HOSA CPR and First Aid

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Ask before First Aid
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right to refusal refuse: 911 and stay w them till help arrives
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Key steps to First Aid
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assess scene phone for help take universal precautions find problem protect privacy
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asess scene while…
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you are providing first aid
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move an injured person if…
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the scene is unsafe or if he/she is in danger
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multiple people at the scene…
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ask one of them to call 911
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PPE
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Nonlatex gloves eye protection mask for giving breaths
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actions for universal precautions
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PPE disposal of anything w blood on it waste bag disposal after taking off gloves, wash hands for 20 sec
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actions for exposure to blood
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remove gloves and wash hands for 20 seconds rinse eyes nose and inside of your mouth w water and soap or anywhere else w blood contact a health care provider asap
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find the problem
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responsive/unresponsive check for a pulse breathing- look for any obvi signs of injury look for med info jewelry
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should i move an ill or injured person?
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generally- no. ESPECIALLY if there could be a spinal or pelvic injury. MOVE IF: area is unsafe, roll person onto side if unresponsive and breathing (keep airway open for vomiting)
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mild airway blockage
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can talk or make sounds can cough loudly actions: stand by and let the person cough worried: call 911
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severe airway blockage
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cannot breathe, talk, or make sounds has a cough that has no sound makes the choking sign actions: act quickly follow steps to help
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Choking adult
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ask are you choking nod yes- say you’re going to help stand or kneel behind the person wrap arms around the waist so fists are in front fist w one hand thumb side of fist slightly above the belly button and well below the breast bone grasp fist w your other hand give quick upward thrusts into the abdomen give thrusts until the object is forced out and the person can breathe, cough, or speak or until he becomes unresponsive
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pregnant or large
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chest thrusts instead of abdominal thrusts arms under armpits hands on lower half of breastbone
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choking infant
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face down on your forearm support infants head and jaw with hand 5 back slaps object doesn’t come out- turn infant onto back while supporting head 5 chest thrusts using two fingers same place as CPR repeat 5 back slaps
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unresponsive + no breathing or only gasping
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provide CPR
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open airway look for objects in back of throat
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see object take it out DO NOT do a blind finger sweep. could cause the object to get lodged further back into the airway
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mild allergic reactions
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stuffy nose, sneezing, and itchy eyes itchy skin hives
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severe allergic reactions
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trouble breathing swelling of tongue and face signs of shock
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epic pen
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rub for ten seconds after injection
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sudden cardiac arrest
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abnormal heart rhythm heart malfunctions and stops breathing unexpectedly
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heart attack
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clot problem blocks blood flow
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signs of heart attack
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chest discomfort discomfort in other parts of the body shortness of breath, cold sweats, nausea, lightheadedness
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less typical signs of HA in women, elderly, and diabetics
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an ache in chest heartburn indigestion the unfomfortable feeling in back, jaw, neck, or shoulder shortness of breath nausea vomiting
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fainting
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lay the person flat on the floor 911 if the person doesn’t improve or is unresponsive unresponsive- CPR
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signs of low blood sugar in a person with diabetes
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irritable hungry thirsty weak sleepy sweaty
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actions to take for someone w low BS
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ask them to eat or drink something w sugar IF person cant sit up or swallow- don’t force them have them sit quietly or lie down no improvement in 15 mins: call 911
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warning signs of stroke FAST
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Face drooping Arm weakness Speech difficulty Time to call 911
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actions to help someone who may have a stroke
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have someone call 911 and get AED note time when stroke first appears remain with the person till more advanced healthcare providers arrive and take over not breathing normally or gasping gove CPR
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signs of seizure
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lose muscle control jerking movements in arms legs and other parts of the body fall to the ground stop responding
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actions to take to help someone w a seizure
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move furniture and objects out of the way place a small pad or towel under the head call 911
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actions to take after seizure
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check if they’re responsive and breathing stay w them until someone else comes vomiting or fluids in mouth roll them onto their side unresponsove or not breathing normally, cpr
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dressing vs bandage
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dressing- clean material used directly on a wound to stop bleeding. gauze or cloth bandage- material used to protect or cover an injured body part. also can be used to keep pressure on a wound
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when to call 911 for bleeding
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lots of bleeding cant stop the bleeding see signs of shock suspect head, neck, or spine injury not sure what to do
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actions to control bleeding
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direct pressure on the gauze doesn’t stop add more gauze don’t pull dressing off wrap a bandage over the dressing
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tourniquet stick is called…
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windlass
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applying a PRE-MADE tourniquet
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make sure the scene is safe call 911 get AED and first aid kit wear PPE place T 2 in above injury if possible tighten until bleeding stops note the time leave T alone until ppl come
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applying and making a tourniquet
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make sure the scene is safe call 911 get AED and first aid kit wear PPE fold cloth or bandage so its at least 1 inch wide place T 2 in above injury if possible wrap ends around a small hand tool or something tighten until bleeding stops secure hand tool note the time leave T alone until ppl come
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signs of shock
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feel weak, faint, or dizzy feel nauseated or thirsty have a pale or grayish face be restless, agitated, or confused be cold and clammy to the touch
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actions to help a person in shock
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make sure the scene is safe call 911 get AED and first aid kit help the person lie on his back cover the person with a blanket to keep them warm check to see if CPR is needed
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bleeding from the nose
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make sure the scene is safe wear PPE have the person sit and lean forward pinch the soft part of the nose on both sides w a clean dressing place constant pressure on the nostrils for a few mins until the bleeding stops if it continues, press harder call 911 if it doesn’t stop in 15 mins, bleeding heavy, or if they have trouble breathing
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bleeding from the mouth
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make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE if bleeding comes from tongue, lip, or cheek and you can reach it easily, apply pressure with gauze or a clean cloth if you haven’t called 911 and you cant stop the bleed or if the person has trouble breathing call 911
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actions to help someone w a tooth injury
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make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE check person mouth for any missing or loose teeth or parts of teeth if a tooth is chipped, gently clean the injured area and call a dentist if the tooth is loose have the person bite down on a piece of gauze to keep the tooth in place and call a dentist if the tooth has come out, it may be possible to reattach– don’t hold onto it by the root apply pressure w gauze to stop bleeding in the empty tooth socket clean the area where the tooth was located w saline or clean water put the tooth in: egg white, coconut water, or whole milk if none available, store tooth in injured person’s saliva, not in the mouth take person and tooth to dentist or Emergency Dept
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signs of eye injury
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pain trouble sleeping brushing bleeding redness swelling
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help someone w an eye injury
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make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE if something small gets in eye rinse w water call 911 if- object doesn’t come out, the person has extreme pain, or still have trouble seeing tell the person to keep their eyes closed until someone comes
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help someone w a toxic eye injury
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make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE chemicals are in person’s eye- rinse w water for at least 15 mins or until someone comes if eyewash station is nearby or u have access to eyewash kit use it if u don’t have them- use water from the tap or normal saline or contact solution call 911
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penetrating and puncturing injuries
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if object is stuck in the body, leave it there
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actions to take for a penetrating or puncturing injury
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make sure the scene is safe get someone to call 911 get the first aid kit and AED wear PPE try to stop the bleeding you can see don’t remove the object
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actions to give someone w amputation
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make sure the scene is safe call 911 get the first aid kit and AED wear PPE stop bleeding from injured area w pressure press for a long time amputated part—> protect it
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actions to protect an amputated part
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make sure the scene is safe rinse amputated part w clean water cover it w clean dressing place it in a watertight plastic bag place bag in another container w ice or ice and water LABEL IT w name date and time make sure body part gets to hospital w the injured person
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signs of internal bleeding
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injury from car issues fall from a hight injury in abdomen or chest like bruising from seatbelts sports injuries shortness of breath after an injury pain in abdomen or chest after an injury if you cough up blood or vomit blood after an injury signs of shock without external bleeding knife or gunshot wound
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actions to help person w suspected internal bleeding
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make sure the scene is safe call 911 get the first aid kit and AED wear PPE have the person lie down and keep still check for signs of shock give CPR if needed
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signs of head, neck, and spinal injuries
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fell from a height was injured by a strong blow to the head was injured while diving involved in a car crash was in a crash after riding bike/motorbike especially w no helmet or if it broke
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signs of head injury
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doesn’t respond or only moans acts sleepy or confused vomits has trouble seeing, walking, or moving body parts has a seizure
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concussion signs
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feeling stunned or dazed confusion headache nausea or vomiting dizziness, unsteadiness, or difficulty in balance double vision or flashing lights loss of memory of events that happened before or after the injury
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spinal injury
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was in a car or bicycle crash has fallen has tingling or is weak in the extremities has a pain or tenderness in the neck or back appears intoxicated or not fully alert is 65 years of age or older has other painful injuries, especially to the head or neck
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CAUTION when a person has a spinal injury…
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do NOT twist or turn the head or neck unless its necessary to do CPR, move them out of danger, or reposition them bc of breathing problems, vomiting or fluid in the mouth
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actions to help a person with a possible head, neck, or spinal injuries
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make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit call 911 and get an AED have person remain still until someone comes don’t twist or turn their head or neck unless necessary
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actions to take for a person with a possible broken bone or spine
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make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE cover any open wound with a clean dressing put a towel on top of an injured body part and then put ice on it and keep it on for 20 min call 911 if there’s a large open wound, the injured body part is abnormally bent, or you’re not sure what to do if the injured body part hurts, the person should avoid using it until checked by a health care provider
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caution, if the injured part is bleeding…
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apply direct pressure to stop the bleed and apply a dressing to the wound before applying the splint leave bent and deformed body parts in bent or deformed position while applying splint
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actions to apply a splint
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make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE find object u can use to keep injured arm or leg from moving splint in a way to reduce pain and limit further injury the splint should be longer than the injured area and should support the joints above and below the injury after covering broken skin with a clean or sterile cloth, tie or tape splint to the injured limb so it supports the area use tape or gauze to secure snugly but not too tight to cut off circulation if using a heard splint, make sure you pad it with something soft like clothing or a towel keep the limb still until the injured person can be seen by a HC prov
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self-splinting
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place hand across chest and hold in place w other arm
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actions to take for small burns
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make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE cool the burn area immediately w cold but not ice cold water for at least 10 mins if you don’t have cold water, use a cool or cold clean compress run cold water on burn until it doesn’t hurt you may cover burn w a dry nonstick sterile or clean dressing
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only thing to put on a burn… never use…
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cool water and clean dressings ice
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actions to take for large burns
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make sure the scene is safe fire, lg burn, not sure what to do call 911 person or clothes, on fire: stop drop and roll cover person w wet blanket fire out- remove the wet blanket, remove jewelry and clothing not stick to skin for lg burns, cool burn area immediately w cold water for at least 10 mins after: cover w dry nonstick sterile or clean dressings cover person w dry blanket check for signs of shock person w lg burns should be seen by a HCP asap HCP can determine if additional treatment is necessary
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actions to take for an electrical injury
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make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit and AED wear PPE call 911 give CPR when it is safe to touch the person a HCP should check anyone who has an electrical injury ASAP
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electrical injury you may see…
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marks or wounds where electricity has entered or left the body there’s no way to tell how severe damage is based on outside marks
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electricity can…
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stop breathing or cause a deadly abnormal heart rhythm
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if there is a fallen power line…
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don’t try to enter area or move wires until power has been turned off
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don’t touch a person if…
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he is still in contact w the power source bc it can travel into you
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actions to take for an animal or human bite
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make sure the scene is safe be sure to wash the wound w plenty of soap and water apply a bag of ice and water wrapped in a towel to help w bruising and swelling if bruised/swelling use bag of ice and water wrapped in a tsiowel for 20 mins for all bites that break skin call HCP asap
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signs of poisonous snake bites
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pain at the bite area that keeps getting worse swelling of the bite area nausea vomiting sweating or weakness
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actions to take for a snake bite
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make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE ask another adult to move people away from the area and call 911 ask the injured person to stay still and calm and avoid moving body part that was bitten remove any tight clothing and jewelry wash area w running water and soap keep person still and calm until someone comes
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actions to help a person w a bite or a sting
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make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE bee- remove the stinger and scrape away venom sack w something hard and dull wash sting or bite area w water and soap but ice bag for 20 mins watch person for 30 mins for signs of allergic reaction. use epi pen if necessary
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signs of poisonous spider bites and scorpion stings
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severe pain at the site of bite/sting muscle cramps headache fever vomiting breathing problems seizures lack of response
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actions to help a person who has been bit/stung by a spider/scorpion
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make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE call 911 wash bite/sting area w running water and soap ice water wrapped in a towel on bite
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actions to help a person who has a tick bite
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get the first aid kit wear PPE use tweezers to grab the tick by mouth or head as close to the skin as possible avoid pinching the tick lift the tick straight out until persons skin tents and wait several seconds, the tick may let go put tick in plastic bag for med reasons wash bite area w running water and soap area w tick illness —> suggest HCP
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actions to help a person who has a marine bite or sting
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make sure the scene is safe get the first aid kit wear PPE keep the injured person quite and still wipe off stingers or tentacles w a gloved hand or towel sting= jelly fish—> rinse injured area for 30 seconds w vinegar if vinegar isn’t available use baking soda and water shower w VERYYYYY hot water until pain is gone or for 20 mins at least call 911 if allergic reaction or poision break skin—> HCP
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causes of dehydration
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heat exposure too much exercise vomiting diarrhea decreased fluid intake fever COULD LEAD TO SHOCK
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signs of dehydration
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weakness thirst or dry mouth dizziness confusion less urination than usual CALL HCP
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heat cramps
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painful muscle spasms occur in: calves arms stomach muscles back
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signs of heat cramps
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muscle cramps sweating headache
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actions to take to help a person who has heat cramps
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get the first aid kit wear PPE have the person rest and cool off have the person drink something w sugar or electrolytes if tolerable apply ice bag water w towel for 20 mins
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signs of heat exhaustion
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nausea dizziness vomiting muscle cramps feeling faint or fatigued heavy sweating
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actions to take for a person that has heat exhaustion
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get the first aid kit wear PPE call 911 have person lie down in a cool place remove as much of persons clothing as possible cool the person w cool water spray or place damp clothes on neck armpits and groin if person is responsive and can drink have them drink something w sugar and electrolytes
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heat stroke- its important to…
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cool them immediately immerse them in water if possible acting norm–> stop cooling them
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signs of heat stroke
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confusion feeling faint or fatigued dizziness fainting nausea vomiting muscle cramps seizure
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actions to take to help someone w heat stroke
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call 911 put person in cool water up to neck if possible or spray w cool water unresponsive/not breathing norm –> cpr
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signs of frostbite
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skin over the frostbitten area is white, waxy, grayish yellow frostbite area is cold or numb area is hard, skin doesn’t move when you push
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actions to help someone w frostbite
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make sure the scene is safe move person to warm place get the first aid kit wear PPE call 911 remove wet or tight clothing and pat body dry put dry clothes on and cover w blanket remove tight rings or bracelet from frostbitten part
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FROSTBITE DO NOTS
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don’t try to thaw frozen part if they could refreeze b4 med care dont rub FB area- touch gently
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signs of low body temp/hypothermia
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skin= cool to touch shivering- stops when bod temp is rly low confusion personality change sleepiness lack of concern stiff ridged muscles skin= blue and ice cold maybe dead were not quite sure
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actions to help a person w hypothermia
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make sure the scene is safe get person out of cold remove wet clothing pat person dry -> blanket get the first aid kit and AED wear PPE dry clothes cover head and body not face until someone comes unresponsive/not breathing norm-> cpr
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questions poison control dispatcher may ask
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name of poison describe it how much ingested how old is person weight of person when did poisioning happen feeling/acting
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actions to take for scene safety in a poison emergency
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make sure the scene is safe look for signs of poisions near by look for spilled or leaked container if scene is unsafe don’t approach tell ppl to move away if there is multi ppl poisioned stay outta there get the first aid kit and AED call 911 tell dispatcher everything u know
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actions to help a person who has poison on the skin or in the eyes
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make sure the scene is safe wear PPE move person to area w fresh air and no posion wash/remove poision safely washy stations remove clothing and jewlery in contact w poision brush off dry powder/ solid substence from skin run lots of water over the affected area until someone comes if eye is effected- blink and rise eye w water unresponsive- cpr USE A MASK FOR BREATHS
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AHA Adult Chain of Survival
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3 links: 1) immediately recognize emergency and call 911 2) perform early CPR with emphasis on chest compressions 3) use AED as soon as its available
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Do not interrupt compressions for more than….
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10 seconds to give breaths or for any other reason
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if the patient has a medicine patch were AED pads need to be applied…
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remove medicine patch, wipe area clean, then apply AED pads
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naloxone is a drug that…
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reverses the effects of opioids
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common opioids are
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morphine hydrocodone heroin
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how to use naloxone
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internasal spray or an autoinjector like epi pen should only be given by someone trained or can recognize an opioid overdose
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naloxone only works for…
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opioid overdose not other types of opioid overdoses
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actions to take for someone w an opioid overdose
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shout for help have someone call 911, get naloxone, and AED use naloxone asap check for breathing unresponsive–> CPR no one nearby–> 5 rounds of CPR call 911 and get naloxone and AED return to person and give naloxone cont CPR if unres. stop if res.
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AHA pediatric chain of survival
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1) prevent injury and sudden cardiac arrest 2) give CPR asap 3) call 911
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child comprssions
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use 1 hand if you cant push down at least 1/3 (2 inches) of the way then use two hands
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rate for compressions
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100-120 comp per min
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child pads are used when..
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younger than 8
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infant CPR
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1 month-1 year 2 fingers 1.5 in deep tap foot and shout name

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