HOSA Forensic Medicine 2016

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Adipocere
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Wax that forms on a dead body
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Anatomic pathology
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Analysis of tissue samples
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Aneurysm
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Weakening of the wall of an artery
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Anoxia
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Without oxygen
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Archnoid
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Web-like membrane around the brain
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Arteriosclerosis
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Hardening of the arteries
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Asphyxia
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Lack of oxygen in the body
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Autolysis
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Breakdown of organs in a dead body
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Cadaveric spasm
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The muscles contracting after death
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Chain on custody
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Tracking system of who handles evidence
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Contusion
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Blunt force that causes bruises
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Cytopathology
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Examination of individual cell
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Mechanism of death
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What goes wrong in the body that caused death
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Five manners of death
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Natural, homicide, suicide, accidental, undetermined
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Rigor mortis
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Stiffening of the muscles 3-4 hours after death (the most at 12 hours)
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Glycogen
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The chemical that is not reformed after death that causes rigor mortis
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Livor mortis
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Discoloration of the body after blood settles 30 minutes after death (and will fix at 6 hours)
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Algor mortis
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Cooling of the body after death
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1.5 degrees per hour
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The rate at which a body will cool when exposed to 18-20 degrees Celsius in the first eight hours
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5 types of traumatic deaths
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Mechanical, chemical, thermal, electrical, asphyxial (MACET)
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Asphyxial death
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Death due to lack of oxygen to the brain
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Mechanical trauma
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Trauma from applied force being stronger than the tissue it’s applied to
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Yawing
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The bullet entering the body sideways
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Opiates
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Drug class known as pain relievers
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Codeine and Morphine
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2 types of opiates
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Amphetamines
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Medication that causes an excitatory condition
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Depressants; stimulants
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Opiates are _________, while amphetamines are ________
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Cyanide
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Toxic substance that blocks the energy pathway and causes immediate death
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Pre-Trial exams
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Exams by forensic psychologists that determine if the defendant is competent of standing trial
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Pre-Sentence exams
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Exams by forensic psychologists that help the judge determine punishment for the convict
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Sexual psychopath laws
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Laws in the 1930’s that classified sexual offenders as too sick to be punished
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People vs. Hawthorne, Jenkins vs. United States
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Cases that determined psychologists were allowed to testify
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Hidden vs. Mutual Life
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Case in the Supreme Court that allowed psychologists to testify
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Malingering
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Exaggerating an illness to escape work
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Rorschach Test
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Psychological test used to determine personality characteristics, whether a though disorder is present, and the accuracy of reality
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Projective Tests
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Psychological tests where reaction to a stimulus will reveal personality traits
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Penetrating; perforating
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________ wounds do not have an exit wound while ________ wounds do
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Forensic entomology
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The use of insects that inhabit dead bodies to aid legal investigations
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Exsanguination
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A major artery of the heart having been damaged and the loss of blood
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Dentition
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Development and arrangement of an individual’s teeth
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Primary dentition
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The 20 baby teeth
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Permanent dentition
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The 32 adult teeth
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Sharpey’s fibers
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Fibers that connect the tooth and alveolar bone to the periodontal ligament
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Periodontal ligaments
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Ligaments that hold the tooth in the alveolus
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Alveolus
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Bony socket that holds the tooth
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Commissure
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Corner of the mouth
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Avulsed
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Meaning expelled or removed
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Antemortem
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Meaning before death
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Perimortem
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Meaning around the time of death
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Hallucinogen
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Drug that causes hallucinations
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Phencyclidine (PCP)
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Drug that causes hallucinations and aggression that was developed originally to be an anesthetic
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William Hershel (1856)
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The first to use fingerprinting as a method of identification
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Henry Faulds (1880)
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The first to devise a method of classification based on fingerprints
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Gilbert Thompson (1882)
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The first U.S. person who’s fingerprint was stored
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1 in 64 billion
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Galton’s calculations of the odds of two people’s fingerprints being the same
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Juan Vucetich (1891)
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Began the first fingerprint files
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1892
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When the first criminal fingerprint identification was made
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Henry Classification System
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Classification system for fingerprinting
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Ballistics
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The science of firearms and bullets
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Entomology
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The study of insects
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Palynology
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The study of pollen and spores
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Laceration
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Deep cut in flesh caused by a blunt object
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Incised wounds
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Wounds caused by a sharp object
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Osteons
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Structures in bones that carry the blood supply
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Os Pubis
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Area on the anterior side of the pelvis where the hip bones come together
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Epiphyses
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Growth plates on the end of long bones that fuse to the bone in early adulthood
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Symphysis
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Place where two bones may rub together
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Modus Operandi (MO)
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A criminal’s method of operation
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Dactyloscopy
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The word for the study of fingerprints
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Locard exchange principle
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Principle stating there is always a cross transfer of evidence between a suspect and the victim/locale
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Cheliloscopy
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The word for the study of lip prints
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Precipitin Test
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Test that determines between human and animal blood
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Taxonomy
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The classification of organisms
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Carrion
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The carcass of a dead animal
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Caliber
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The inside diameter of a gun barrell
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Presumptive ID
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Identification found on an unknown body that is not legally considered an ID
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Alec Jeffreys
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Geneticist that developed DNA testing
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Colin Pitchfork
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First criminal convicted by DNA evidence
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Nucleases
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Enzymes responsible for environmental DNA breakdown

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