Social Media Final SJSU

Social Messaging
is over the top messaging such as Whatsapp, Snapchat, Instant messaging
is the same thing as texting
Sleeper effect Fake News
when people are exposed to a persuasive message followed by a discounting cue (i.e., a low credibility source/a false tag), people tend to be more persuaded over time

**It is a delayed increase of the effect of a message that is accompanied by a discounting cue.

Traditional Marketing
is the marketing of advertising, billboards, and commercial .

It cost more and takes more time to reach people

Social media Marketing
this is an digital way to advertise

It incorporates both a traditional and digital into one.

Key Characteristics of Social Media
social interactivity
openness and &flexibility
Fast-Paced flows of information
Constant Innovation and Evolution
1. social interactivity
people can communicate or interact with each other
No other form of media facilitates social it in the way social media does it.

It cannot be simply replicated offline.

(2) Openness
all people can participate and interact via social media
You can use it any time and any where.

It comes in many forms such photos, videos, article.

(3) Fast-paced flows of information
Information can be communicated and spread rapidly through social media, typically much faster than in other forms of media

Information flows on social media can take one of two general forms:
•one to one (narrowcasting) •one to many (broadcasting)

Narrow Casting
One to one
one to many
is the Facebook algorithm that decides which stories appear in each user’s newsfeed. It’s unique to each user, and no one other than Facebook knows exactly how it works.
Paid Media
TV, Magazine, direct Mail, Etc

is any social media activity for which a company pays. (ex. social ads, boosted posts)

Owned Media
Corporate Website campaign site, etc

is any social media activity that occurs in social media channels a company controls.
(ex. Content posted on a brand’s facebook page or twitter account and company blogs)

Earned Media
Word of mouth

is any social media activity that occurs in social media channels a company does not directly control.

Value in Strategic Planning
• An organization comes to understand its markets and its competitors
• An organization becomes aware of the changing marketplace environment
• Organizational partners are better able to communicate and coordinate activities
• Helps managers better allocate time and resource
Strategic Planning
The process of identifying objectives to accomplish, deciding how to accomplish those objectives with specific strategies and tactics, implementing the actions that make the plan come to life, and measuring how well the plan met the objectives.
SMM MAturity
1. Trial Phase
2. Transition Phase
3. Strategic phase
Trial Phase
Exploratory stage
Cannot link the social media to overall marketing plan
Focuses on the learning to use a new form of communications
and exploring the potential for social media as a venue
Transition Phase
this happens when an organizations matures in their use of social media.

social media still occurs but randomly.

Brands are on the right track but may not have fully formed a strategic approach

(3) Strategic Phase
it utilizes a formal process to plan social media marketing activities with clear objectives and metrics.

Social media are integrated as a key component of the organization’s overall marketing plan.

one-off ploys designed to get attention and press coverage
a) Sentiment analysis
shows the number of positive, neutral,
or negative mentions on each media platform.
Indicates the number of Twitter followers, Facebook fans, LinkedIn group members, etc.
Average response time
Assesses response time to user comments on the company’s social media properties.
SWOT Analysis
Internal Environment and External environment
Internal Environment
Refers to the strengths and weaknesses of the organizations

the controllable elements inside a firm

External Environment
Refers to the organization’s opportunities and threats

The firm cannot directly control these external factors, so management must respond to the through its planning process.

Brand’s competition
key aspects of the external environment
SMART Obbjectives
key aspects of the external environment
• Targeting in SMM
The right person to get
-The right content -At the right place -At the right time -In the right format -In the right language
Values and Life Style Survey
– 4 demographic and 35 psychographic items
•Measures consumer activities, interests, and enduring attitudes and values
Classifies consumers by their motivations and innovations
• Behavioral targeting
Based on purchase behavior or behaviors that convey intent

e.g., search behaviors on search engine, self-reported interest, Pages liked on Facebook

EX: Facebook (Interest targeting, Look-alike targeting, etc.)

Interest Targeting
targeting based on common or shared interest
Look-a-Like Targeting
is an advertising technique which consists of reaching out an audience similar to an advertiser’s customers.
Content Value Ladder
Charaterizes content bases on its originality and substance.
Filler Content
Information that people copy from other sources

such as a retweet, Facebook shared post.

Original content
is content that a person feels intrinsically motivated to prepared and share
Pillar Content
is typically made up of educational content that readers use over time, save, and share with others.
Types of pillar content
list article
Metrics Examples
Reach, Frequency, site Stickiness,
Sales Conversion
the average number of times someone is exposed to a message
Site stickiness
the ability of a site to draw repeat visits and keep people on the site
the number of people exposed to an online ad or link who actually click on it
Sales conversion
the number of people who click through who on to purchase a product.
part of the Metrics Framework

Interaction with content

effect on the target audience
suggest action to another user
opportunity to attend to content
ability to change option or behavior
Cost per thousand exposures

– total cost for promotion/ # of exposure (impression)

Cost per click

Total cost for promotion/# of clicks

Cost Per Result
Total cost for Ad/ # of app download
KPI Key Performance Indicator
Key Performance Indicator

Measurement within a defined content are metrics
Metrics that we tied to objectives are KPI
Marketers need to set well-defined, measurable objectives.

Why do we participate in social networks?
Affinity Impulse
Personal Utility impulse
Immediacy impulse
Curiosity Impulse
Validation impulse
Affinity Impulse
Sense of belonging
Personal Utility Impulse
Information seeking, incentive seeking, entertainment
Immediacy impulse
of relief in that contact is without delay (sense of relief we feel from knowing others in our network are accessible)
Curiosity impulse
following musicians on twitter
Validation impulse
Feeding ones’ own ego/ promoting the perfect life.
Key Properties for a social network
Tie strength
People ( Brand, Company, group, etc)
Relationship between pairs of nodes
Different types of ties between pairs of nodes
Tie Strength
the intensity of ties between pairs of nodes.
Social Contigation
Many factors can influence the macro diffusion/spread outcome
Social Connectivity (Hub)
How well connected the people are who are doing the transmiting
Social active (pump)
How active are the people in transmitting info
• Probability of a receiver retransmitting information
Online networks like Twitter and Facebook have a one-to-many broadcasting communication mechanism
Consider transmitter activity
frequency of posting online
• Impact on participations
Likelihood that the social interaction (if it takes place) will have a strong influence on the attitudes and/or behaviors of the participants in that interaction (the receivers and the transmitter
Strong ties
people we are close to (usually includes family, close friends, and co-workers)
Weak Ties
acquaintances or friends and family of our “strong ties”
Likelihood of Activation
the social tie being activated in order for the social interaction to occur (social interaction happening)

Vary widely by product, by sentiment (positive/negative), by person, by situation

Needs to be accepted
to meet soviet/groups expectations
Informational Social Influence
Need to know what’s right

Arises when correct answers are ambiguous

Assuming the actions of others in an attempt to reflect correct behavior for a given situation.
• Driven by the assumption that surrounding people possess more knowledge about the situation.
• Information to help make decisions (e.g., WOM about products, product recommendation

Word of Mouth (WOM)
product information transmitted by individuals to individuals (C2C)
– Often the most significant source of product info for consumers
– Perceived as more reliable/trustworthy than traditional marketing
Influencer Marketing
– Using key leaders to drive your brand’s message to the larger market. Rather than marketing directly to a large group of consumers, you instead inspire/hire/pay influencers to get out the word for you.
WOM vs. Influencer marketing
Almost all influencer marketing includes word-of-mouth marketing activities by its nature, but not all word-of-mouth marketing is driven by influencer campaigns.
• How to find influences using Follwerwonk/Netlytic
are les likely to receive WOM

Study of WOM transmitters found that they were less likely to tell hubs about new products than anyone else

Hubs are less likely to transmit WOM
– Study of 1 million Facebook users found that the more friends they had, the less sharing they did; same for Twitte

Reference Groups
Admirational strategies concentrate on highly visible, widely admired figures (athletes or performers)

Groups of people that influence us

-aspiration groups
-identity groups

Aspirational groups
groups that we admire and desire to be like
Identity groups
also also called associative or membership groups) = groups to which we currently belong
• Membership strategies focus
n “ordinary” people whose consumption provides informational social influence
Primary Date
• Collected by the investigator specifically for current purpose
• Could be internally or externally collected
• Examples: Surveys, Interviews, Focus groups, Observation, Experiments, etc.
Secondary Data
•Secondary Data
-Collected by someone other than the user for some other purpose
-Already exists in market
•External: large data sets
(census, Gallup polls, etc.)
•Internal: (company records, sales data)
General Rule of Thumb
always collect secondary data first then turn to primary data
A/B testing
is a method of comparing two versions of marketing stimuli (e.g., webpage, social ad) against each other to determine which one performs bette

**essentially an experiment where two or more variants of a page are shown to users at random, and statistical analysis is used to determine which variation performs better for a given conversion goal

Requirement for A/B testing
1. control/manipulate the cause (independent variable) and hold “everything else” constant
2. random assignment -makes experimental groups statistically equivalen
Experimental Research
Objective: Test Hypotheses (Cause Effect)
-Look at effect of independent variable (the variable
you manipulate, or change) on dependent variable (the variable you’re interested in measuring)
-Different groups of consumers get different
“treatments” (different versions of independent variable)
-Helps determine CAUSALITY
Relationship between two variables
one variable producing an effect in another variable
3 Factors Necessary for Causation
1) Correlation 2) Temporal antecedence 3) No third factor driving both your supposed cause and
effect (somas called a lurking variable)
Attention-grabbing contents
Exposure vs Attention
Exposure – we have the possibility of noticing the information
Attention – the information has actually been recorded in some way; you notice the information
to extent to which processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus
Characteristics of Attention
Selective- to a large extent, we decide what we want to focus processing resources on
Divided – can focus on more that thing at a time
Limited – we don’t have infinite cognitive capacity
Two types of attention
Voluntary Attention
Involuntary attention
voluntary Attention
Personal relevance (INVOLVEMENT) attention
-If you want consumers to voluntarily attend to your message, it must contain information that is important and relevant to them.
involuntary attention
Occurs when a consumer is exposed to something surprising
-Marketers activate the orientation reflex by creating stimuli that stand out from the surrounding context
• Elaboration Likelihood model
• Good framework for thinking about opinion formation

People process messages in 2 ways:
-Elaboration is high: people make conscious effort to form/change attitudes Central-route processing
-Elaboration is low: attitudes are based on tangential/superficial factors Peripheral route processing

low elaboration
low thought
Peripheral route
High Elaboration
high though Central route
Central route
Requires effort/active conscious thought • Form an opinion based on central cues:
important, diagnostic information
– Facts – Evidence – Examples
• Thinking about these arguments requires
careful, systematic, and effortful processing
Peripheral Route
Little effort
• Form an opinion based on peripheral cues:
easy-to-process, but unimportant information
― Source attractiveness ― Mood/positive feelings ― Message length/number of features/arguments
(quantity over quality)
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