Collection of nerve cell bodies found outside the CNS
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Ganglion
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Neuron that conducts impulses away from the CNS to muscle and glands.
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Proprioceptors
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Sensory receptors found in muscle and tendons that affect nervous system functioning
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Stimuli
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Chemicals released by neurons that stimulate other neurons, muscles, or glands.
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Neurotransmitters
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What is a stimulus?
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Pin prick
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What tissue is the effector?
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Skeletal Muscle
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How many syapses occur in this reflex arc?
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3 (2 not counting muscle one)
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Identify the direction of the impulse transmission through the reflex pathway.
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1) Simulus (pin prick) 2) Receptor Region (skin) 3) Afferent (sensory neuron) 4) Association Neuron 5) Efferent Neuron (transductor neuron) 6) Effector Organ (muscle) Synapses is when the message changes passageway
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The largest part of the human brain is the (paired) _________.
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Cerebral Hemisphere
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The other major part of the human brain are the ___________ and the ____________.
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Cerebellum, brain stem
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The cavities found in the brain are called _____________ and they contain __________.
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ventricles, cerebral spinal fluid
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A ________ is an elevated ridge of cerebral cortex tissue.
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Gyrus
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The convolutions seen in the cerebrum are important because they increase the _____________.
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Neuron cell bodies
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White matter is composed of _____________, which provide for communication between different parts of the brain as well as with lower CNS centers.
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Myelinated Fibers
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Identify the sections of the brain:
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1) Frontal Lobe 2) Parietal Lobe 3) Temporal Lobe 4) Precentral Gyrus 5) Parieto-Occipital Fissure 6) Postcentral Gyrus 7) Lateral Fissure 8) Central Fissure 9) Cerebellum 10) Medulla 11) Occipital Lobe 12) Pons
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Identify the 15 different parts of the sagittal view of the human brain
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1) Cerebellum 2) Cerebral Aqueduct 3) Cerebral Hemisphere 4) Cerebral Peduncle 5) Choroid Plexus 6) Corpora Quadrigemina 7) Corpus Callosum 8) Fourth Ventricle 9) Hypothalamus 10) Medulla Oblingata 11) Optic Chiasma 12) Pineal Body 13) Pituitary Body 14) Pons 15) Thalamus
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Cortical areas involved in audition are found in the ________ lobe.
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Temporal
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The primary motor area in the __________ lobe is involved in the initiation of involuntary movements.
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Frontal
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The right cerebral hemisphere receives sensory input from the ______ side of the body.
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Left
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Damage to the ____________ impairs consciousness and the awake/sleep cycles.
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Reticular System
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A flat ________ is evidence of clinical death.
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EEG (Electroencephalogram)
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Brain imaging with an MRI involves the use of ________________.
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Magnetic Waves
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Dura Mater
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Outermost covering of the brain; composed of tough fibrous connective tissue.
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Pia Mater
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Innermost covering of the brain; delicate and vascular.
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Structures that return cerebrospinal fluid to the venous blood in the dura I sinuses.
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Ventricles
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Middle meningeal layer; like a cobweb in structure.
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Arachnoid layer
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Dura Mater
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Its outer layer forms the periosteum of the skull.
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Following a train accident, a man with an obvious head injury was observed stumbling about the scene. An inability to walk properly and a loss of balance were quite obvious.
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Cerebellum
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An elderly woman is admitted to the hospital to have a gallbladder operation. While she is being cared for, the nurse notices that she has trouble initiating movement and has a strange \”pill-rolling\” tremor of her hands. What cerebral area is most likely involved?
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Motor Cortex (frontal lobe) (basal nuclei)
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A child is brought to the hospital with a high temperature. The doctor states that the child’s meninges are inflamed. What name is given to this condition?
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Meningitis; meninges surround and protect the brain and spinal cord
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A young woman is brought into the emergency room with extremely dilated pupils. Her friends state she has overdosed on cocaine. What cranial nerve is stimulated by the drug?
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Oculomotor Nerve (III); moves eye and dilates pupil)
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A young man has just received serious burns, resulting from standing with his back too close to a bonfire. He is muttering that he never felt the pain. Otherwise, he would have smothered the flames by rolling on the ground. What part of the CNS might be malfunctional?
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Subarachnoid Space
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An elderly gentleman has just suffered a stroke. He is able understand verbal and written language, but when he tries to respond, his words are garbled. What cortical region has been damaged by the stroke?
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Broca’s Area
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A 12-year old boy suddenly falls to the ground, having an epileptic seizure. He is rushed to the emergency room of the local hospital for medication. His follow-up care includes a recording of his brain waves of try determine the area of the lesion. What is this procedure called?
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Electroencephalagram
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Identify the three structures that protect the spinal cord from outer to inner part of the spinal cord.
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Dura Mater- outermost layer Arachnoid Layer- middle outer layer Pia Mater- inner outer layer
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Name the areas of the spinal cord from a cross-sectional view of the spinal cord.
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Dark Matter 1) Central Canal 2) Dorsal Horn 3) Ventral Horn 4) White Matter 5) Dorsal root 6) Ventral Root 7) Dorsal Root Ganglion 8) Spinal nerve
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What would happen if you damaged or transected the Dorsal root of a spinal nerve?
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Loss of sensory function
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What would happen if you damaged or transected the Ventral root of a spinal nerve?
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Loss of motor function
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What would happen if you damaged or transected the Anterior ramus of a spinal nerve?
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Loss of both motor and sensory function

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