Honors Biology Chapter 7 Study Guide

What is an Autotroph?
a self feeder, producer

What is a photoautotroph?
an autotroph that makes food with the use of light energy

What photoautotrophs live in water environments?
algae and cyanobacteria (green bacteria)

Where does photosynthesis occur?
in the chloroplasts

Where are chloroplasts found?
mesophyll cells

What is the stroma?
the inner membrane of a chloroplast that is filled with fluid

What is a thylakoid?
a membranous sac, many of which make up a granum

What is a Stomata?
a tiny pore where oxygen and carbon dioxide leave and enter the cell

Where does the oxygen made in photosynthesis come from?
the splitting of water

What is oxidized in photosynthesis?
H₂O

What is reduced in photosynthesis?
CO₂

How many stages of photosynthesis are there?
two

What is a light reaction?
a reaction that converts light energy to chemical energy (stored as ATP or NADPH)

What is the Calvin Cycle?
a process that assembles sugar molecules from CO₂ ising ATP and NADPH from light reactions

Where does the Calvin Cycle occur?
stroma

What is the electromagnetic spectrum?
the full range of electromagnetic wavelengths

What is a photon?
a fixed quantity of energy

What is a photosystem?
a cluster of pigments that contains chlorophyll and carotenoids, which gather light

How many photosystems are there?
two

What is the equation for photosynthesis?
6CO₂ + 6H₂O + energy → 6O₂ + C₆H₁₂O₆

Where does the energy in photosynthesis come from?
light

Name a product of photosynthesis
oxygen

Which organelle does photosynthesis take place in?
Chloroplast

What part of the leaf does most photosynthesis take place in?
Mesophyll

What are the chemical products of the light reactions?
NADPH and ATP

These membranes catch light coming into a chloroplast
Thylakoids

What is a stack of Thylakoids called?
Granum (pl-grana)

_____energy travels through space as rhythmic waves.
Electromagnetic

What becomes “excited” when chlorophyll absorbs an electron?
electron

What part of photosynthesis creates sugar?
Calvin Cycle

Where does the Calvin Cycle occur?
stroma

What gives leaves their green pigment?
chlorophyll

How does carbon dioxide enter leaves?
stomata

Which has more energy ? Short wave length or longer wave length?
short wave length

What are the light harvesting complexes in a thylakoid called?
photosystems

The process by which plants make food from carbon dioxide and water.
photosynthesis

The incorporation of carbon dioxide into organic compounds
Carbon fixation

The reaction ______ is the chlorophyll molecule that donates excited electrons.
center

What is the color of light related to?
wavelength

This is the source of energy for photosynthesis.
Light

These are yellow-orange pigments in a leaf.
carotenoids

What is the green tissue in the interior of a leaf called?
Mesophyll

A photosynthetic ______ is an organism that uses light to make food.
autotroph

How many stages does photosynthesis have?
two

What type of chlorophyll is found in photosystem 2?
Chlorophyll A (P680)

What type of chlorophyll is found in Photosystem 1?
P700

What type of reactions occur in the electron transport chain?
Redox reactions

Where do NADPH molecules go to after being reduced?
calvin cycle

What is recycled in the Calvin Cycle?
RuBP

What enzyme is used in the calvin cycle?
rubisco

Where do the ATP and NADPH in the Calvin cycle come from?
Light Reactions

What is the first step in the Calvin cycle?
Carbon Fixation

What is the second step in the Calvin Cycle?
Reduction

What is the third step in the Calvin Cycle?
Release of one molecule of G3P

What is the fourth step in the Calvin Cycle?
Regeneration of RuBP

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