huffman__ch 01__intro to psychology

psychology
Scientific study of behavior and mental processes

critical thinking
Process of objectively evaluating, comparing, analyzing and synthesizing information

nature-nurture controversy
Ongoing dispute over the relative contributions of nature (heredity) and nurture (environment)

psychoanalytic approach
Focuses on unconscious processes and unresolved conflicts

psychodynamic perspective
Focuses on unconscious dynamics, internal motives, conflicts, and childhood experiences

behavioral perspective
Emphasizes objective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior

humanistic perspective
Emphasizes free will, self-actualization, and human nature as naturally positive and growth-seeking

positive psychology
Scientific study of optimal human functioning, emphasizing positive emotions, positive traits, and positive institutions

cognitive perspective
Focuses on thinking, perceiving, and information processing

biological perspective
Emphasizes genetics and biological processes in the brain and other parts of the nervous system

evolutionary perspective
Focuses on natural selection, adaptation, and evolution of behavior and mental processes

sociocultural perspective
Emphasizes social interaction and cultural determinants of behavior and mental processes

biopsychosocial model
Unifying theme of modern psychology that incorporates biological, psychological, and social processes

basic research
research conducted to advance scientific knowledge

applied research
research designed to solve practical problems

replication
Repeating a research study, using different procedures or participants in varied settings, to check the confidence in prior findings

meta-analysis
Statistical procedure for combining and analyzing data from many studies

hypothesis
Specific, testable prediction about how one factor, or variable, is related to another

operational definition
Precise description of how the variables in a study will be observed and measured (For example, drug abuse might be operationally defined as “the number of missed work days due to excessive use of an addictive substance.”)

statistical significance
Statistical statement of how likely it is that a study’s result occurred merely by chance

theory
Systematic, interrelated set of concepts that explain a body of data

informed consent
Participant’s agreement to take part in a study after being told what to expect

debriefing
Upon completion of the research, participants are informed of the study’s design and purpose, and explanations are provided for any possible deception

experimental research
Carefully controlled scientific procedure that involves manipulation of variables to determine cause and effect

experimental group
Group that receives a treatment in an experiment

control group
Group that receives no treatment in an experiment

independent variable__iv
Variable that is manipulated to determine its causal effect on the dependent variable
…….
manipulated by the experimenter
…therefore….
the independent variable will cause a change in the dependent variable

dependent variable__dv
Variable that is measured; it is affected by (or dependent on) the independent variable
…….
measured by the experimenter
…since….
the dependent variable is changed by the independent variable

confounding variables
Nuisance variables that may affect the outcome of the study and lead to erroneous conclusions

experimenter bias
Occurs when researcher influences research results in the expected direction

single-blind study
Only the researcher, and not the participants, knows who is in either the experimental or control group

double-blind study
Both the researcher and the participants are unaware (blind) of who is in the experimental or control group

ethnocentrism
Believing one’s culture is typical of all cultures; also, viewing one’s own ethnic group (or culture) as central and “correct” and judging others according to this standard

placebo
Inactive substance or fake treatment used as a control technique, usually in drug research, or given by a medical practitioner to a patient

simple bias
Occurs when research participants are not representative of the larger population

random assignment
Using chance methods to assign participants to experimental or control conditions, thus minimizing the possibility of biases or preexisting differences in the groups

participant bias
Occurs when experimental conditions influence the participant’s behavior or mental processes

descriptive research
Research methods that observe and record behavior and mental processes without producing causal explanations

naturalist observation
Observation and recording behavior and mental processes in the participant’s natural state or habitat

survey
Research technique that questions a large sample of people to assess their behaviors and attitudes

case study
In-depth study of a single research participant

correlation research
Research method in which variables are observed or measured (without directly manipulating) to identify relationships between them

correlation coefficient
Number indicating strength and direction of the relationship between two variables (from −1.00 to +1.00)

biological research
Scientific studies of the brain and other parts of the nervous system

question & literature review__research__step 1
after identifying a question of interest, the psychological scientist conducts a literature review – reading all that has been previously published in major professional, scientific journals

testable hypothesis__research__step 2
A) a specific prediction about how one factor, or variable, is related to another. to be testable
B) the variables must be OPERATIONALLY DEFINED – that is, stated precisely and in measurable terms

research design__research__step 3
to test the hypothesis the scientist then chooses the best research design:
[examples of design]
1. descriptive

2. correlational

3. experimental

4. biological

descriptive__naturalistic observation, surveys, case studies
observe, collect and record data__(meets psychology’s goal of description)
[limitations]
1. lack of control of variables

2. bias

3. no cause and effect

correlational__statistical analyses of relationships between variables
statistical analyses of relationships between variables
[examples]
1. compare test scores

2. compare variables

[limitations]
1. no cause and effect

2. lack of control of variables

experiment__manipulation and control of variables
manipulation and control of variables
[no limitations]
identify cause and effect__(meets psychology’s goal of explanation)

biological__studies the brain and other parts of the nervous system
studies the brain and other parts of the nervous system
[approach could be]
descriptive

correlational

experimental

biological

What do scientists typically do before formulating a testable hypothesis?
conduct a literature review

What is one way the narrator suggests that a psychologist might operationally define “greater cognitive skills” when testing the effects of violin lessons on children?
increased attention span

_______ studies involve naturalistic observation and case studies; _______ studies involve the manipulation and control of variables.
Descriptive; experimental

What are the limitations of correlational research?

a. Other influential variables may exist outside the researcher’s control.

b. Bias may arise from subject opinions or attitudes.

c. There is an inability to establish cause and effect.

d. both a and b

e. both a and c

e. both a and c

Carefully designed experiments represent the “gold standard” of research because “only with an experiment can you _______.”
determine cause and effect

In the experiment investigating the effects of exposure to Spanish on future language learning, what did the researchers consider when choosing two elementary schools?
Two schools were carefully chosen to have similar demographics and comparable size

What is the most critical piece of information that the language exposure researchers are looking for?
Performance on a final exam at the end of a high school Spanish class.

The activity of the brain during the placebo effect shows
increase in frontal lobe activity

According to the video, what leads to the patient’s belief that they are getting better?
going through the ritual of treatment

The placebo effect seems to be
temporary

In your text, psychology is defined as the _____.
2
scientific study of behavior and mental processes

According to your textbook, the goals of psychology are to _____.
6
describe, explain, predict, and change behavior

Shauna specializes in applying principles of psychology to the legal system. Shauna is psychologist?
13
forensic

Dr. DiMassio is studying PET (brain) scans in patients with schizophrenia and comparing them to PET scans in people who have no psychological disorders. It is likely that Dr. DiMassio is a _____.
14
neuropsychologist

The science of psychology began in 1879 in ________________, Germany with Wilhelm ___________.
18
Leipzig, Wundt

Psychotherapy or “talk therapy” was developed by whom as a way to deal with unconscious conflicts?
26
Sigmund Freud

The belief that the unconscious mind has an influence on one’s behavior is part of what theory of personality?
27
Psychoanalytic

Dr. Watson, from the _____ school of psychology, focused on objective, observable behavior rather than on the unconscious.
31
behaviorism

Which of the following is an ethical concern of psychologists?
78

a. The safety and health of research animals

b. Protecting client confidentiality

c. Deception in research

d. All of these

d. all of these

In experiments, _____ variables are selected and manipulated by the experimenter.
91
independent

_____ are manipulated; _____ are measured.
92
Independent variables; Dependent variables

The experimental group in an experiment is the group in which the participants _____.
95
receive the independent variable

The control group in an experiment is the group in which participants _____.
97
receive no treatment

A sample is BEST defined as _____.
110
a group of participants selected to represent a population

In a procedure called _____, participants are placed in experimental conditions on the basis of chance, thus minimizing biases or preexisting differences in the groups.
114
random assignment

Jack is studying psychology and wants to see how people behave when his friend enters an elevator and keeps her back to the door versus behavior when she stands near a doorway between classes. His research method is ____________ .
122
naturalistic observation

Maria is thinking of running for student body president, but she wonders whether her campaign should emphasize campus security, improved parking facilities, or increased health services. Which scientific method of research would you recommend she use to determine the focus of her campaign?
126
a survey

Surveys can be used to _____ behavior.
127
describe

In a case study, a researcher is most likely to _____.
130
conduct an in-depth study of a single research participant

Cause and effect conclusions can be drawn from _____ studies.
132
experimental

Your first hunch on a multiple-choice test is your best guess (Chapter 1)
false

Most of us use only 10 percent of our brains (Chapter 2).
false

Advertisers and politicians often use subliminal persuasion to influence our behavior (Chapter 4).
false

Most brain activity stops during sleep (Chapter 5).
false

The best way to learn and remember information is to “cram,” or study it intensively during one concentrated period (Chapter 7).
false

Most middle-aged people experience a midlife crisis (Chapter 10).
false

Polygraph (“lie detector”) tests can accurately and reliably reveal whether or not a person is lying (Chapter 12).
false

People who threaten suicide seldom follow through with it (Chapter 14).
false

People with schizophrenia have multiple personalities (Chapter 14).
false

Modern electroconvulsive (“shock”) therapy is a physically dangerous and ineffective therapy (Chapter 15).
false

Similarity is one of the best predictors of long-term relationships (Chapter 16).
true

In an emergency, as the number of bystanders increases, your chance of getting help decreases (Chapter 16).
true

Biopsychology/neuroscience
Investigates the relationship between biology, behavior, and mental processes, including how physical and chemical processes affect the structure and function of the brain and nervous system

Clinical psychology
Specializes in the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders

Cognitive psychology
Examines “higher” mental processes, including thought, memory, intelligence, creativity, and language

Comparative psychology
Studies the behavior and mental processes of nonhuman animals; emphasizes evolution and cross-species comparisons

Counseling psychology
Overlaps with clinical psychology, but generally works with less seriously disturbed individuals and focuses more on social, educational and career adjustment

Cross-cultural psychology
Studies similarities and differences in and across various cultures and ethnic groups

Developmental psychology
Studies the course of human growth and development from conception to death

Educational and school psychology
Studies the process of education and works to promote the intellectual, social, and emotional development of children in the school environment

Environmental psychology
Investigates how people affect and are affected by the physical environment

Experimental psychology
Examines processes such as learning, conditioning, motivation, emotion, sensation, and perception in humans and other animals (Note that psychologists working in almost all areas of specialization also conduct experiments)

Forensic psychology
Applies principles of psychology to the legal system, including jury selection, psychological profiling, assessment, and treatment of offenders

Gender and/or cultural psychology
Investigates how men and women and different cultures differ from one another and how they are similar

Health psychology
Studies how biological, psychological, and social factors affect health and illness

Industrial/organizational psychology
Applies principles of psychology to the workplace, including personnel selection and evaluation, leadership, job satisfaction, employee motivation, and group processes within the organization

Personality psychology
Studies the unique and relatively stable patterns in a person’s thoughts, feelings, and actions

Positive Psychology
Examines factors related to optimal human functioning

School psychology
Collaborates with teachers, parents, and students within the educational system to help children with academic, social, and disability needs; also provides evaluation and assessment of a student’s functioning and eligibility for special services

Social psychology
Investigates the role of social forces in interpersonal behavior, including aggression, prejudice, love, helping, conformity, and attitudes

Sports psychology
Applies principles of psychology to enhance physical performance

Identify the three key concepts in the definition of psychology.
scientific, behavior, mental processes

Define critical thinking.
Define critical thinking.

________ rely on nonscientific or deliberately fraudulent methods to explain personality.

a. Pseudopsychologies

b. Sociologists

c. Astronomers

d. Counselors

a. Pseudopsychologies

Briefly explain the four goals of psychology.
Description tells “what” occurred. An explanation tells “why” a behavior occurred. Prediction specifies the conditions under which a behavior or event is likely to occur. Change means applying psychological knowledge to prevent unwanted outcomes or bring about desired goals

You dread going to the grocery store because you got lost there when you were a child.
This illustrates psychology’s goal of explaining behavior.

The goal of ________ is to tell “what” occurred, whereas the goal of ________ is to tell “when.”

a. health psychologists; biological psychologists

b. description; prediction

c. psychologists; psychiatrists

d. pseudopsychologists; clinical psychologists

b. description; prediction

Which of the specialties in Table 1.1 would you possibly choose for a career?
answer will vary by individual

John was planning to ask Susan to marry him. When he saw Susan kissing another man at a party, he was quite upset. In this situation, John’s seeing Susan kissing another man is ________, and it illustrates ________.
a stressor, distress

The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) constructed by Holmes and Rahe measures the stress situation in a person’s life based on ________.
life changes

Frustration is a negative emotional state that is generally associated with ________, whereas ________ is a negative emotional state caused by difficulty in choosing between two or more incompatible goals or impulses.
a blocked goal

conflict

List everyday examples for each of the three types of conflict: approach-approach, approach-avoidance, and avoidance-avoidance.
A forced choice between apple or pumpkin pie is an example of an approach-approach conflict. Having to choose between attending a desirable college versus avoiding going to that college because it’s too far from home would be an approach-avoidance conflict. Taking an exam when you’re not prepared or not taking the exam and receiving an automatic “F” is an example of an avoidance-avoidance conflict.

Of the seven major stressors, which do you find most stressful in your own life?
Answers will vary by individual.

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