HSC 379 Chapter 10

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Benign
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Remain localized; usually less threatening
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Beta-Carotene
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A vitamin that acts as an antioxidant, protecting cells against oxidation damage.
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Cancer
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A group of diseases characterized by the presence of new cells that grow and spread beyond control
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Carcinoma
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Cancers of the epithelial tissue
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Kaposi’s Sarcoma
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A form of cancer involving multiple tumors of the lymph nodes or skin, occurring chiefly in people with depressed immune systems, Ex) as a result of AIDS.
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Leukemia
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Cancer of the blood
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Lymphoma
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Cancer of the lymphatic system; less common
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Malignant
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Spread; usually more dangerous because they can invade and destroy surrounding tissue
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Metastasize
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Spread to other sites in the body by metastasis
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Neoplastic
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Tissue Cells
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Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
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A form of malignant lymphoma distinguished from Hodgkin’s disease only by the absence of binucleate giant cells.
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Oncologist
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A doctor who specializes in treating people with cancer.
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Sarcoma
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Cancers of the connective tissues (bone, muscles, cartilage)
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Selenium
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Selenium is an essential trace mineral important for cognitive function, a healthy immune system and fertility for both men and women.
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Synergistic Effect
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The interaction of elements that when combined produce a total effect that is greater than the sum of the individual elements, contributions, etc. Ex) Two or more muscles, nerves, etc.
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From about 1900 until the mid-1990s, cancer death rates in the United States a. rose steadily. b. exceeded death rates from cardiovascular disease. c. dropped steadily. d. remained quite constant.
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a. Rose Steadily *They dropped after the 1990’s
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Which of these hypothesis best explains the recent drop in cancer death rates in the U.S.? a. better treatment procedures b. better techniques for diagnosing cancer c. changes in lifestyle d. both a and c contributed to the drop.
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d. Both a and c contributed to the drop
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In the United States, _____ cancer accounts for about 28% of all cancer deaths but only about 15% of cancer cases. a. lung b. breast c. prostate d. colon/rectal
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a. Lung
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For women, death rates are highest for _____ cancer. a. lung b. stomach c. uterine d. colon and rectal e. skin
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a. Lung
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In the United States, both prostate cancer and breast cancer a. have the highest incidence and the highest mortality rates. b. have low incidence and low mortality rates. c. have high incidence but relatively lower death rates. d. none of these.
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c. Have high incidence but relatively lower death rates
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Cancer deaths of the lungs, breast, prostrate, and colon/rectum account for about half of all cancer deaths in the United States. Cancer deaths from which of these sites continue to rise? a. lungs b. breast c. prostate d. colon and rectum e. none of these
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e. None of these
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In the United States, _____ cancer has the second highest death rate of any cancer. a. lung b. colorectal c. breast d. prostate e. skin
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b. colorectal
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Which of these is the strongest inherent risk factor for cancer? a. advancing age b. ethnic background c. gender d. family history
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a. Advancing age
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Taylor is a 28-year-old stockbroker with a 6-year-old son. She smokes about 30 cigarettes a day and consumes about 5 to 10 alcoholic drinks during a week. Because her mother died of cancer of the esophagus at age 64, Taylor is trying to reduce her risk of cancer. Her best course of action would be to a. change jobs. b. have another child. c. quit smoking. d. stop drinking.
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c. Quit smoking
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Since about 1930, the rise and fall of lung cancer death rates have lagged about 30 years behind the rise and fall of _____. a. refrigeration b. smoking rates c. nuclear plant construction d. mammography rates
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b. Smoking rates
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Lee Ann believes that diet is an important factor in cancer. She wants to eat a diet that will protect her. Current research indicates that a. Lee Ann should concentrate on eating a high-protein diet. b. Lee Ann should take vitamin supplements. c. Lee Ann should eat “natural” foods with no preservatives. d. Lee Ann should eat a diet high in fruits and vegetables.
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d. Lee Ann should eat a diet high in fruits and vegetables.
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One reason that consuming red meat may raise the risk for cancer is a. the methods of preparation, such as grilling and smoking, provide risks. b. the high protein content is a risk. c. the high carbohydrate content of the meat is a risk. d. meat is more likely to be contaminated that grains, nuts, or vegetables.
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a. The methods of preparation, such as grilling and smoking, provide risks.
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Josh is a 22-year-old nonsmoking college senior who wants to reduce his risk for lung cancer. His best course of action would be to a. take large doses of vitamin E, vitamin C, and vitamin A supplements. b. take moderate doses of a variety of supplements. c. adopt a life-long diet that contains high levels of fruits and vegetables. d. avoid high levels of dietary vitamin C.
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c. Adopt a life-long diet that contains high levels of fruits and vegetables.
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Physical activity seems to offer some protection against a. non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. b. bone cancer. c. colon cancer. d. lung cancer.
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b. Colon Cancer
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Physical activity is most likely to protect women against breast cancer if a. they begin a physical activity program early in their lives and maintain physical activity. b. they postpone physical activity until after menopause. c. they begin a physical activity program early in life and then stop or greatly reduce exercise after menopause. d. they are married and have at least one child.
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a. They begin a physical activity program early in their lives and maintain physical activity.
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Kristy is a 21-year-old college student who is concerned about breast cancer because both her mother and grandmother developed the disease before the age of 55. Current evidence shows that Kristy can reduce her chances of breast cancer by a. continuing as a nondrinker. b. continuing as a nonsmoker. c. beginning and maintaining a regular physical activity program. d. doing all of these.
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d. Doing all of these.
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Skin cancer is more common among a. dark-skinned people. b. light-skinned people. c. light-skinned people who avoid the sun. d. people who live in Europe compared with people who live in the United States. e. both c and d.
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b. Light-skinned people.
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Women who have had children early in life, compared with those with later pregnancies or with no children, tend to have a. increased risk for stomach cancer. b. decreased risk for breast cancer. c. decreased risk for cervical cancer. d. increased risk for ovarian cancer.
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b. Decreased risk for breast cancer.
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Research indicates that a diagnosis of cancer often a. results in feelings of fear and anger. b. leads to suicide in about 25% of patients. c. leads to significant psychosocial problems in about 60% of patients. d. leads to clinical depression in more than 50% of patients.
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a. Results in feelings of fear and anger.
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Research indicates that psychotherapy can help cancer patients a. make a good adjustment to their disease and extend their lives. b. reduce the distress of cancer and treatment but not extend their lives. c. accept their disease and become optimistic. d. attain a better level of integration of family and health care personnel.
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b. Reduce the distress of cancer and treatment but not extend their lives.

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