huffman__ch 01__intro to psychology

psychology
Scientific study of behavior and mental processes
critical thinking
Process of objectively evaluating, comparing, analyzing and synthesizing information
nature-nurture controversy
Ongoing dispute over the relative contributions of nature (heredity) and nurture (environment)
psychoanalytic approach
Focuses on unconscious processes and unresolved conflicts
psychodynamic perspective
Focuses on unconscious dynamics, internal motives, conflicts, and childhood experiences
behavioral perspective
Emphasizes objective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior
humanistic perspective
Emphasizes free will, self-actualization, and human nature as naturally positive and growth-seeking
positive psychology
Scientific study of optimal human functioning, emphasizing positive emotions, positive traits, and positive institutions
cognitive perspective
Focuses on thinking, perceiving, and information processing
biological perspective
Emphasizes genetics and biological processes in the brain and other parts of the nervous system
evolutionary perspective
Focuses on natural selection, adaptation, and evolution of behavior and mental processes
sociocultural perspective
Emphasizes social interaction and cultural determinants of behavior and mental processes
biopsychosocial model
Unifying theme of modern psychology that incorporates biological, psychological, and social processes
basic research
research conducted to advance scientific knowledge
applied research
research designed to solve practical problems
replication
Repeating a research study, using different procedures or participants in varied settings, to check the confidence in prior findings
meta-analysis
Statistical procedure for combining and analyzing data from many studies
hypothesis
Specific, testable prediction about how one factor, or variable, is related to another
operational definition
Precise description of how the variables in a study will be observed and measured (For example, drug abuse might be operationally defined as “the number of missed work days due to excessive use of an addictive substance.”)
statistical significance
Statistical statement of how likely it is that a study’s result occurred merely by chance
theory
Systematic, interrelated set of concepts that explain a body of data
informed consent
Participant’s agreement to take part in a study after being told what to expect
debriefing
Upon completion of the research, participants are informed of the study’s design and purpose, and explanations are provided for any possible deception
experimental research
Carefully controlled scientific procedure that involves manipulation of variables to determine cause and effect
experimental group
Group that receives a treatment in an experiment
control group
Group that receives no treatment in an experiment
independent variable__iv
Variable that is manipulated to determine its causal effect on the dependent variable
…….
manipulated by the experimenter
…therefore….
the independent variable will cause a change in the dependent variable
dependent variable__dv
Variable that is measured; it is affected by (or dependent on) the independent variable
…….
measured by the experimenter
…since….
the dependent variable is changed by the independent variable
confounding variables
Nuisance variables that may affect the outcome of the study and lead to erroneous conclusions
experimenter bias
Occurs when researcher influences research results in the expected direction
single-blind study
Only the researcher, and not the participants, knows who is in either the experimental or control group
double-blind study
Both the researcher and the participants are unaware (blind) of who is in the experimental or control group
ethnocentrism
Believing one’s culture is typical of all cultures; also, viewing one’s own ethnic group (or culture) as central and “correct” and judging others according to this standard
placebo
Inactive substance or fake treatment used as a control technique, usually in drug research, or given by a medical practitioner to a patient
simple bias
Occurs when research participants are not representative of the larger population
random assignment
Using chance methods to assign participants to experimental or control conditions, thus minimizing the possibility of biases or preexisting differences in the groups
participant bias
Occurs when experimental conditions influence the participant’s behavior or mental processes
descriptive research
Research methods that observe and record behavior and mental processes without producing causal explanations
naturalist observation
Observation and recording behavior and mental processes in the participant’s natural state or habitat
survey
Research technique that questions a large sample of people to assess their behaviors and attitudes
case study
In-depth study of a single research participant
correlation research
Research method in which variables are observed or measured (without directly manipulating) to identify relationships between them
correlation coefficient
Number indicating strength and direction of the relationship between two variables (from −1.00 to +1.00)
biological research
Scientific studies of the brain and other parts of the nervous system
question & literature review__research__step 1
after identifying a question of interest, the psychological scientist conducts a literature review – reading all that has been previously published in major professional, scientific journals
testable hypothesis__research__step 2
A) a specific prediction about how one factor, or variable, is related to another. to be testable
B) the variables must be OPERATIONALLY DEFINED – that is, stated precisely and in measurable terms
research design__research__step 3
to test the hypothesis the scientist then chooses the best research design:
[examples of design]
1. descriptive

2. correlational

3. experimental

4. biological

descriptive__naturalistic observation, surveys, case studies
observe, collect and record data__(meets psychology’s goal of description)
[limitations]
1. lack of control of variables

2. bias

3. no cause and effect

correlational__statistical analyses of relationships between variables
statistical analyses of relationships between variables
[examples]
1. compare test scores

2. compare variables

[limitations]
1. no cause and effect

2. lack of control of variables

experiment__manipulation and control of variables
manipulation and control of variables
[no limitations]
identify cause and effect__(meets psychology’s goal of explanation)
biological__studies the brain and other parts of the nervous system
studies the brain and other parts of the nervous system
[approach could be]
descriptive

correlational

experimental

biological

What do scientists typically do before formulating a testable hypothesis?
conduct a literature review
What is one way the narrator suggests that a psychologist might operationally define “greater cognitive skills” when testing the effects of violin lessons on children?
increased attention span
_______ studies involve naturalistic observation and case studies; _______ studies involve the manipulation and control of variables.
Descriptive; experimental
What are the limitations of correlational research?

a. Other influential variables may exist outside the researcher’s control.

b. Bias may arise from subject opinions or attitudes.

c. There is an inability to establish cause and effect.

d. both a and b

e. both a and c

e. both a and c
Carefully designed experiments represent the “gold standard” of research because “only with an experiment can you _______.”
determine cause and effect
In the experiment investigating the effects of exposure to Spanish on future language learning, what did the researchers consider when choosing two elementary schools?
Two schools were carefully chosen to have similar demographics and comparable size
What is the most critical piece of information that the language exposure researchers are looking for?
Performance on a final exam at the end of a high school Spanish class.
The activity of the brain during the placebo effect shows
increase in frontal lobe activity
According to the video, what leads to the patient’s belief that they are getting better?
going through the ritual of treatment
The placebo effect seems to be
temporary
In your text, psychology is defined as the _____.
2
scientific study of behavior and mental processes
According to your textbook, the goals of psychology are to _____.
6
describe, explain, predict, and change behavior
Shauna specializes in applying principles of psychology to the legal system. Shauna is psychologist?
13
forensic
Dr. DiMassio is studying PET (brain) scans in patients with schizophrenia and comparing them to PET scans in people who have no psychological disorders. It is likely that Dr. DiMassio is a _____.
14
neuropsychologist
The science of psychology began in 1879 in ________________, Germany with Wilhelm ___________.
18
Leipzig, Wundt
Psychotherapy or “talk therapy” was developed by whom as a way to deal with unconscious conflicts?
26
Sigmund Freud
The belief that the unconscious mind has an influence on one’s behavior is part of what theory of personality?
27
Psychoanalytic
Dr. Watson, from the _____ school of psychology, focused on objective, observable behavior rather than on the unconscious.
31
behaviorism
Which of the following is an ethical concern of psychologists?
78

a. The safety and health of research animals

b. Protecting client confidentiality

c. Deception in research

d. All of these

d. all of these
In experiments, _____ variables are selected and manipulated by the experimenter.
91
independent
_____ are manipulated; _____ are measured.
92
Independent variables; Dependent variables
The experimental group in an experiment is the group in which the participants _____.
95
receive the independent variable
The control group in an experiment is the group in which participants _____.
97
receive no treatment
A sample is BEST defined as _____.
110
a group of participants selected to represent a population
In a procedure called _____, participants are placed in experimental conditions on the basis of chance, thus minimizing biases or preexisting differences in the groups.
114
random assignment
Jack is studying psychology and wants to see how people behave when his friend enters an elevator and keeps her back to the door versus behavior when she stands near a doorway between classes. His research method is ____________ .
122
naturalistic observation
Maria is thinking of running for student body president, but she wonders whether her campaign should emphasize campus security, improved parking facilities, or increased health services. Which scientific method of research would you recommend she use to determine the focus of her campaign?
126
a survey
Surveys can be used to _____ behavior.
127
describe
In a case study, a researcher is most likely to _____.
130
conduct an in-depth study of a single research participant
Cause and effect conclusions can be drawn from _____ studies.
132
experimental
Your first hunch on a multiple-choice test is your best guess (Chapter 1)
false
Most of us use only 10 percent of our brains (Chapter 2).
false
Advertisers and politicians often use subliminal persuasion to influence our behavior (Chapter 4).
false
Most brain activity stops during sleep (Chapter 5).
false
The best way to learn and remember information is to “cram,” or study it intensively during one concentrated period (Chapter 7).
false
Most middle-aged people experience a midlife crisis (Chapter 10).
false
Polygraph (“lie detector”) tests can accurately and reliably reveal whether or not a person is lying (Chapter 12).
false
People who threaten suicide seldom follow through with it (Chapter 14).
false
People with schizophrenia have multiple personalities (Chapter 14).
false
Modern electroconvulsive (“shock”) therapy is a physically dangerous and ineffective therapy (Chapter 15).
false
Similarity is one of the best predictors of long-term relationships (Chapter 16).
true
In an emergency, as the number of bystanders increases, your chance of getting help decreases (Chapter 16).
true
Biopsychology/neuroscience
Investigates the relationship between biology, behavior, and mental processes, including how physical and chemical processes affect the structure and function of the brain and nervous system
Clinical psychology
Specializes in the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders
Cognitive psychology
Examines “higher” mental processes, including thought, memory, intelligence, creativity, and language
Comparative psychology
Studies the behavior and mental processes of nonhuman animals; emphasizes evolution and cross-species comparisons
Counseling psychology
Overlaps with clinical psychology, but generally works with less seriously disturbed individuals and focuses more on social, educational and career adjustment
Cross-cultural psychology
Studies similarities and differences in and across various cultures and ethnic groups
Developmental psychology
Studies the course of human growth and development from conception to death
Educational and school psychology
Studies the process of education and works to promote the intellectual, social, and emotional development of children in the school environment
Environmental psychology
Investigates how people affect and are affected by the physical environment
Experimental psychology
Examines processes such as learning, conditioning, motivation, emotion, sensation, and perception in humans and other animals (Note that psychologists working in almost all areas of specialization also conduct experiments)
Forensic psychology
Applies principles of psychology to the legal system, including jury selection, psychological profiling, assessment, and treatment of offenders
Gender and/or cultural psychology
Investigates how men and women and different cultures differ from one another and how they are similar
Health psychology
Studies how biological, psychological, and social factors affect health and illness
Industrial/organizational psychology
Applies principles of psychology to the workplace, including personnel selection and evaluation, leadership, job satisfaction, employee motivation, and group processes within the organization
Personality psychology
Studies the unique and relatively stable patterns in a person’s thoughts, feelings, and actions
Positive Psychology
Examines factors related to optimal human functioning
School psychology
Collaborates with teachers, parents, and students within the educational system to help children with academic, social, and disability needs; also provides evaluation and assessment of a student’s functioning and eligibility for special services
Social psychology
Investigates the role of social forces in interpersonal behavior, including aggression, prejudice, love, helping, conformity, and attitudes
Sports psychology
Applies principles of psychology to enhance physical performance
Identify the three key concepts in the definition of psychology.
scientific, behavior, mental processes
Define critical thinking.
Define critical thinking.
________ rely on nonscientific or deliberately fraudulent methods to explain personality.

a. Pseudopsychologies

b. Sociologists

c. Astronomers

d. Counselors

a. Pseudopsychologies
Briefly explain the four goals of psychology.
Description tells “what” occurred. An explanation tells “why” a behavior occurred. Prediction specifies the conditions under which a behavior or event is likely to occur. Change means applying psychological knowledge to prevent unwanted outcomes or bring about desired goals
You dread going to the grocery store because you got lost there when you were a child.
This illustrates psychology’s goal of explaining behavior.
The goal of ________ is to tell “what” occurred, whereas the goal of ________ is to tell “when.”

a. health psychologists; biological psychologists

b. description; prediction

c. psychologists; psychiatrists

d. pseudopsychologists; clinical psychologists

b. description; prediction
Which of the specialties in Table 1.1 would you possibly choose for a career?
answer will vary by individual
John was planning to ask Susan to marry him. When he saw Susan kissing another man at a party, he was quite upset. In this situation, John’s seeing Susan kissing another man is ________, and it illustrates ________.
a stressor, distress
The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) constructed by Holmes and Rahe measures the stress situation in a person’s life based on ________.
life changes
Frustration is a negative emotional state that is generally associated with ________, whereas ________ is a negative emotional state caused by difficulty in choosing between two or more incompatible goals or impulses.
a blocked goal

conflict

List everyday examples for each of the three types of conflict: approach-approach, approach-avoidance, and avoidance-avoidance.
A forced choice between apple or pumpkin pie is an example of an approach-approach conflict. Having to choose between attending a desirable college versus avoiding going to that college because it’s too far from home would be an approach-avoidance conflict. Taking an exam when you’re not prepared or not taking the exam and receiving an automatic “F” is an example of an avoidance-avoidance conflict.
Of the seven major stressors, which do you find most stressful in your own life?
Answers will vary by individual.