hth 458 theories

question

theory
answer

a set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that present a systematic view of events or situations by specifying relations among variables in order to explain and predict the events of the situations
question

model
answer

is a subclass of theory; draws upon a number of theories to help people understand a specific problem in a particular setting or context
question

concept
answer

primary elements of theories or building blocks of theory
question

construct
answer

a concept developed, created, or adopted for use with a specific theory
question

variable
answer

how a construct will be measured; can be measured
question

why use theories and models?
answer

-provides direction and justification for program activities -can provide answers to developers questions
question

planning models
answer

theories/models of implementation) – theories and models used for planning, implementing, and evaluating health promotion programs
question

behavior change theories
answer

-specify the relationships among casual processes operating both within and across levels of analysis -Helps explain how change takes place
question

ecological perspective
answer

a multilevel, interactive approach to examining the influences on health-related behaviors and conditions
question

ecological perspective levels of prevention
answer

Intrapersonal level Interpersonal level Community levels: Institutional factors, Community factors, Public policy
question

continuum theories
answer

use an approach that identifies variables that influence action and combines them into a prediction equation
question

stage theories
answer

are comprised of an ordered set of categories into which people can be classified, and which identifies factors that could induce movement from one category to the next
question

intrapersonal level
answer

group of theories focuses on factors within the individual such as knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, self-concept, feelings, past experiences, motivation, skills, and behaviors
question

stimulus response theory
answer

-If the consequence is reinforcement then there is an increase in behavior -If consequence is punishment then there is a decrease in behavior -Reinforcement should be frequent and soon -Shape behavior in small steps -Reinforcement and punishment can be both positive and negative
question

theory of reasoned action (TRA)
answer

-Developed to explain all volitional behaviors.: Studies attitudes towards behaviors. -Differentiates between intentions, attitudes towards a behavior, and the subjective norm of a behavior
question

intentions
answer

an indication of a person’s readiness to perform a given behavior.
question

attitudes toward behavior
answer

-the degree to which performance of the behavior is positively or negatively valued. \”Do I really think the behavior will be good for me?\”
question

subjective norm
answer

-the perceived social pressure to engage or not engage in the behavior. \”Do others think I should behave this way?\”
question

theory of planned behavior (TPB)
answer

-extension of the Theory of Reasoned Action, it addresses the problem of incomplete volitional control -Successful performance of the behavior depends not only on a favorable intention, but also on a sufficient level of behavioral control
question

perceived behavior control
answer

-specific to TPB, refers to people’s perceptions of their ability to perform a given behavior \”Do I have any control over this behavior?\” \”How difficult is this behavior?\”
question

health belief model
answer

-Addresses a person’s perceptions of the threat of a health problem and the accompanying appraisal of a recommended behavior for preventing or managing a problem
question

health belief model depends on 3 classes of factors
answer

Health concern – the existence of sufficient motivation to make health issues salient or relevant. Perceived threat – the belief that one is susceptible to a serious health problem. Perceived barriers – the belief that following a particular health recommendation would be beneficial in reducing the perceived threat, and at a subjectively acceptable cost
question

protection motivation theory (PMT)
answer

-centered around understanding how fear affects health attitudes and behaviors. -Utilizes persuasive communication that includes reward and self-efficacy components
question

PMT continued
answer

Inputs come from environmental sources of information and from intrapersonal sources. Based on these inputs, people make a cognitive assessment of whether there is a threat to their health. Arouses two cognitive mediating processes: threat appraisal and coping appraisal. Examples of program interventions based off of PMT: breast/testicle self-examinations, living wills, sun protection
question

Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion (ELM)
answer

-Designed to help explain how persuasion messages (aimed at changing attitudes) were perceived and processed by people -Messages are processed centrally or peripherally. Central – attitude towards a change are based on already acquired knowledge. Peripheral – attitude towards a change comes from new knowledge Smaller cues
question

elaboration
answer

the amount of effortful processing people put into receiving messages. \”Carefully thinking\” about a message
question

transtheoretical model (TTM)
answer

integrative framework for understanding how individuals and populations progress toward adopting and maintaining health behavior change for optimal health
question

Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM)
answer

-explains how people come to the decision to take action, and how they translate that decision to action -Most useful when a deliberate action is required, e.g. screening or immunization
question

PAPM is similar to TTM but they are different
answer

TTM has been useful explaining gradual development habitual patterns, e.g., diet and exercise
question

PAPM stage 1 to 2
answer

media messaged about a hazard
question

stage 2 to 3
answer

Communication from significant other Personal experience with hazard
question

stage 3 to 4 or 5
answer

Beliefs about hazard likelihood and severity Beliefs about personal susceptibility Beliefs about behavior effectiveness and difficulty Behaviors and recommendations of others Perceived social norms Fear and worry
question

stage 5 to 6
answer

Time, effort, and resources to act Detailed \”how-to\” information Reminders and other cues to action Assistance in carrying out action
question

change process theories: intrapersonal level
answer

assume individuals exist within, and are influenced by, a social environment. The opinions, thoughts, behavior, advice, and support of people surrounding an individual influence his or her feelings and behavior, and the individual has a reciprocal effect on those people
question

social cognitive theory
answer

describes learning as a reciprocal interaction among an individual’s environment, cognitive processes, and behavior. People are thinkers; expectations of consequences Reinforcement
question

direct reinforcement
answer

verbal feedback
question

vicarious reinforcement
answer

Seeing someone else be given reinforcement (observational learning
question

self-reinforcement
answer

Keeping personal records and rewarding/reinforcing behaviors
question

behavior capability
answer

knowing what behaviors are and how to perform them
question

expectations
answer

anticipating certain things to happen in certain situations
question

expectancies
answer

values placed on an expected outcome
question

self-control or self-regulation
answer

individuals can gain control of their own behaviors through monitoring and adjusting it
question

self efficacy occurs
answer

through performance attainment (mastery of task) through vicarious experience (observing) as a result of verbal persuasion (suggestions from others) through emotional arousal (interpreting one’s emotional state)
question

difference between efficacy and outcome expectations
answer

efficacy expectations come from people outcome expectations come from behaviors
question

locus of control
answer

a person’s history of reinforcement across a variety of situations leads to a belief as to whether or not a person’s own actions lead to that reinforcement Can be internal or external
question

reciprocal determinism
answer

a person can shape the environment, and the environment can shape them
question

emotional coping response
answer

people must be able to deal with the anxiety surrounding a behavior in order to learn
question

social capital theory
answer

-‘the relationships and structures within a community, such as civic participation, networks, norms of reciprocity, and trust, that promote cooperation of mutual benefit -Studies show that greater social capital is linked to several different positive outcomes whereas lack of social capital is related to poorer health outcomes
question

behavior change theories: community level
answer

-This group of theories includes three of the ecological perspective levels: Institutional (e.g. society constructs) Community (e.g. social networks and norms) Public policy (e.g. legislation) -community organizing and building
question

community readiness model
answer

A stage model. Like individuals, communities are at various stages of readiness for change. Nine stages
question

relapse
answer

-breakdown or failure in a person’s attempt to change or modify a particular (health) behavior. -triggered by high risk situations
question

lapse
answer

a single slip or mistake
question

relapse prevention
answer

a self control program designed to help individuals to anticipate and cope with the problem of relapse when changing (health) behavior
question

barriers to applying theory
answer

-Failure of theory to adequately guide practice in specific settings or contexts. -The lack of appropriate theories to guide community-oriented interventions. -Difficulties in transferring theories from academic training context to the practice environment.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member