Hospitality Management Chapter 6 through 14
a) There has not always been competition.
b) It has been possible for a few companies to control the market.
c) There are few buyers and sellers in today’s market.
d) The nature of competition has changed because the better locations have been taken.
a) the giants in the chain industry compete for market share.
b) there is a rapidly expanding market.
c) new chain concepts are entering the marketplace with frequency.
d) competition is mostly between chains and independents
a) they were becoming too large to manage.
b) of falling stock prices.
c) they were less profitable and competition was increasing.
d) they could get enormous profits by doing so
a) have a larger share of the restaurant market overall.
b) are usually either large or fill niche markets.
c) are becoming chain operations or face bankruptcy.
d) have maintained their market share compared with the last ten years
a) flexibility, differentiation, conceptualization and diversification.
b) product, price, place and promotion.
c) introduction, growth, maturity and decline.
d) branding, couponing, POD and advertising.
a) is limited to genuine innovations.
b) includes both “new to chain” and “new to world” products.
c) includes “new to world” products but not those that are copies from another chain.
d) excludes new-sized portions of existing products.
a) the total guest experience.
b) the quality of the food.
c) the ambience.
d) the service of the food
a) the impact of increased advertising and media saturation.
b) changing the nature of the a product to serve new markets.
c) the growing similarity between fast food and coffee shops.
d) the casualizing of fine dining.
a) the introduction of downsized units with limited versions of a franchise brand’s menu.
b) franchising a new concept.
c) a change in advertising and promotion of a chain’s primary product.
d) a single specialty restaurant.
a) is considered a “price” characteristic.
b) is used less today than in the past.
c) is sometimes used to incorporate a manufacturer’s name into a restaurant product.
d) is not considered part of the marketing mix.
a) Point of distribution
b) Contract company
d) Market niche
a) once a concept reaches its peak sales, it’s all downhill.
b) sales during the expansion period are greater than during maturity.
c) that concepts need to be periodically redeveloped or replaced.
d) concept blur is here to stay.
a) that individual menu items come and go so fast that it is not useful to think of them as a product.
b) a restaurant concept is what franchisees sell to a franchise.
c) the view of product embraces the whole of the consumer’s experience.
d) that the term “concept” is so all-encompassing that it includes the products served
a) project gold.
b) value pricing.
c) competitive pricing.
a) but it has been shown that reductions are viewed as lowering quality.
b) but they must result in increased sales volume to be successful.
c) and it is a sound strategy to offer discounts on an on-going basis.
d) but temporary price reductions usually erode sales.
a) providing multiple locations to reach customers on the run.
b) media blitzes that reach every household.
c) radio advertising that reaches customers when they are on the road.
d) the use of billboards to advertise a restaurant.
a) attention to site selection on the outskirts of metropolitan areas.
b) the expansion of real-estate offices to regions.
c) to “capture” customers wherever they might be.
d) to concentrate on a narrower distribution.
a) is currently the direction many are taking.
b) is of no concern to franchisees.
c) is strictly reserved to QSRs.
d) falls under the marketing “P” of promotion.
a) by the food service industry is low compared with other industries.
b) should be part of a long term communications strategy.
c) is higher as a percent of sales for table service restaurants than for QSRs.
d) is ineffective because of the saturation of restaurants, and competition in the marketplace.
a) are a target market of all restaurants.
b) seldom change their spending behaviors.
c) are defined differently according to various criteria.
d) are unknown for food service companies.
a) it includes all forms of media promotions.
b) it excludes “deals.”
c) it includes other activities.
d) it is directed at increasing sales over a long period of time.
a) television ads.
a) is a form of dealing.
b) is a consumer need to give up restaurant dining.
c) is giving away inexpensive, generic products in a promotion.
d) is competition of food service with other industries.
a) availability of gasoline at their locations.
b) availability of a gasoline company brand name for faster consumer recognition.
c) that consumers can use an oil credit card to charge their food service purchases.
d) that customers are motivated to spend and check averages are higher.
a) Supermarkets are not considered a possible part of concept blur because both sell food.
b) Supermarkets are responding by adding PODs and more take-out foods.
c) The restaurant share of the dollars spent by consumers at supermarkets has been decreasing.
d) Supermarkets do not really compete with restaurants for the consumer’s food dollar.
a) mature market.
b) specialized market.
c) uncompetitive market.
d) price-cutting market.
a) stimulate interest and can renew an existing operation.
b) create concept blur.
c) should be introduced quickly and often, without regard to quality.
d) are called “distribution” in marketing terms.
a) is focused on the long term.
b) means a decrease in total sales but an increase in profits.
c) is generally effective in off-seasons.
d) should never be used in a competitive market.
a) distribution of products more widely.
b) chain operation.
c) analyzing population density.
d) downscaled units.
c) the Internet.
a) sales volume.
b) advertising budgets.
c) menu diversity.
d) the participation rate of the guests.
a) college cafeteria.
b) private club restaurant.
c) shopping mall food court.
d) in-flight lunch.
a) the use of national brands.
b) consolidation of accounts.
c) an increasing number of self-ops.
d) less profit orientation.
a) Clients in the institutional sector are virtually captive.
b) The client refers to the institution and the guests are the people being serviced.
c) The guest refers to the institution and the clients are the people being serviced.
d) There is no difference between the meaning of the two terms.
a) employee cafeterias.
b) bed-side feeding.
c) school lunch.
d) elderly feeding
a) an increase in the number of manufacturing accounts.
b) increased out-sourcing by businesses.
c) less aggressive marketing efforts.
d) decreasing economies of scale.
a) branded formats have an identity that can help build participation.
b) brands are less complex.
c) operating costs for brands are higher.
d) brands have menu flexibility.
a) show modest increases.
b) show modest decreases.
c) show significant increases.
d) show significant decreases.
b) fast food.
c) pooled subsidies.
d) board plans.
a) board plans are becoming more rigid in structure.
b) board plans provide a level of predictability.
c) there is less profit potential than in other segments.
d) students prefer board plans to other types of programs.
a) clinical dietician.
b) dietetic technician.
c) dietary manager.
d) nutrition therapist.
a) most are becoming less profit oriented.
b) fewer facilities are being contracted out.
c) there are many different diets to manage.
d) struggling to cope with extended patient stays is a major problem.
a) B & I.
b) health care.
d) colleges and universities.
a) B & I.
b) health care.
d) colleges and universities.
a) food service will be stable over the next few years.
b) lunch program will not grow.
c) child obesity.
d) education of good nutrition.
a) a focus on reducing costs.
b) a focus on marketing.
c) to reduce waste.
d) to do nothing.
a) food groups.
b) calories, nutrients and fat.
c) total cholesterol.
a) providing nutritious meals to needy children.
b) pooling of subsidies.
c) high volume.
d) providing special diets for special needs.
d) elder care.
a) provides free meals for the elderly.
b) provides meals for elderly who can pay if they are able.
c) is self supporting.
d) is aimed principally at those who cannot pay for the meals.
a) cater to people between 55 and 65.
b) are modeled after a “one-size-fits-all” mentality.
c) may take a variety of forms.
d) are dominated by hotel companies.
a) institutional food service.
b) contract company food service.
a) are private clubs.
b) are stadiums and arenas.
c) is transportation.
d) are health clubs.
a) Most private clubs tend to be similar.
b) Private clubs may be owned by members.
c) Private clubs are open to the public.
d) Few club managers have food and beverage experience.
a) The segment is dominated by in-flight food service.
b) The focus is on providing more choices in terminals.
c) All in-flight food service is out-sourced.
d) Some companies have introduced national brands.
a) are growing in importance to consumers.
b) are important to consumers but seem to be a little less important in the 1990s.
c) are unimportant to most consumers.
d) have meant that consumers are more interested in these than in the taste of food.
d) genetically modified foods.
a) harass business people.
b) raise consumer consciousness.
c) raise money for consumer interest groups.
d) reassure consumers about the validity of the market system.
a) by ignoring them.
b) only when pressed to do so.
c) positively as these concerns surface.
d) by trying to convince consumers that they should not be concerned with advertising.
a) does not affect marketing and advertising.
b) is a reaction to companies’ emphasis on selling a product.
c) is a reaction against consumer needs and expectations.
d) begins with the company’s product and how to sell it.
a) a social movement.
b) a fad.
c) a nuisance.
d) a marketing pitfall.
a) is always on a diet.
b) dislikes diets.
c) expresses interest in nutrition but does not always choose healthful food when eating in restaurants.
d) demands that restaurants list nutritional information for each item on the menu.
a) is a good description of fast food.
b) is a problem that naturally goes with vending.
c) will be eliminated by nutritional labeling.
d) is a problem of American dietary habits.
a) liability reduction program.
b) designated driver program.
c) driver reward program.
d) bartender awareness program.
a) is required only in franchising restaurants.
b) is required only in QSRs.
c) is required only for menu listings with nutrient or health claims.
d) does not apply to restaurants.
a) fruits and vegetables in arthritis claims.
b) any foods to alleviate children’s diseases.
c) fiber-containing fruits, vegetables, and grains in relation to cancer-prevention claims.
d) any healing food if the claim can be proven
a) lean/extra lean; free; reduced.
b) made on premise; home-made.
c) full-flavored; delicious; attractive.
d) inexpensive source of; cheap.
a) is enforced by the FDA.
b) make it necessary to do a nutrient analysis of each food in a menu item.
c) is mandated by the CSPI.
d) allow the restaurant to supply nutrient profiles on request.
a) reflects a systems approach to food safety.
b) is a training program using traditional food safety practices.
c) is a trouble-shooting program when there is an outbreak of a food-borne illness.
d) requires empowerment of food production workers
a) are not liable for the behavior of their customers.
b) have experienced an increase in liability insurance rates.
c) overall have found that customers are drinking more.
d) receive a lower profit margin from alcohol than from food.
a) the elimination of aerosols from all purchase orders.
b) reducing products which rely on animal testing.
c) managing the waste stream.
d) serving only line-caught fish.
a) the threat to the environment from methane released from landfills.
b) the soaring cost of landfills.
c) the greenhouse effect.
d) water contamination.
a) located far from cities and hence do not create problems for people.
b) relatively inexpensive to build.
c) lined with clay or a synthetic liner.
d) successful in returning waste matter into compost quickly.
a) 4 pounds.
b) 10 pounds.
c) 25 pounds.
d) 40 pounds.
a) must be incinerated before they are recycled.
b) cannot be recycled.
c) will compost fairly quickly.
d) must be sorted by resin before they can be recycled.
a) is worth doing because of the value of the recycled materials.
b) today is cost-effective because of the high cost of dumping in landfills.
c) is worthwhile for glass and paper, but not for aluminum cans.
d) is impractical except for composting.
a) to switch from paper to china.
b) to buy products that can be recycled.
c) to use disposable skids.
d) install bins for paper, plastic, glass, and food waste and ask customers to sort it.
a) are air pollution and ash disposal.
b) is inability to use the heat generated.
c) is public relations.
d) is only political in nature
a) contributes methane gas to the atmosphere.
b) is not a political issue and is the best choice for most paper products.
c) is an excellent choice because the ash residue can be used as a fertilizer.
d) is less attractive than recycling if the latter is possible.
a) converts food waste to a useful product.
b) is not very well advanced.
c) has not been shown to reduce garbage removal and landfill costs.
d) should be used only in extreme circumstances when all other means have failed.
a) lower labor costs.
b) lower food costs.
c) bring robotization.
d) bring affordable computer-operated food production systems.
a) replace workers.
b) aid management with cost control reports.
c) be too expensive for all but large restaurants.
d) not be applicable in many food service operations
a) to replace the server.
b) to take orders and deliver food from the kitchen.
c) for order-taking and sending the orders to the kitchen staff.
d) but they reduce the interaction between customer and server.
a) completely automated kitchen equipment.
b) the use of induction heating.
c) robots replacing servers.
d) machine-cooking of food as ordered.
a) heightened use of computers.
b) what is technically feasible.
c) what makes good social policy.
d) the need to reduce employee hours.
a) Chilled foods are held at a higher energy cost than frozen foods.
b) The shelf life for chilled foods is six months.
c) Chilled foods, while cost effective, are inferior in quality and have inherent microbiological problems.
d) Chilled foods permit scheduling flexibility and productivity.
a) will probably be of limited use.
b) can provide couponing, promotion, and display menus.
c) are commonly a transaction vehicle.
d) in the future will be strictly an advertising medium.
a) could link directly to their suppliers’ computers.
b) allows unskilled workers to do the manager’s job.
c) provides a great deal of information but does not identify cost problems.
d) can help in the accounting area, but not in the operational such as in banquet sales.
1) analyze hazards
2) identify critical control points
3) establish preventive measures
4) establish procedures to monitor the critical control points
5) establish corrective action to be taken
6) establish procedures to verify that the system is working properly
7) establish effective record keeping to document the HACCP system
2) Refrigeration and chill systems to improve productivity and schedule flexibility.
3) Refrigerated drawers to place refrigerated food right under work stations.
4) Smart kitchen that connects multiple pieces of equipments.
a) housing shortage.
b) hotel shortage.
c) huge growth in auto ownership and its effect on travel.
d) huge growth in travel by the baby boomers.
a) must have a swimming pool.
b) offered a wide range of services.
c) was usually located at the edge of town.
d) met both family and business traveler’s needs.
a) 20 units.
b) 75 units.
c) 100 units.
d) 200 units.
a) typically offers guest rooms only.
b) offers a wide range of facilities and amenities.
c) features unique décor and furnishings.
d) usually provides concierge service
a) a commercial hotel.
b) a convention hotel.
c) a motel.
d) an executive conference center.
a) Luxury hotels
b) Downtown hotels
c) Highway hotels
d) Airport hotels
a) Full-service hotels
b) All-suite hotels
d) Convention hotels
a) an executive conference center.
b) a resort.
c) a health spa.
d) an extended-stay hotel.
a) It is usually located in areas of natural beauty.
b) It open only in summer.
c) Its design blends with the surroundings and protects the ecosystem.
d) It can be found in the Great Barrier Reef of Australia.
a) is the slowest-growing segment in the travel industry.
b) only exists in the U.S.
c) restricts the buyer to one property only.
d) Is a type of shared ownership in which the buyer purchases the right to use a residential dwelling unit for a portion of the year.
a) room size.
b) room rate.
d) a kitchen.
a) leisure travelers.
b) transient business people.
c) association travelers.
d) conference attendants
a) usually travel in a group.
b) are typical male at the age between 35 and 54.
c) are commuting between home and office every day.
d) usually do not make reservations.
a) work in for-profit organizations.
b) spend more money in traveling compared with corporate travelers.
c) usually travel alone.
d) often are cost-conscious than the corporate segment.
a) summer resorts.
b) business that originates from five resources: social, military, educational, religious and fraternal.
c) a kind of governmental travel.
d) small-sized hotels.
a) low cost of lodging facilities in other countries.
b) global economic expansion.
c) high cost of videoconferencing.
d) inefficiency of communicating by phone, fax, and e-mail.
a) different types of hotels have been built to respond to specific traveler needs.
b) destination of travelers is the key.
c) transportation patterns have provided a homogeneous type of hotel.
d) hotels are now motor hotels, catering to travelers.
b) full-length mirrors and coffee makers in the room.
c) the access to information.
d) free airport shuttle service.
a) family travelers
b) senior travelers
c) female travelers
d) business travelers
a) Technology makes guests “connected” from any location in some hotels.
b) Technology is gradually replacing personal service.
c) In-room technology is becoming more and more complicated for the guest.
d) Technology is only applied in luxury hotels.
a) transit business travelers
b) association business travelers
c) female travelers
d) child travelers
b) personal facilities.
d) bed and breakfasts.
a) international travel
b) family travel
c) business travel
d) rural travel
a) consistently meets and exceeds customer expectations.
b) is more important in the luxury segment than in the limited-service hotels.
c) charges an extra fee.
d) focuses on employees’ interaction with customers, but does not include the standards furnishings and décor.
the organizational culture?
a) flexible benefit plans
b) extensive employee recognition programs
c) a positive work place
d) quality service concept
a. Food service
b. Rental cars
c. Changing transportation patterns
d. Varying special needs of travelers
(1) Motel ___
(2) Motor hotel ___
(3) Convention hotel ___
(4) Commercial hotel ___
(5) Health spa ___
(6) Vacation ownership ___
a. Combines a hotel’s broad range of services with a motel’s convenience to attract the auto travelers.
b. Developed in response to the explosive growth in auto travel after World War II
c. Small with 100 to 500 rooms. Close to business destinations and large city’s entertainment centers.
d. Large with 500 or more rooms. Offering extensive meeting and function space.
e. A type of shared ownership in which the buyer purchases the right to use a residential dwelling unit for a portion of the year.
f. Providing additional amenities focusing on needs ranging from losing weight to reducing stress to pampering oneself.
Seasonal classifications include summer, cold winter (i.e. ski resorts), warm winter and year-round. Today, most resorts operate year-round with group business and lower-rate packages bringing in guests during the less desirable times of the year
(a) Access to the Internet
(b) Full-length mirrors and coffee makers
(c) Airline information
(d) In-room video-games
(e) Daily newspapers
The U.S. companies have to have properties in those markets. The best way to publicize a chain at the points of origin of international travel is to have a property in the country. This makes local people familiar with the brand.
The American Automobile Association (AAA) rates lodging properties based on a system of one to five diamonds.
a) resident manager or hotel manager.
b) executive assistant manager.
c) assistant manager.
d) food and beverage manager.
a) is another name for “cook.”
b) does not deal with food purchase and employment.
c) is an investment for some hotels.
d) is becoming less important with the availability of frozen food.
a) average rate.
b) number of guest per occupied room.
c) revenue per available room.
d) revenue per sold room.
a) room sales.
b) food sales.
c) beverage sales.
d) meeting and banquet sales.
a) 15 to 20%.
b) 30 to 40%.
c) 50 to 60%.
d) 70% or more.
a) 15 to 20%.
b) 30 to 40%.
c) 50 to 60%.
d) 70% or more.
a) rooms department.
b) food and beverage department.
c) engineering department.
d) accounting department.
a) POS (Point-of-sale).
b) key clerk system.
c) yield management.
d) PMS (Property management system).
a) the bell staff.
a) travel agent.
c) bell captain.
a) that yesterday’s closing balance be added to all payments made today.
b) that all charges guests made today should be deducted from yesterday’s closing balance.
c) that today’s closing balance will be the result of adding all charges guests made today to yesterday’s closing balance.
d) that today’s closing balance is the addition of all charges guests made today to the closing balance from yesterday minus all payments received today.
a) the night audit.
b) back-office work.
c) the tray-ledger.
d) the shift balance procedure.
a) is a computerized payment system.
b) is used primarily by the controllers in the hotel office.
c) automates much of the procedural work on the front desk.
d) is part of the real estate office in large hotels.
a) is used by chains as a reservation service.
b) cannot be used by franchised properties.
c) is a new technology dependent upon the Internet.
d) cannot be interfaced with a PMS.
a) is produced by analyzing the posted room rate.
b) determines the room rate by evaluating competitor’s rates.
c) has increased room rates during times of low occupancy.
d) maximizes the room rate when occupancy is high.
a) inadequate electronic locks and room safes.
b) access to the hotels from the outside and stolen keys.
c) safety of guests and their property, fire prevention and natural disaster contingencies.
d) insecure hallways and public space.
a) employment and staffing functions.
b) a labor union.
c) techno-computer experts.
d) the department that deals with guest relations.
a) the rooms department.
b) designing new facilities.
c) the mechanical equipment.
d) building and repairing structures.
a) means personal selling by a sales manager.
b) today is targeted to national conventions.
c) is determined by the corporate office in a chain.
d) is a function of general management that involves all levels of operation.
a) city ledger.
b) house ledger.
c) restaurant ledger.
d) general ledger.
b) music and entertainment.
d) utilities cost.
a) are the same.
b) has meant times of excess capacity.
c) has meant a less capital-intensive industry.
d) has led to a reduced influx of capital into hotel building projects.
a) at the same time that the economy does.
b) three to six months after the economy does.
c) one to two years after the economy does.
d) three to six months before the economy does.
a) experienced a building surge.
b) was faced escalating land and construction prices.
c) still couldn’t recover from all terrorist and natural disasters.
d) became not so efficient in management as before.
c) financing from public markets.
d) mezzanine financing.
a) the growth of funds from public markets.
b) capital from private investors.
c) the lessened risk of hotel building.
d) more money available from banks.
a) use funds from other companies to make loans.
b) specialize in loans from private sources.
c) have decreased the risk in hotel borrowing.
d) consolidate and sell mortgages to public and institutional investors.
a) increases the amount of money the borrower must provide.
b) is higher risk than mortgage debt and thus has a higher interest rate.
c) means that a mortgage is not required when money is borrowed.
d) is a publicly-traded stock.
a) commercial mortgage-backed security.
b) less available to hotel developers after September 11th.
c) a type of mutual fund.
d) the same as gap financing.
a) raises money by issuing stock.
b) usually increases the cost of borrowing funds.
c) is unpopular because returns are below average.
d) raises money through leveraged financing.
a) high income tax on profits.
b) not enough capital available.
c) REITs cannot operate hotel properties.
d) they do not pay dividends to their shareholders.
a) hotel franchise companies.
b) publicly held hotel companies.
c) mutual funds.
d) only available in the hotel industry.
a) competition in the hotel marketplace is severe.
b) hotel chains become popular.
c) capital is easily available and less costly.
d) capital is not available.
a) the image of the company blurs.
b) management within individual units have no incentives for advancement.
c) a long-term vision of the company suddenly becomes short-term.
d) capital is unavailable for expansion and renovation.
a) interest rates are high.
b) inflation is a real possibility.
c) the value of hotel assets are at their peak.
d) profits are decreasing.
a) have disappeared in the 1990s.
b) are from tax credits today.
c) are made today by deducting loan interest from income.
d) are offset by the cost of going public.
a) franchisees taking on more than one kind of hotel franchise.
b) management contract companies who “bundle” their properties in one or a few cities.
c) the general practice of overbuilding by real estate developers.
d) the practice of building more than one franchised hotel in a market, using the same franchise or a competitive brand in the same market.
a) management contract.
b) independent contract.
c) franchise contract.
d) operating contract.
a) do so to expand their business.
b) offer more operating flexibility than independents.
c) do so for their franchisees.
d) do so without a written contract.
a) is capital intensive and cyclical.
b) is stable over time and costly, but profitable.
c) closely follows economic swings.
d) demand and building coincide.
a) one in which there are a few dominant brands.
b) a highly concentrated one.
c) characterized by many owners.
d) one with little competition.
a) a fragmented market.
b) a cyclical market.
c) the weakening economy.
d) technological revolution.
a) fixed costs are low.
b) the cost associated with selling a room is low.
c) there is a low margin over costs and prices cannot be cut in a competitive market.
d) hotels today are relatively inexpensive to build compared with the past.
a) highly competitive.
b) somewhat competitive.
a) physical goods.
b) the guest room.
c) the total guest’s experience.
d) guest service.
b) the rack rate.
c) changed with demand.
d) unaffected by the cyclic nature of the industry.
a) includes individual and mass communication media.
b) refers to advertising.
c) means P.R.
d) excludes rewards for brand loyalty.
a) a type of advertising scheme.
b) a specific guest segment and their needs.
c) non-specific in nature.
d) focused on guest services.
a) includes hotels without restaurants.
b) is service intensive.
c) is a limited-service segment.
d) focuses on guest rooms in a hotel.
a) the finer things in life and superior services.
b) being roomed on an upper floor where it is quiet.
c) food and beverage services and other amenities such as meeting rooms.
d) a clean, comfortable guest room.
a) an ultra high service level.
b) a ground floor room with easy access to his or her car.
c) food and beverage services and other amenities such as meeting rooms.
d) special convention rates.
a) the upstairs guest.
b) the transient businessman.
c) the downstairs guest.
d) family and other personal travelers.
a) rather indifferent service.
b) a very small restaurant and bar.
c) sous vide cooking.
d) an advertised, standardized free breakfast.
a) fitness centers.
b) concierge services.
c) personal amenities.
d) food service.
a) are becoming the norm for most hotels.
b) are only found in luxury hotels.
c) serve to differentiate properties.
d) are necessary if food service is eliminated.
a) are “away-from-business” mini-offices for travelers’ use.
b) are mini-malls in large hotels.
c) provide guest services such as computers, photocopying, Internet, printers and fax machines.
d) are hotels surrounded by local businesses, usually in downtown cores.
a) provides consistent rooms pricing.
b) does away with market fragmentation.
c) combines a history of room demand with a current demand.
d) is a formula for room rates based on expected profits and fixed costs.
a) brand advertising.
b) national advertising.
c) reservations advertising.
d) franchising advertising.
a) are limited to luxury hotels.
b) do not affect conference planners.
c) have forced many travel agencies to niche market.
d) are still too complicated for individual travelers
a) cost the marketing department little since rooms would otherwise be empty.
b) were first introduced early in the 19th century.
c) reward guests for brand loyalty.
d) have not been successful.
a) permit hotels to gather information about their guests.
b) are reservation systems.
c) are generated by surveys.
d) are part of mass communication programs
a) the number of trips times the number of people taking each trip.
b) one person traveling 100 or more miles away from home.
c) a term used for international travel.
d) a single individual traveler rather than a group.
a) leisure time
b) rising family income
c) decreased cost of leisure activities
d) demographic trends
a) two- to three-week vacations.
b) inexpensive vacations
c) “quality time” vacations.
d) theme park vacations.
a) 25 to 34 years of age.
b) 35 to 44 years of age.
c) 45 to 54 years of age.
d) 55 to 65 years of age.
a) People over 65 years of age are an unimportant market segment.
b) Middle-aged travelers often choose group travel at off-peak times and seasons and tend to be more price conscious.
c) Two-income families have become a major factor in tourism.
d) Generally, most people over 80 years of age are unable to travel.
a) to visit friends and relatives.
b) business and convention travel.
c) outdoor recreational travel.
d) travel to sightsee and for entertainment
a) increase in the number of two-income families.
b) increase in the number of hotels and motels.
c) increase in long-weekend trips.
d) improved infrastructure.
a) weekend mini-vacations.
b) 10-14 day vacations
c) 4 week vacations.
d) spending vacation time at home.
a) In total business receipts, tourism has consistently ranked fifth or sixth among all retail businesses.
b) Tourism provides about the same number of jobs as most other service industries.
c) Approximately one in every 100 civilian employees is employed in an activity supported by travel expenditures.
d) The travel “multiplier” effect and actual travel receipts make tourism one of the top retail businesses.
a) the growth rate of tourism.
b) the effect of repeated spending resulting from the initial tourism expenditure.
c) the attempt to increase visitors from overseas by the USTS.
d) specific kinds of tourism promotion.
a) arrivals and receipts.
b) the number of people visiting a country.
c) travel miles.
d) airline receipts and travel miles.
a) the increase in purchasing power of the American dollar.
b) decreased interest rates.
c) the strong American economy.
d) the world’s rising standard of living.
a) flights scheduled to all major cities.
b) a large investment in people and equipment.
c) simplified scheduling with many scheduled stops.
d) fewer customers on long-distance, high-volume flights.
a) offer little competition from “hub-and-spoke” carriers.
b) usually have no-frills service and lower fares, thus minimizing staff and investment.
c) are likely to drive “hub-and-spoke” systems out of business.
d) provide no frills service with lower fares.
a) hotel occupancy.
b) percentage of airline seats sold.
a) are the layers of businesses between manufacturers and customer.
b) include travel agents and tour operators.
c) are the same as infrastructure.
d) are insignificant
a) purchase and resell travel space and services.
b) are the same as travel agents.
c) have declined in significance as a channel member.
d) make arrangements for individual travelers.
b) noise and odors.
c) local pride.
d) all of the above.
a) West Edmonton Mall.
b) Smithsonian Museum.
c) Mayo Clinic.
d) Super Bowl
b) the Grand Canyon.
c) Las Vegas.
d) Disney World.
a) tourist destinations that cater to the young at heart.
b) tourist destinations that cater to the athletically inclined.
c) theme parks.
d) destinations that attract a wide variety of visitors.
a) include national parks.
b) are artificial environments created for the enjoyment of tourists.
c) date back only a few years.
d) are synonymous with shopping malls
a) are always primary destinations.
b) cater to people’s need for fun and fantasy.
c) are the same as amusement parks.
d) were developed in the 1970s.
a) The majority of its visitors are from within the state.
b) It is a traditional amusement park.
c) It is a secondary destination attraction.
d) The park consists of entertainment, shopping, rides and shows.
a) it is more acceptable as a form of entertainment.
b) its convenience.
c) deregulation of the industry.
d) the government’s need for funds.
a) proximity to natural attractions.
b) the number of hotels.
c) its ability to offer the “entire package.”
d) lack of gaming options nationally.
a) There is a decreasing emphasis upon slot machines.
b) Gambling is still limited to places like Las Vegas and Atlantic City.
c) Gambling has become a part of living in the 1990s.
d) There are not as many work opportunities for hospitality graduates in the gambling industry.
a) temporary amusement parks.
b) important mainstays of numerous communities.
c) having nothing to do with the hospitality industry.
d) being held mostly in warm weather areas
a) regional theme parks.
b) natural tourist destinations.
c) national theme parks.
d) temporary tourist destinations.
a) approve markers.
b) handle problems at the tables.
c) supervise between two and five dealers.
d) are change people.
a) overcrowding and congestion.
b) to take business away from hotels and restaurants.
c) economic benefits to the community.
d) a decrease in visits to national parks.
a) serve chiefly an educational function.
b) do not feature rides.
c) operate on a huge scale.
d) are designed primarily for adults.
a) international visitors.
b) young professionals.
c) visitors from nearby.
a) that education has no place in theme parks.
b) that education can be fun.
c) that education should be a part of every aspect of the park.
d) that education is the job of schools.
a) there is no earlier precedent.
b) they are unique with regard to size and scale.
c) they eliminate thrill rides.
d) they are usually free to visitors.
a) Nashville and Branson.
b) Branson and New Orleans.
c) New Orleans and Baltimore.
d) Boston and San Antonio.
a) Las Vegas.
b) Disney World.
d) Mall of America.
a) do not include the food section.
b) may fluctuate between seasons.
c) are not important as most are only summer jobs.
d) do not provide training programs.
a) national parks, zoos, convention centers.
b) museums, national parks, convention centers.
c) zoos, aquariums, shopping centers.
d) casinos, theme parks, eco-resorts.
a) tourism in a natural environment.
b) tourist activities which promote and are friendly to the natural environment.
c) hotels which recycle waste.
d) any type of tourist activity which doesn’t harm the environment.
a) Atlantic City National Park.
d) Big Bend.
a) Boston and Baltimore.
b) Boston and Atlanta.
c) Baltimore and Atlanta.
d) Atlanta and Santa Fe.
a) The Spy Trail in London.
b) The Ice Hotel in Quebec.
c) The International UFO Museum in Roswell, New Mexico.
d) Rainforest in Brazil.
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