HOSA CPR and First Aid – Flashcards

question
Ask before First Aid
answer
right to refusal refuse: 911 and stay w them till help arrives
question
Key steps to First Aid
answer
assess scene phone for help take universal precautions find problem protect privacy
question
asess scene while...
answer
you are providing first aid
question
move an injured person if...
answer
the scene is unsafe or if he/she is in danger
question
multiple people at the scene...
answer
ask one of them to call 911
question
PPE
answer
Nonlatex gloves eye protection mask for giving breaths
question
actions for universal precautions
answer
PPE disposal of anything w blood on it waste bag disposal after taking off gloves, wash hands for 20 sec
question
actions for exposure to blood
answer
remove gloves and wash hands for 20 seconds rinse eyes nose and inside of your mouth w water and soap or anywhere else w blood contact a health care provider asap
question
find the problem
answer
responsive/unresponsive check for a pulse breathing- look for any obvi signs of injury look for med info jewelry
question
should i move an ill or injured person?
answer
generally- no. ESPECIALLY if there could be a spinal or pelvic injury. MOVE IF: area is unsafe, roll person onto side if unresponsive and breathing (keep airway open for vomiting)
question
mild airway blockage
answer
can talk or make sounds can cough loudly actions: stand by and let the person cough worried: call 911
question
severe airway blockage
answer
cannot breathe, talk, or make sounds has a cough that has no sound makes the choking sign actions: act quickly follow steps to help
question
Choking adult
answer
ask are you choking nod yes- say you're going to help stand or kneel behind the person wrap arms around the waist so fists are in front fist w one hand thumb side of fist slightly above the belly button and well below the breast bone grasp fist w your other hand give quick upward thrusts into the abdomen give thrusts until the object is forced out and the person can breathe, cough, or speak or until he becomes unresponsive
question
pregnant or large
answer
chest thrusts instead of abdominal thrusts arms under armpits hands on lower half of breastbone
question
choking infant
answer
face down on your forearm support infants head and jaw with hand 5 back slaps object doesn't come out- turn infant onto back while supporting head 5 chest thrusts using two fingers same place as CPR repeat 5 back slaps
question
unresponsive + no breathing or only gasping
answer
provide CPR
question
open airway look for objects in back of throat
answer
see object take it out DO NOT do a blind finger sweep. could cause the object to get lodged further back into the airway
question
mild allergic reactions
answer
stuffy nose, sneezing, and itchy eyes itchy skin hives
question
severe allergic reactions
answer
trouble breathing swelling of tongue and face signs of shock
question
epic pen
answer
rub for ten seconds after injection
question
sudden cardiac arrest
answer
abnormal heart rhythm heart malfunctions and stops breathing unexpectedly
question
heart attack
answer
clot problem blocks blood flow
question
signs of heart attack
answer
chest discomfort discomfort in other parts of the body shortness of breath, cold sweats, nausea, lightheadedness
question
less typical signs of HA in women, elderly, and diabetics
answer
an ache in chest heartburn indigestion the unfomfortable feeling in back, jaw, neck, or shoulder shortness of breath nausea vomiting
question
fainting
answer
lay the person flat on the floor 911 if the person doesn't improve or is unresponsive unresponsive- CPR
question
signs of low blood sugar in a person with diabetes
answer
irritable hungry thirsty weak sleepy sweaty
question
actions to take for someone w low BS
answer
ask them to eat or drink something w sugar IF person cant sit up or swallow- don't force them have them sit quietly or lie down no improvement in 15 mins: call 911
question
warning signs of stroke FAST
answer
Face drooping Arm weakness Speech difficulty Time to call 911
question
actions to help someone who may have a stroke
answer
have someone call 911 and get AED note time when stroke first appears remain with the person till more advanced healthcare providers arrive and take over not breathing normally or gasping gove CPR
question
signs of seizure
answer
lose muscle control jerking movements in arms legs and other parts of the body fall to the ground stop responding
question
actions to take to help someone w a seizure
answer
move furniture and objects out of the way place a small pad or towel under the head call 911
question
actions to take after seizure
answer
check if they're responsive and breathing stay w them until someone else comes vomiting or fluids in mouth roll them onto their side unresponsove or not breathing normally, cpr
question
dressing vs bandage
answer
dressing- clean material used directly on a wound to stop bleeding. gauze or cloth bandage- material used to protect or cover an injured body part. also can be used to keep pressure on a wound
question
when to call 911 for bleeding
answer
lots of bleeding cant stop the bleeding see signs of shock suspect head, neck, or spine injury not sure what to do
question
actions to control bleeding
answer
direct pressure on the gauze doesn't stop add more gauze don't pull dressing off wrap a bandage over the dressing
question
tourniquet stick is called...
answer
windlass
question
applying a PRE-MADE tourniquet
answer
make sure the scene is safe call 911 get AED and first aid kit wear PPE place T 2 in above injury if possible tighten until bleeding stops note the time leave T alone until ppl come
question
applying and making a tourniquet
answer
make sure the scene is safe call 911 get AED and first aid kit wear PPE fold cloth or bandage so its at least 1 inch wide place T 2 in above injury if possible wrap ends around a small hand tool or something tighten until bleeding stops secure hand tool note the time leave T alone until ppl come
question
signs of shock
answer
feel weak, faint, or dizzy feel nauseated or thirsty have a pale or grayish face be restless, agitated, or confused be cold and clammy to the touch
question
actions to help a person in shock
answer
make sure the scene is safe call 911 get AED and first aid kit help the person lie on his back cover the person with a blanket to keep them warm check to see if CPR is needed
question
bleeding from the nose
answer
make sure the scene is safe wear PPE have the person sit and lean forward pinch the soft part of the nose on both sides w a clean dressing place constant pressure on the nostrils for a few mins until the bleeding stops if it continues, press harder call 911 if it doesn't stop in 15 mins, bleeding heavy, or if they have trouble breathing
question
bleeding from the mouth
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE if bleeding comes from tongue, lip, or cheek and you can reach it easily, apply pressure with gauze or a clean cloth if you haven't called 911 and you cant stop the bleed or if the person has trouble breathing call 911
question
actions to help someone w a tooth injury
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE check person mouth for any missing or loose teeth or parts of teeth if a tooth is chipped, gently clean the injured area and call a dentist if the tooth is loose have the person bite down on a piece of gauze to keep the tooth in place and call a dentist if the tooth has come out, it may be possible to reattach-- don't hold onto it by the root apply pressure w gauze to stop bleeding in the empty tooth socket clean the area where the tooth was located w saline or clean water put the tooth in: egg white, coconut water, or whole milk if none available, store tooth in injured person's saliva, not in the mouth take person and tooth to dentist or Emergency Dept
question
signs of eye injury
answer
pain trouble sleeping brushing bleeding redness swelling
question
help someone w an eye injury
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE if something small gets in eye rinse w water call 911 if- object doesn't come out, the person has extreme pain, or still have trouble seeing tell the person to keep their eyes closed until someone comes
question
help someone w a toxic eye injury
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE chemicals are in person's eye- rinse w water for at least 15 mins or until someone comes if eyewash station is nearby or u have access to eyewash kit use it if u don't have them- use water from the tap or normal saline or contact solution call 911
question
penetrating and puncturing injuries
answer
if object is stuck in the body, leave it there
question
actions to take for a penetrating or puncturing injury
answer
make sure the scene is safe get someone to call 911 get the first aid kit and AED wear PPE try to stop the bleeding you can see don't remove the object
question
actions to give someone w amputation
answer
make sure the scene is safe call 911 get the first aid kit and AED wear PPE stop bleeding from injured area w pressure press for a long time amputated part---> protect it
question
actions to protect an amputated part
answer
make sure the scene is safe rinse amputated part w clean water cover it w clean dressing place it in a watertight plastic bag place bag in another container w ice or ice and water LABEL IT w name date and time make sure body part gets to hospital w the injured person
question
signs of internal bleeding
answer
injury from car issues fall from a hight injury in abdomen or chest like bruising from seatbelts sports injuries shortness of breath after an injury pain in abdomen or chest after an injury if you cough up blood or vomit blood after an injury signs of shock without external bleeding knife or gunshot wound
question
actions to help person w suspected internal bleeding
answer
make sure the scene is safe call 911 get the first aid kit and AED wear PPE have the person lie down and keep still check for signs of shock give CPR if needed
question
signs of head, neck, and spinal injuries
answer
fell from a height was injured by a strong blow to the head was injured while diving involved in a car crash was in a crash after riding bike/motorbike especially w no helmet or if it broke
question
signs of head injury
answer
doesn't respond or only moans acts sleepy or confused vomits has trouble seeing, walking, or moving body parts has a seizure
question
concussion signs
answer
feeling stunned or dazed confusion headache nausea or vomiting dizziness, unsteadiness, or difficulty in balance double vision or flashing lights loss of memory of events that happened before or after the injury
question
spinal injury
answer
was in a car or bicycle crash has fallen has tingling or is weak in the extremities has a pain or tenderness in the neck or back appears intoxicated or not fully alert is 65 years of age or older has other painful injuries, especially to the head or neck
question
CAUTION when a person has a spinal injury...
answer
do NOT twist or turn the head or neck unless its necessary to do CPR, move them out of danger, or reposition them bc of breathing problems, vomiting or fluid in the mouth
question
actions to help a person with a possible head, neck, or spinal injuries
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit call 911 and get an AED have person remain still until someone comes don't twist or turn their head or neck unless necessary
question
actions to take for a person with a possible broken bone or spine
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE cover any open wound with a clean dressing put a towel on top of an injured body part and then put ice on it and keep it on for 20 min call 911 if there's a large open wound, the injured body part is abnormally bent, or you're not sure what to do if the injured body part hurts, the person should avoid using it until checked by a health care provider
question
caution, if the injured part is bleeding...
answer
apply direct pressure to stop the bleed and apply a dressing to the wound before applying the splint leave bent and deformed body parts in bent or deformed position while applying splint
question
actions to apply a splint
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE find object u can use to keep injured arm or leg from moving splint in a way to reduce pain and limit further injury the splint should be longer than the injured area and should support the joints above and below the injury after covering broken skin with a clean or sterile cloth, tie or tape splint to the injured limb so it supports the area use tape or gauze to secure snugly but not too tight to cut off circulation if using a heard splint, make sure you pad it with something soft like clothing or a towel keep the limb still until the injured person can be seen by a HC prov
question
self-splinting
answer
place hand across chest and hold in place w other arm
question
actions to take for small burns
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE cool the burn area immediately w cold but not ice cold water for at least 10 mins if you don't have cold water, use a cool or cold clean compress run cold water on burn until it doesn't hurt you may cover burn w a dry nonstick sterile or clean dressing
question
only thing to put on a burn... never use...
answer
cool water and clean dressings ice
question
actions to take for large burns
answer
make sure the scene is safe fire, lg burn, not sure what to do call 911 person or clothes, on fire: stop drop and roll cover person w wet blanket fire out- remove the wet blanket, remove jewelry and clothing not stick to skin for lg burns, cool burn area immediately w cold water for at least 10 mins after: cover w dry nonstick sterile or clean dressings cover person w dry blanket check for signs of shock person w lg burns should be seen by a HCP asap HCP can determine if additional treatment is necessary
question
actions to take for an electrical injury
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit and AED wear PPE call 911 give CPR when it is safe to touch the person a HCP should check anyone who has an electrical injury ASAP
question
electrical injury you may see...
answer
marks or wounds where electricity has entered or left the body there's no way to tell how severe damage is based on outside marks
question
electricity can...
answer
stop breathing or cause a deadly abnormal heart rhythm
question
if there is a fallen power line...
answer
don't try to enter area or move wires until power has been turned off
question
don't touch a person if...
answer
he is still in contact w the power source bc it can travel into you
question
actions to take for an animal or human bite
answer
make sure the scene is safe be sure to wash the wound w plenty of soap and water apply a bag of ice and water wrapped in a towel to help w bruising and swelling if bruised/swelling use bag of ice and water wrapped in a tsiowel for 20 mins for all bites that break skin call HCP asap
question
signs of poisonous snake bites
answer
pain at the bite area that keeps getting worse swelling of the bite area nausea vomiting sweating or weakness
question
actions to take for a snake bite
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE ask another adult to move people away from the area and call 911 ask the injured person to stay still and calm and avoid moving body part that was bitten remove any tight clothing and jewelry wash area w running water and soap keep person still and calm until someone comes
question
actions to help a person w a bite or a sting
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE bee- remove the stinger and scrape away venom sack w something hard and dull wash sting or bite area w water and soap but ice bag for 20 mins watch person for 30 mins for signs of allergic reaction. use epi pen if necessary
question
signs of poisonous spider bites and scorpion stings
answer
severe pain at the site of bite/sting muscle cramps headache fever vomiting breathing problems seizures lack of response
question
actions to help a person who has been bit/stung by a spider/scorpion
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE call 911 wash bite/sting area w running water and soap ice water wrapped in a towel on bite
question
actions to help a person who has a tick bite
answer
get the first aid kit wear PPE use tweezers to grab the tick by mouth or head as close to the skin as possible avoid pinching the tick lift the tick straight out until persons skin tents and wait several seconds, the tick may let go put tick in plastic bag for med reasons wash bite area w running water and soap area w tick illness ---> suggest HCP
question
actions to help a person who has a marine bite or sting
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE keep the injured person quite and still wipe off stingers or tentacles w a gloved hand or towel sting= jelly fish---> rinse injured area for 30 seconds w vinegar if vinegar isn't available use baking soda and water shower w VERYYYYY hot water until pain is gone or for 20 mins at least call 911 if allergic reaction or poision break skin---> HCP
question
causes of dehydration
answer
heat exposure too much exercise vomiting diarrhea decreased fluid intake fever COULD LEAD TO SHOCK
question
signs of dehydration
answer
weakness thirst or dry mouth dizziness confusion less urination than usual CALL HCP
question
heat cramps
answer
painful muscle spasms occur in: calves arms stomach muscles back
question
signs of heat cramps
answer
muscle cramps sweating headache
question
actions to take to help a person who has heat cramps
answer
get the first aid kit wear PPE have the person rest and cool off have the person drink something w sugar or electrolytes if tolerable apply ice bag water w towel for 20 mins
question
signs of heat exhaustion
answer
nausea dizziness vomiting muscle cramps feeling faint or fatigued heavy sweating
question
actions to take for a person that has heat exhaustion
answer
get the first aid kit wear PPE call 911 have person lie down in a cool place remove as much of persons clothing as possible cool the person w cool water spray or place damp clothes on neck armpits and groin if person is responsive and can drink have them drink something w sugar and electrolytes
question
heat stroke- its important to...
answer
cool them immediately immerse them in water if possible acting norm--> stop cooling them
question
signs of heat stroke
answer
confusion feeling faint or fatigued dizziness fainting nausea vomiting muscle cramps seizure
question
actions to take to help someone w heat stroke
answer
call 911 put person in cool water up to neck if possible or spray w cool water unresponsive/not breathing norm --> cpr
question
signs of frostbite
answer
skin over the frostbitten area is white, waxy, grayish yellow frostbite area is cold or numb area is hard, skin doesn't move when you push
question
actions to help someone w frostbite
answer
make sure the scene is safe move person to warm place get the first aid kit wear PPE call 911 remove wet or tight clothing and pat body dry put dry clothes on and cover w blanket remove tight rings or bracelet from frostbitten part
question
FROSTBITE DO NOTS
answer
don't try to thaw frozen part if they could refreeze b4 med care dont rub FB area- touch gently
question
signs of low body temp/hypothermia
answer
skin= cool to touch shivering- stops when bod temp is rly low confusion personality change sleepiness lack of concern stiff ridged muscles skin= blue and ice cold maybe dead were not quite sure
question
actions to help a person w hypothermia
answer
make sure the scene is safe get person out of cold remove wet clothing pat person dry -> blanket get the first aid kit and AED wear PPE dry clothes cover head and body not face until someone comes unresponsive/not breathing norm-> cpr
question
questions poison control dispatcher may ask
answer
name of poison describe it how much ingested how old is person weight of person when did poisioning happen feeling/acting
question
actions to take for scene safety in a poison emergency
answer
make sure the scene is safe look for signs of poisions near by look for spilled or leaked container if scene is unsafe don't approach tell ppl to move away if there is multi ppl poisioned stay outta there get the first aid kit and AED call 911 tell dispatcher everything u know
question
actions to help a person who has poison on the skin or in the eyes
answer
make sure the scene is safe wear PPE move person to area w fresh air and no posion wash/remove poision safely washy stations remove clothing and jewlery in contact w poision brush off dry powder/ solid substence from skin run lots of water over the affected area until someone comes if eye is effected- blink and rise eye w water unresponsive- cpr USE A MASK FOR BREATHS
question
AHA Adult Chain of Survival
answer
3 links: 1) immediately recognize emergency and call 911 2) perform early CPR with emphasis on chest compressions 3) use AED as soon as its available
question
Do not interrupt compressions for more than....
answer
10 seconds to give breaths or for any other reason
question
if the patient has a medicine patch were AED pads need to be applied...
answer
remove medicine patch, wipe area clean, then apply AED pads
question
naloxone is a drug that...
answer
reverses the effects of opioids
question
common opioids are
answer
morphine hydrocodone heroin
question
how to use naloxone
answer
internasal spray or an autoinjector like epi pen should only be given by someone trained or can recognize an opioid overdose
question
naloxone only works for...
answer
opioid overdose not other types of opioid overdoses
question
actions to take for someone w an opioid overdose
answer
shout for help have someone call 911, get naloxone, and AED use naloxone asap check for breathing unresponsive--> CPR no one nearby--> 5 rounds of CPR call 911 and get naloxone and AED return to person and give naloxone cont CPR if unres. stop if res.
question
AHA pediatric chain of survival
answer
1) prevent injury and sudden cardiac arrest 2) give CPR asap 3) call 911
question
child comprssions
answer
use 1 hand if you cant push down at least 1/3 (2 inches) of the way then use two hands
question
rate for compressions
answer
100-120 comp per min
question
child pads are used when..
answer
younger than 8
question
infant CPR
answer
1 month-1 year 2 fingers 1.5 in deep tap foot and shout name
1 of

Unlock all answers in this set

Unlock answers
question
Ask before First Aid
answer
right to refusal refuse: 911 and stay w them till help arrives
question
Key steps to First Aid
answer
assess scene phone for help take universal precautions find problem protect privacy
question
asess scene while...
answer
you are providing first aid
question
move an injured person if...
answer
the scene is unsafe or if he/she is in danger
question
multiple people at the scene...
answer
ask one of them to call 911
question
PPE
answer
Nonlatex gloves eye protection mask for giving breaths
question
actions for universal precautions
answer
PPE disposal of anything w blood on it waste bag disposal after taking off gloves, wash hands for 20 sec
question
actions for exposure to blood
answer
remove gloves and wash hands for 20 seconds rinse eyes nose and inside of your mouth w water and soap or anywhere else w blood contact a health care provider asap
question
find the problem
answer
responsive/unresponsive check for a pulse breathing- look for any obvi signs of injury look for med info jewelry
question
should i move an ill or injured person?
answer
generally- no. ESPECIALLY if there could be a spinal or pelvic injury. MOVE IF: area is unsafe, roll person onto side if unresponsive and breathing (keep airway open for vomiting)
question
mild airway blockage
answer
can talk or make sounds can cough loudly actions: stand by and let the person cough worried: call 911
question
severe airway blockage
answer
cannot breathe, talk, or make sounds has a cough that has no sound makes the choking sign actions: act quickly follow steps to help
question
Choking adult
answer
ask are you choking nod yes- say you're going to help stand or kneel behind the person wrap arms around the waist so fists are in front fist w one hand thumb side of fist slightly above the belly button and well below the breast bone grasp fist w your other hand give quick upward thrusts into the abdomen give thrusts until the object is forced out and the person can breathe, cough, or speak or until he becomes unresponsive
question
pregnant or large
answer
chest thrusts instead of abdominal thrusts arms under armpits hands on lower half of breastbone
question
choking infant
answer
face down on your forearm support infants head and jaw with hand 5 back slaps object doesn't come out- turn infant onto back while supporting head 5 chest thrusts using two fingers same place as CPR repeat 5 back slaps
question
unresponsive + no breathing or only gasping
answer
provide CPR
question
open airway look for objects in back of throat
answer
see object take it out DO NOT do a blind finger sweep. could cause the object to get lodged further back into the airway
question
mild allergic reactions
answer
stuffy nose, sneezing, and itchy eyes itchy skin hives
question
severe allergic reactions
answer
trouble breathing swelling of tongue and face signs of shock
question
epic pen
answer
rub for ten seconds after injection
question
sudden cardiac arrest
answer
abnormal heart rhythm heart malfunctions and stops breathing unexpectedly
question
heart attack
answer
clot problem blocks blood flow
question
signs of heart attack
answer
chest discomfort discomfort in other parts of the body shortness of breath, cold sweats, nausea, lightheadedness
question
less typical signs of HA in women, elderly, and diabetics
answer
an ache in chest heartburn indigestion the unfomfortable feeling in back, jaw, neck, or shoulder shortness of breath nausea vomiting
question
fainting
answer
lay the person flat on the floor 911 if the person doesn't improve or is unresponsive unresponsive- CPR
question
signs of low blood sugar in a person with diabetes
answer
irritable hungry thirsty weak sleepy sweaty
question
actions to take for someone w low BS
answer
ask them to eat or drink something w sugar IF person cant sit up or swallow- don't force them have them sit quietly or lie down no improvement in 15 mins: call 911
question
warning signs of stroke FAST
answer
Face drooping Arm weakness Speech difficulty Time to call 911
question
actions to help someone who may have a stroke
answer
have someone call 911 and get AED note time when stroke first appears remain with the person till more advanced healthcare providers arrive and take over not breathing normally or gasping gove CPR
question
signs of seizure
answer
lose muscle control jerking movements in arms legs and other parts of the body fall to the ground stop responding
question
actions to take to help someone w a seizure
answer
move furniture and objects out of the way place a small pad or towel under the head call 911
question
actions to take after seizure
answer
check if they're responsive and breathing stay w them until someone else comes vomiting or fluids in mouth roll them onto their side unresponsove or not breathing normally, cpr
question
dressing vs bandage
answer
dressing- clean material used directly on a wound to stop bleeding. gauze or cloth bandage- material used to protect or cover an injured body part. also can be used to keep pressure on a wound
question
when to call 911 for bleeding
answer
lots of bleeding cant stop the bleeding see signs of shock suspect head, neck, or spine injury not sure what to do
question
actions to control bleeding
answer
direct pressure on the gauze doesn't stop add more gauze don't pull dressing off wrap a bandage over the dressing
question
tourniquet stick is called...
answer
windlass
question
applying a PRE-MADE tourniquet
answer
make sure the scene is safe call 911 get AED and first aid kit wear PPE place T 2 in above injury if possible tighten until bleeding stops note the time leave T alone until ppl come
question
applying and making a tourniquet
answer
make sure the scene is safe call 911 get AED and first aid kit wear PPE fold cloth or bandage so its at least 1 inch wide place T 2 in above injury if possible wrap ends around a small hand tool or something tighten until bleeding stops secure hand tool note the time leave T alone until ppl come
question
signs of shock
answer
feel weak, faint, or dizzy feel nauseated or thirsty have a pale or grayish face be restless, agitated, or confused be cold and clammy to the touch
question
actions to help a person in shock
answer
make sure the scene is safe call 911 get AED and first aid kit help the person lie on his back cover the person with a blanket to keep them warm check to see if CPR is needed
question
bleeding from the nose
answer
make sure the scene is safe wear PPE have the person sit and lean forward pinch the soft part of the nose on both sides w a clean dressing place constant pressure on the nostrils for a few mins until the bleeding stops if it continues, press harder call 911 if it doesn't stop in 15 mins, bleeding heavy, or if they have trouble breathing
question
bleeding from the mouth
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE if bleeding comes from tongue, lip, or cheek and you can reach it easily, apply pressure with gauze or a clean cloth if you haven't called 911 and you cant stop the bleed or if the person has trouble breathing call 911
question
actions to help someone w a tooth injury
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE check person mouth for any missing or loose teeth or parts of teeth if a tooth is chipped, gently clean the injured area and call a dentist if the tooth is loose have the person bite down on a piece of gauze to keep the tooth in place and call a dentist if the tooth has come out, it may be possible to reattach-- don't hold onto it by the root apply pressure w gauze to stop bleeding in the empty tooth socket clean the area where the tooth was located w saline or clean water put the tooth in: egg white, coconut water, or whole milk if none available, store tooth in injured person's saliva, not in the mouth take person and tooth to dentist or Emergency Dept
question
signs of eye injury
answer
pain trouble sleeping brushing bleeding redness swelling
question
help someone w an eye injury
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE if something small gets in eye rinse w water call 911 if- object doesn't come out, the person has extreme pain, or still have trouble seeing tell the person to keep their eyes closed until someone comes
question
help someone w a toxic eye injury
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE chemicals are in person's eye- rinse w water for at least 15 mins or until someone comes if eyewash station is nearby or u have access to eyewash kit use it if u don't have them- use water from the tap or normal saline or contact solution call 911
question
penetrating and puncturing injuries
answer
if object is stuck in the body, leave it there
question
actions to take for a penetrating or puncturing injury
answer
make sure the scene is safe get someone to call 911 get the first aid kit and AED wear PPE try to stop the bleeding you can see don't remove the object
question
actions to give someone w amputation
answer
make sure the scene is safe call 911 get the first aid kit and AED wear PPE stop bleeding from injured area w pressure press for a long time amputated part---> protect it
question
actions to protect an amputated part
answer
make sure the scene is safe rinse amputated part w clean water cover it w clean dressing place it in a watertight plastic bag place bag in another container w ice or ice and water LABEL IT w name date and time make sure body part gets to hospital w the injured person
question
signs of internal bleeding
answer
injury from car issues fall from a hight injury in abdomen or chest like bruising from seatbelts sports injuries shortness of breath after an injury pain in abdomen or chest after an injury if you cough up blood or vomit blood after an injury signs of shock without external bleeding knife or gunshot wound
question
actions to help person w suspected internal bleeding
answer
make sure the scene is safe call 911 get the first aid kit and AED wear PPE have the person lie down and keep still check for signs of shock give CPR if needed
question
signs of head, neck, and spinal injuries
answer
fell from a height was injured by a strong blow to the head was injured while diving involved in a car crash was in a crash after riding bike/motorbike especially w no helmet or if it broke
question
signs of head injury
answer
doesn't respond or only moans acts sleepy or confused vomits has trouble seeing, walking, or moving body parts has a seizure
question
concussion signs
answer
feeling stunned or dazed confusion headache nausea or vomiting dizziness, unsteadiness, or difficulty in balance double vision or flashing lights loss of memory of events that happened before or after the injury
question
spinal injury
answer
was in a car or bicycle crash has fallen has tingling or is weak in the extremities has a pain or tenderness in the neck or back appears intoxicated or not fully alert is 65 years of age or older has other painful injuries, especially to the head or neck
question
CAUTION when a person has a spinal injury...
answer
do NOT twist or turn the head or neck unless its necessary to do CPR, move them out of danger, or reposition them bc of breathing problems, vomiting or fluid in the mouth
question
actions to help a person with a possible head, neck, or spinal injuries
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit call 911 and get an AED have person remain still until someone comes don't twist or turn their head or neck unless necessary
question
actions to take for a person with a possible broken bone or spine
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE cover any open wound with a clean dressing put a towel on top of an injured body part and then put ice on it and keep it on for 20 min call 911 if there's a large open wound, the injured body part is abnormally bent, or you're not sure what to do if the injured body part hurts, the person should avoid using it until checked by a health care provider
question
caution, if the injured part is bleeding...
answer
apply direct pressure to stop the bleed and apply a dressing to the wound before applying the splint leave bent and deformed body parts in bent or deformed position while applying splint
question
actions to apply a splint
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE find object u can use to keep injured arm or leg from moving splint in a way to reduce pain and limit further injury the splint should be longer than the injured area and should support the joints above and below the injury after covering broken skin with a clean or sterile cloth, tie or tape splint to the injured limb so it supports the area use tape or gauze to secure snugly but not too tight to cut off circulation if using a heard splint, make sure you pad it with something soft like clothing or a towel keep the limb still until the injured person can be seen by a HC prov
question
self-splinting
answer
place hand across chest and hold in place w other arm
question
actions to take for small burns
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE cool the burn area immediately w cold but not ice cold water for at least 10 mins if you don't have cold water, use a cool or cold clean compress run cold water on burn until it doesn't hurt you may cover burn w a dry nonstick sterile or clean dressing
question
only thing to put on a burn... never use...
answer
cool water and clean dressings ice
question
actions to take for large burns
answer
make sure the scene is safe fire, lg burn, not sure what to do call 911 person or clothes, on fire: stop drop and roll cover person w wet blanket fire out- remove the wet blanket, remove jewelry and clothing not stick to skin for lg burns, cool burn area immediately w cold water for at least 10 mins after: cover w dry nonstick sterile or clean dressings cover person w dry blanket check for signs of shock person w lg burns should be seen by a HCP asap HCP can determine if additional treatment is necessary
question
actions to take for an electrical injury
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit and AED wear PPE call 911 give CPR when it is safe to touch the person a HCP should check anyone who has an electrical injury ASAP
question
electrical injury you may see...
answer
marks or wounds where electricity has entered or left the body there's no way to tell how severe damage is based on outside marks
question
electricity can...
answer
stop breathing or cause a deadly abnormal heart rhythm
question
if there is a fallen power line...
answer
don't try to enter area or move wires until power has been turned off
question
don't touch a person if...
answer
he is still in contact w the power source bc it can travel into you
question
actions to take for an animal or human bite
answer
make sure the scene is safe be sure to wash the wound w plenty of soap and water apply a bag of ice and water wrapped in a towel to help w bruising and swelling if bruised/swelling use bag of ice and water wrapped in a tsiowel for 20 mins for all bites that break skin call HCP asap
question
signs of poisonous snake bites
answer
pain at the bite area that keeps getting worse swelling of the bite area nausea vomiting sweating or weakness
question
actions to take for a snake bite
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE ask another adult to move people away from the area and call 911 ask the injured person to stay still and calm and avoid moving body part that was bitten remove any tight clothing and jewelry wash area w running water and soap keep person still and calm until someone comes
question
actions to help a person w a bite or a sting
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE bee- remove the stinger and scrape away venom sack w something hard and dull wash sting or bite area w water and soap but ice bag for 20 mins watch person for 30 mins for signs of allergic reaction. use epi pen if necessary
question
signs of poisonous spider bites and scorpion stings
answer
severe pain at the site of bite/sting muscle cramps headache fever vomiting breathing problems seizures lack of response
question
actions to help a person who has been bit/stung by a spider/scorpion
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE call 911 wash bite/sting area w running water and soap ice water wrapped in a towel on bite
question
actions to help a person who has a tick bite
answer
get the first aid kit wear PPE use tweezers to grab the tick by mouth or head as close to the skin as possible avoid pinching the tick lift the tick straight out until persons skin tents and wait several seconds, the tick may let go put tick in plastic bag for med reasons wash bite area w running water and soap area w tick illness ---> suggest HCP
question
actions to help a person who has a marine bite or sting
answer
make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE keep the injured person quite and still wipe off stingers or tentacles w a gloved hand or towel sting= jelly fish---> rinse injured area for 30 seconds w vinegar if vinegar isn't available use baking soda and water shower w VERYYYYY hot water until pain is gone or for 20 mins at least call 911 if allergic reaction or poision break skin---> HCP
question
causes of dehydration
answer
heat exposure too much exercise vomiting diarrhea decreased fluid intake fever COULD LEAD TO SHOCK
question
signs of dehydration
answer
weakness thirst or dry mouth dizziness confusion less urination than usual CALL HCP
question
heat cramps
answer
painful muscle spasms occur in: calves arms stomach muscles back
question
signs of heat cramps
answer
muscle cramps sweating headache
question
actions to take to help a person who has heat cramps
answer
get the first aid kit wear PPE have the person rest and cool off have the person drink something w sugar or electrolytes if tolerable apply ice bag water w towel for 20 mins
question
signs of heat exhaustion
answer
nausea dizziness vomiting muscle cramps feeling faint or fatigued heavy sweating
question
actions to take for a person that has heat exhaustion
answer
get the first aid kit wear PPE call 911 have person lie down in a cool place remove as much of persons clothing as possible cool the person w cool water spray or place damp clothes on neck armpits and groin if person is responsive and can drink have them drink something w sugar and electrolytes
question
heat stroke- its important to...
answer
cool them immediately immerse them in water if possible acting norm--> stop cooling them
question
signs of heat stroke
answer
confusion feeling faint or fatigued dizziness fainting nausea vomiting muscle cramps seizure
question
actions to take to help someone w heat stroke
answer
call 911 put person in cool water up to neck if possible or spray w cool water unresponsive/not breathing norm --> cpr
question
signs of frostbite
answer
skin over the frostbitten area is white, waxy, grayish yellow frostbite area is cold or numb area is hard, skin doesn't move when you push
question
actions to help someone w frostbite
answer
make sure the scene is safe move person to warm place get the first aid kit wear PPE call 911 remove wet or tight clothing and pat body dry put dry clothes on and cover w blanket remove tight rings or bracelet from frostbitten part
question
FROSTBITE DO NOTS
answer
don't try to thaw frozen part if they could refreeze b4 med care dont rub FB area- touch gently
question
signs of low body temp/hypothermia
answer
skin= cool to touch shivering- stops when bod temp is rly low confusion personality change sleepiness lack of concern stiff ridged muscles skin= blue and ice cold maybe dead were not quite sure
question
actions to help a person w hypothermia
answer
make sure the scene is safe get person out of cold remove wet clothing pat person dry -> blanket get the first aid kit and AED wear PPE dry clothes cover head and body not face until someone comes unresponsive/not breathing norm-> cpr
question
questions poison control dispatcher may ask
answer
name of poison describe it how much ingested how old is person weight of person when did poisioning happen feeling/acting
question
actions to take for scene safety in a poison emergency
answer
make sure the scene is safe look for signs of poisions near by look for spilled or leaked container if scene is unsafe don't approach tell ppl to move away if there is multi ppl poisioned stay outta there get the first aid kit and AED call 911 tell dispatcher everything u know
question
actions to help a person who has poison on the skin or in the eyes
answer
make sure the scene is safe wear PPE move person to area w fresh air and no posion wash/remove poision safely washy stations remove clothing and jewlery in contact w poision brush off dry powder/ solid substence from skin run lots of water over the affected area until someone comes if eye is effected- blink and rise eye w water unresponsive- cpr USE A MASK FOR BREATHS
question
AHA Adult Chain of Survival
answer
3 links: 1) immediately recognize emergency and call 911 2) perform early CPR with emphasis on chest compressions 3) use AED as soon as its available
question
Do not interrupt compressions for more than....
answer
10 seconds to give breaths or for any other reason
question
if the patient has a medicine patch were AED pads need to be applied...
answer
remove medicine patch, wipe area clean, then apply AED pads
question
naloxone is a drug that...
answer
reverses the effects of opioids
question
common opioids are
answer
morphine hydrocodone heroin
question
how to use naloxone
answer
internasal spray or an autoinjector like epi pen should only be given by someone trained or can recognize an opioid overdose
question
naloxone only works for...
answer
opioid overdose not other types of opioid overdoses
question
actions to take for someone w an opioid overdose
answer
shout for help have someone call 911, get naloxone, and AED use naloxone asap check for breathing unresponsive--> CPR no one nearby--> 5 rounds of CPR call 911 and get naloxone and AED return to person and give naloxone cont CPR if unres. stop if res.
question
AHA pediatric chain of survival
answer
1) prevent injury and sudden cardiac arrest 2) give CPR asap 3) call 911
question
child comprssions
answer
use 1 hand if you cant push down at least 1/3 (2 inches) of the way then use two hands
question
rate for compressions
answer
100-120 comp per min
question
child pads are used when..
answer
younger than 8
question
infant CPR
answer
1 month-1 year 2 fingers 1.5 in deep tap foot and shout name
Get an explanation on any task
Get unstuck with the help of our AI assistant in seconds
New