Homework 2

The prefrontal cortex is involved in tasks of:
maintaining attention to tasks.
Myelination occurs in the brain when:
nerve cells become insulated with a layer of fat.
Myelination in the brain serves to:
increase the speed of information traveling through the nerve cells.
Three-year-olds scribble all over the page, but 4-year-olds can make more precise drawings that adults can understand. This is because 4-year-olds have more highly developed:
fine motor skills.
The stage of preoperational thought lasts from age ________ years until age ________ years.
2; 7
Jean Piaget claimed that children between the ages of 2 and 7 years are in a stage called preoperational thought, so named because he believed that:
children’s ability to think with concepts is not yet operational at this age.
The drawings that 3-year-old Sally creates tend to be rather inventive and include scribbled designs that represent people, houses, cars, dogs, and so on. Which Piagetian stage/substage of cognitive development is Sally in?
symbolic function substage
A young child might be heard saying, “That tree pushed the leaf off and it fell down.” The child’s belief that the tree is capable of action is referred to as:
Intuitive thought is to _______ as symbolic function is to ______.
reasoning; mental representation
The belief in the permanence of certain attributes of objects or situations in spite of superficial changes is called:
Which of the following best describes the relation between centration and conservation?
Lack of conservation is reflected in centration.
For Jean Piaget, failing a conservation task indicates that the child is:
demonstrating centration.
In general, conservation involves the ability to understand that changes in physical arrangement:
are irrelevant for the total amount.
In explaining the ability to conserve, Rochel Gelman focuses on ______, whereas Jean Piaget focused on ______.
attention; centration.
Lev Vygotsky differs from Jean Piaget in how he stresses the relative importance of _______ for cognitive development.
social interaction
As children move through the zone of proximal development (ZPD), they:
take the responsibility of the task they are learning from the adult who is helping them.
When teachers adjust their level of support and guidance to the level of skill of the student, it is called:
Which of the following describes what Lev Vygotsky believed about the development of thought and language?
Thought and language develop independently at first and merge later in development.
Which of the following is TRUE of Lev Vygotsky’s educational applications?
Practical teaching should begin toward the upper limit of the zone of proximal development (ZPD).
Which type of classrooms has been found in research to enhance advanced writing skills, and improve self-regulatory and cognitive control skills in at-risk preschool children?
Montessori classrooms
A police officer visits Laura’s and Brett’s class to discuss safety rules. To attract the children’s attention, the officer brings colorful balloons and lots of jars of bubbles for the children to blow. Later, Laura tells her parents all about the balloons and bubbles but cannot remember any of the safety rules the officer presented. Laura obviously paid more attention to what was:
Researchers believe that after the age of 6 or 7 years, children become more reflective and less impulsive in their thinking, because they learn to pay less attention to what is _______ and more attention to what is ______.
salient; relevant
In short-term memory, individuals retain information for:
15 to 30 seconds.
Which of the following age groups of children is the most susceptible to the possibility that a suggestion will distort their memories?
The memories of young children:
can be compromised by suggestions.
At what age do children have a solid understanding of false beliefs?
4-5 years
What is morphology?
the units of meaning involved in word formation
While trying to explain to his son the rules of football, Jason says, “You see, if our team gets the ball in the endzone, it is a touchdown!” Jason’s son looks at him quizzically, and says, “What is that, Daddy?” Because his son does not know the meaning of the word “touchdown,” Jason has made a goof in the area of:
Which of the following has been shown to be related to the development of advanced emergent literacy skills in children?
the education level of the mother
The kindergarten director says, “We believe that there is a specific set of skills children need to do well in first grade, and we make sure the children learn those skills in our kindergarten. We spend as little time as possible on social and physical things and concentrate on teaching them the facts. If children aren’t keeping up, we provide them with extra opportunities to practice until they learn the material.” This kindergarten program is:
not child-centered.
_________ practice focuses on the typical developmental patterns of children and the uniqueness of each child.
Developmentally appropriate
Which of the following is NOT one of the stated goals of a developmentally appropriate practice type of education?
better physical health
Project __________ is a program designed to break the cycle of poverty and poor education for children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds.
Head Start
Project __________ is a program designed to attend to the unique educational needs of children from birth through three years of age.
Early Head Start
Which of the following statements can best summarize the effects of early childhood education?
Early childhood education has positive effects if it is developmentally appropriate and balances foci on cognitive and socioemotional development.
Which statement below summarizes Erik Erikson’s view of how guilt, initiative, and conscience operate during the early childhood period?
Children’s consciences make them feel guilty about some of the initiatives that they take.
According to Erik Erikson, the psychosocial stage that characterizes early childhood is:
initiative versus guilt.
According to Erik Erikson, what is the “great governor” of initiative?
In general terms, the preschool child’s understanding of self is:
Which of the following emotions are not in the same “category” as the other three?
A parent who denies, ignores, or tries to change the negative emotions of their children would be called an:
emotion-dismissing parent.
When her mother asks Selena why she feels so sad, Selena says it is because her best friend just lost her puppy. Selena is exhibiting:
In order for children to take effective moral action, they need to be able to __________ and ________.
learn to identify others’ emotional states; anticipate what will improve others’ emotional states
Jean Piaget was primarily interested in:
moral reasoning of children.
Jerome and Hani got up early on Saturday morning and decided to make “breakfast in bed” for their mother. While reaching for the bed tray in the back of the hall cabinet, they accidentally bumped and broke one of their mother’s favorite porcelain dolls. Jerome knew that he was going to get into “big trouble,” and he thought that he should get into big trouble. Hani told him not to worry because Mom would understand that it was an accident. In what stage would Jean Piaget categorize the moral reasoning, respectively, of Jerome and Hani?
Jerome—heteronomous morality; Hani—autonomous morality
Katrina becomes extremely upset when her brother tries to change the rules of their game, yelling, “You can’t do that! You can’t change rules!” Katrina is exhibiting which of the following types of moral reasoning?
heteronomous morality
Young children tend to believe that when a rule is broken, punishment will follow inevitably. This is referred to as belief in:
immanent justice.
Jean Piaget’s approach to studying morality focuses on ________, whereas the behavioral approach focuses on __________
moral reasoning; moral behavior.
A child’s sense of being male or female is referred to as their:
gender identity
The __________ theory of gender holds that gender development is governed by a child’s attraction to his or her opposite-sex parent.
Researchers refer to elementary school playgrounds as “gender school” because:
children reinforce and punish each other for gender behaviors.
Research on peer pressure to conform to traditional gender roles suggests that:
there is greater pressure for boys.
At what age do children show a preference to spend time with a same-sex playmate?
around 3 years old
Children between the ages of 4 and 12 usually prefer to play in groups that are made up of:
the same sex.
According to Maccoby (1998, 2002), gender is important in:
all of these.
A cognitive structure that consists of a network of associations that guides and organizes an individual’s perception is called a:
Which of these is TRUE of gender schema theory?
This theory states how ideas of gender appropriateness are developed.
A parent who is very uninvolved in a child’s life, showing neither responsiveness nor control, is a(n):
neglectful parent.
A parent who uses a restrictive, punitive style to control the behavior of their children is a(n):
authoritarian parent.
Suzie just brought home her report card. She earned Cs and Ds in all of her classes. When looking at the grades, her father stated, “You are an embarrassment to me! You better get those grades up, or else!” Suzie’s dad is most likely a(n):
authoritarian parent.
Ursula just brought home her report card. She earned Cs and Ds in all of her classes. Ursula’s mom’s first response was “Oh, you must be very disappointed.” Then, the two of them sat down and tried to determine why she was having difficulty and what they could do to help her get her grades up. They decided that Ursula would start seeing a tutor after school. Ursula’s mom is most likely a(n):
authoritative parent.
Suzanne believes that helping children develop their independence while still placing appropriate boundaries and limits on their actions is the most important function of parenting. Suzanne is probably a(n):
authoritative parent.
Which parenting style leads to social incompetence in children?
Penelope has low self-esteem and is unhappy. She appears to be anxious around her peers and has few friends. Her teacher asks her why she sat by herself at lunch. Penelope states that the other kids would not want her to join them, because she is ugly and dumb. It is most likely that she grew up in a home with parents who were:
Which of the following parenting styles has high demands and low responsiveness?
In a recent national survey of U.S. parents with 3- to 4-year-old children, about __________ reported that they frequently yelled at their children.
Which of the following countries has the most favorable attitude toward corporal punishment?
United States
Research linking corporal punishment and child behavior has been associated with all of the following, EXCEPT:
higher levels of moral internalization.
In response to child misbehavior, most child psychologists recommend:
all of these.
The support that parents give each other in raising children, including coordination of rules and parenting efforts, is called:
Of the 905,000 children in the United States who were found to be victims of child abuse in 2002, __________ were abused by their parent(s).
The term “child maltreatment” includes all but which of the following possibilities?
tough love
Marella and Ricardo have recently had a very serious fight. They pushed and smacked each other, and both ended up with bruises and black eyes. Their young son, Juan, witnessed the entire event. Which of the following forms of child maltreatment would best describe this situation?
physical abuse
__________ is almost always present when other forms of child maltreatment are identified.
Child neglect
What are the long-term effects of being maltreated as a child?
None of these
According to Dunn (2007) there are three important aspects to sibling relationships. Which of the following is not one of those points?
the age differences that exist in the relationship
In general, which of the following best describes birth-order effects?
They are limited in predicting behavior considering the many other influencing factors.
Why do more and more researchers think that birth-order influences on child development have been emphasized too strongly?
The overly simplistic model that suggests that birth-order effects are very large ignores the complexity of influences on a child’s development.
Which of the following countries has the highest percentage of single-parent families?
United States
Which idea about divorce is best supported by available evidence?
Divorces inevitably impair children’s ability to adapt to difficulties in their lives.
Which theory of divorce suggests that children can recognize and distinguish between marital conflict that can be negative for children and that which can be positive for children?
emotion security theory
With regard to family processes, which of the following patterns has been supported by research?
disequilibrium immediately after the divorce, then restabilization 2 years later
Approximately __________ of lesbians are parents.
Approximately __________ of gay men are parents.
Children who grew up in gay and lesbian families usually self-identify themselves as:
Compared to lower socioeconomic status (SES) parents, higher SES parents are more likely to:
emphasize delaying gratification.
Social class differences in parenting behaviors have been found in the United States and most Western cultures. Lower socioeconomic status parents are more likely to __________ than middle-class parents.
use physical discipline
What does a child get from peers that he or she typically cannot get from siblings?
an idea of how the child compares with other children the same age
Tatia wants to know how good a tennis player she is. To determine this, she should play with:
the captain of the tennis team.
Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson considered play to be valuable because:
it allows children to relieve and master tension and anxiety.
Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky considered play to be valuable because:
it advances the child’s cognitive development.
From whose theory of cognitive development was the concept of sensorimotor play derived?
Jean Piaget
Which type of play is most common among 10- to 12-year-olds?
Overall, the effects of television on children’s development are:
some positive, some negative.
Children’s shows like Sesame Street are:
good at modeling prosocial behaviors for children.
Many intelligence tests are biased in that they:
reflect the cultures of some test takers more than others.
Is it possible to develop an intelligence test that is truly culturally fair?
Yes. It requires adapting the test language to fit the test-taker’s culture.
The ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems is called:
Questions on intelligence tests often measure _______ thinking.
The type of thinking that produces many answers to the same question is called:
divergent thinking.
Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development has been criticized in four areas. Which of the following is NOT one of those areas?
Some cognitive abilities emerge earlier than Piaget thought.
The neo-Piagetians seem to incorporate ideas from another view about cognitive development and learning. What other view is this?
information-processing approach to cognition
Howard Gardner has developed _______ types of intelligence.
Colin does not earn high grades on standardized tests but has a black belt in martial arts. According to Gardner, Colin has _______ skills.
Who among the following would have good spatial abilities?
an architect
All of the following are types of intelligence according to Howard Gardner, EXCEPT:
artistic skills.
Researchers have found that increased aerobic activity is associated with increases in which important cognitive activity in children?
What does the research indicate about gender differences in learning disabilities?
Boys are more likely to have a learning disability.
About __________ of all school-age children in the United States receive special education or related services.
The most common problem that characterizes children with learning disabilities is the inability to:
pay attention.
Tavonte has been having serious problems in his math class. As hard as he and his teachers have tried, he is having major difficulty grasping the basic concepts of arithmetic functions. Which learning disorder might Tavonte be suffering with?
Neuroimaging studies have found that a particular part of the brain does not peak in children with ADHD until about 10 years of age, where it peaks in children without that diagnosis by the age of 7. Which part of the brain is referred to in these studies?
A. the lateral geniculate nucleus of the hypothalamus
the cerebral cortex
Currently, researchers are considering all of the following as possible causes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), EXCEPT:
child abuse.
Quentin has been diagnosed with a relatively mild autism spectrum disorder. He often engages in repetitive routines, and he is preoccupied with airplanes. He studies them constantly, reads books and watches documentaries, and makes his father take him to the Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C., every summer. Quentin might be most aptly diagnosed with:
Asperger syndrome
Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development has been criticized in four areas. Which of the following is NOT one of those areas?
Some cognitive abilities emerge earlier than Piaget thought.
Two identical glasses are filled to the same level with juice. A child then watches as the juice from one glass is poured into a taller, thinner glass. A child who is capable of concrete operational thought might say:
“It’s still the same amount of juice—you can tell by just pouring it back.”
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of concrete operational thought?
the ability to think abstractly
To understand how a family tree showing relationships among relatives works, children must be able to use the skill of:
Mimi looks at her mother and says, “Grandma can’t be your mother, because she is my grandmother.” Mimi does not yet understand:
Julio understands that although he is older than his brother, he is younger than his sister. This is because Julio understands:
In a famous study, Chi (1978) found that 10-year-old children who knew a lot about chess remembered chessboard positions better than adults who did not play much chess. Evidently, these 10-year-old chess experts could do this because they:
had more prior knowledge about chess than the adults.
To remember that Madison is the capital of Wisconsin, Greg thinks about a cupcake (because Dolly Madison is a cupcake company) with a slice of cheese on top (because Wisconsin is the cheese state). This is an example of using _______ to improve memory.
mental imagery
__________ consist of deliberate mental activities to improve the processing of information.
Which of the following is a strategy that helps us remember information by making it more personally meaningful?
The ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems is called:
Questions on intelligence tests often measure _______ thinking.
The type of thinking that produces many answers to the same question is called:
divergent thinking.
Students who are high on Robert J. Sternberg’s ________ intelligence tend to be favored in conventional schooling.
Although Casey has scored poorly on standardized intelligence tests, can use ideas, implement them, and put them into practice. According to Sternberg, he has _______ intelligence.
Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory and Howard Gardner’s theory of intelligence are examples of the idea that:
intelligence consists of a number of specific abilities.
Many intelligence tests are biased in that they:
reflect the cultures of some test takers more than others.
Is it possible to develop an intelligence test that is truly culturally fair?
Yes. It requires adapting the test language to fit the test-taker’s culture.
Paul has an IQ of 68. He lives in his own apartment and supports himself with a job. He has many friends, goes bowling, and eats out frequently. He has no difficulty adapting to everyday life. According to the definition of mental retardation, Paul is:
A. organically retarded.
mildly retarded.
Organic retardation is caused by:
physical damage to brain tissues.
Which public service announcement would be most beneficial in preventing cultural-familial retardation?
Give your children an enriched environment.
Lewis Terman’s (1925) study of approximately 1,500 children with high IQs shows that:
high IQ in childhood is a good predictor of success in adulthood.
The _______ approach stresses that reading instruction should parallel a child’s natural language learning.
Which of the following is an example of bilingual education in a U.S. school?
Maria’s first language is Spanish, so she has a teacher who speaks Spanish during some of her classes until Maria can learn more English.
Experts suggest that it takes approximately ______ years for an immigrant child to learn to speak English proficiently, and approximately ____ years for that same child to learn to read English proficiently.
3 to 5; 7
How would an 8-year-old child most likely describe herself?
“I am nice, and I have a friend named Julie.”
In terms of self-understanding, children in late childhood are more likely than children in early childhood to:
compare themselves with their peers.
Which of the following terms refers to domain-specific evaluations of the self?
Self-esteem is to _______ self-evaluation as self-concept is to _______ self-evaluation.
global; domain-specific
The correlation between self-esteem and school performance is:
Research reported by Baumeister and others in 2003 shows that individuals with high self-esteem:
can be prosocial or antisocial.
Tadako’s teachers have steadily been working on her self-esteem by frequently commenting on how nice it is to have Tadako as a member of their classes. Which strategy are these teachers engaging in?
emotional support and social approval
Children have the highest self-esteem when:
they are emotionally supported for their efforts.
Which of the following is an example of improving a child’s self-esteem through achievement?
letting a child cope with a problem without assistance
Jermaine and Latoya want to help their daughter develop high self-esteem. What should they do?
teach her to face problems realistically and cope with them
Despite the fact that the material being covered in the current chapter of Michael’s math class is quite difficult, he is very confident that he will be able to master the concepts if he works hard. Michael is demonstrating a high level of
Research into the effects of high levels of self-regulation have found that higher self-control in children between the ages of 4 and 10 years was related to lower levels of:
deviant behavior.
Erik Erikson’s fourth stage of development, appearing during middle and late childhood, is called:
industry versus inferiority.
Ten-year-old Julio cannot get his science project to work. In fact, it seems to him that nothing he makes ever works properly. According to Erik Erikson, Julio is at risk for developing a sense of:
All of the following are changes in emotional development during middle and late childhood, EXCEPT:
improvement in the ability to interpret subtle social cues.
Older children are better at coping with stress than younger children for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT:
they are better able to deny stressful events.
Kelson is trying to help his son deal with the World Trade Center tragedy of September 11, 2001. One strategy Kelson should NOT implement is to:
allow his child to watch repeated news footage of the tragedy.
Both Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg agree that:
cognitive stages are the underpinnings of morality.
Tiesha’s behavior is controlled by external rewards and punishments reflecting which level of Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development?
preconventional reasoning
Which stage of Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development often involves children adopting their parents’ moral standards?
mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
Your best friend sideswipes a car and drives away without reporting the accident. You do not report it either, even though you worry about the owner’s loss, but over the next few days, you do talk to your friend about it. Your actions suggest that you are in which of Kohlberg’s moral reasoning stages?
individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange
To investigate the nature of moral thought, Lawrence Kohlberg presented children with a story in which a character named Heinz faces a moral dilemma: the only way to save his mother’s life is to steal an experimental drug he cannot buy. When Ellie is read the story and asked whether Heinz should have stolen the drug, she states, “No, it is against the law to steal. The husband should find another way to get the drug.” Ellie is in the _______ stage of moral development.
individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange
A person is arrested for stealing company documents and says, “Yes, I did steal the documents, and I am willing to go to jail for it. These documents prove that the company was engaging in a cover-up of the unsafe properties of its chemical. I think the public has a right to know about it.” Lawrence Kohlberg would classify this person as using _______ morality.
According to Lawrence Kohlberg, the highest and most internalized level of moral development is to be found in the stage called:
universal ethical principles.
Which of the following statements represents a criticism of Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development?
It is not what one thinks, but what one does that is most important for morality.
How is Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory culturally biased?
Some cultures do not recognize the idea of morality but rather think in terms of the way things are versus the way things could be. Lawrence Kohlberg stresses “should be” instead.
Carol Gilligan has criticized Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development because:
it does not include a role for reasoning about relationships and concern for others.
Carol Gilligan reports that males tend to use a(n) _______ perspective when making moral judgments, whereas females tend to use a(n) _______ perspective.
justice; care
If you were to ask a 6-year-old child to give you another word for “fair,” which of the following responses would you be most likely to get?
The fact that well-adjusted females used to be thought of as dependent, nurturing, and uninterested in power and well-adjusted males were thought of as independent, aggressive, and powerful reflects deeply rooted:
gender stereotypes.
Women tend to have about _______.
twice as much body fat as men
Females are often perceived as more emotionally expressive than males. This could be because females:
are socialized to show their emotions more than males.
Boys are more _______ aggressive, whereas girls can be more _______ aggressive.
physically; verbally
Across childhood and adolescence, research suggests that:
girls engage in more prosocial behavior.
Cassandra is assertive and nurturant. She could be described as:
Jeff is independent, flexible, cheerful, friendly, assertive, tactful, comfortable with making decisions, sensitive to the feelings of others, and sympathetic. Jeff can best be described as:
Androgynous individuals are often thought to be more mentally healthy than nonandrogynous people. This statement is TRUE in:
contexts that value androgyny.
Why are there different patterns of gender-related attitudes and behavior in different ethnic groups?
The status of females in relation to males is different in different ethnic groups.
As children grow older, parents tend to spend:
less time with them.
As Trey grows from early to middle childhood, the issues that he and his parents discuss and disagree about will begin to include:
household chores.
Which of the following would probably be the most developmentally appropriate type of discipline tactic for an 11-year-old?
deprivation of privileges
Middle childhood is a period in which some control is transferred from parent to child. This process involves:
Approximately ________ of stepfamily couples stay remarried.
_______ percent of children in stepfamilies show adjustment problems.
By the time children get to middle and late childhood, they will spend approximately ___ of their time interacting with peers, as opposed to only 10% when they are 2 years of age.
All of the following are peer statuses, EXCEPT:
Bellah sits in the back of the room, and very few of the children in class even know his name. Bellah’s sociometric status is probably:
Blanca is a “bully,” and no one likes to play with her. Blanca’s sociometric status is probably:
Micah has been rejected by most of her peers, whereas Ezra is neglected by them. Which of the following would be expected about these two children?
Micah will probably be more disruptive in school and at home than Ezra.
Children who are bullied have increased feelings of:
all of these.
Which of the following types of bullying is a girl most likely to be the victim of?
being hit, slapped, or pushed
Research has found that between 70 and 80% of victims of bullying are victimized by:
a classmate.
Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of friendship that is proposed by Gottman and Parker?
healthy conflict
The ability of a friendship to help a child see him/herself as competent, attractive, and worthwhile serves which of Gottman and Parker’s functions of friendship?
ego support
By the time a child graduates from high school, she/he will have spent approximately _________ hours in a classroom.
Which view of education sees the teacher as a monitor and guider who helps a child build his/her own understanding of the world?
constructivist approach
In what year was the No Child Left Behind legislation signed into law?
Though schools should be fully integrated in terms of the racial and ethnic characteristics of their students, research finds that almost one-third of all African-American and Latino students attend schools in which _____ percent or more of their classmates are from minority groups.
All of the following are effective ways to improve relationships among ethnically diverse students, EXCEPT:
segregating the classroom into groups.
Which of the following does NOT help explain why children from Asian cultures show superiority in mathematical abilities when compared with American children?
Asian students are in school many more days than American students.
Which mind-set considers the possibility that qualities can change and improve with effort over time?
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