History Research Paper Cards

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Names (Black Death)
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Black Plague, Black Death, Bubonic Plague, Great Plague, Great Pestilence, Great Mortality
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Symptoms (Black Death)
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– buboes in groin, armpits, neck (buboes oozed pus and bled when opened) – Acute fever and vomiting of blood. – desire to sleep
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Reached Europe (Black Death)
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1347 in Sicily; june 1348 reached england, france, spain, and portugal
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death toll (Black Death)
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35 million in europe; about one third of the population;Monks and priests were especially hard hit since they cared for the Black Death’s victims.
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Recurrence (Black Death)
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The plague repeatedly returned to haunt Europe and the Mediterranean throughout the 14th to 17th centuries.
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causes (black death)
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oriental rat fleas, yersinia pestis (bacteria the causes the bubonic plague), rats contaminating air
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impact (black death)
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largely affected the poor because the rich could leave the areas infested with plague
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persecutions (black death)
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Because 14th-century healers were at a loss to explain the cause, Europeans turned to astrological forces, earthquakes, and the poisoning of wells by Jews as possible reasons for the plague’s emergence.
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doctors (black death)
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weird costume to protect themselves.
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costume (doctors)
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Long leather dress/smock garment, leather mask with two glass eyes to see, a beak like mask with two holes and filled with herbs believed to prevent the black plague in the doctor.
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methods (doctors)
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practiced bloodletting, putting frogs or leeches on the lesions to rebalance the humors.
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living (doctors)
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most doctors did not interact with public because of their line of work. most were subjected to quarantine.
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training (doctors)
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most [plague] doctors were not medically trained.
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children (black plague)
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ring a ring o’ rosies is a nursery rhyme that was based on the plague. Written in 1800s. Ring a ring o’ rosies A pocket full of posies A-tishoo A-tishoo (Ashes, Ashes) We all fall down
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meaning (ring a ring o’ rosies)
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allegedly rosy rashes were a symptom of the plague, the posies were flowers that could mask the smell of the plague, the a-tishoo is the sign of sneezing and coughing which was the fatal stage of the plague. The ashes which is sometimes interpreted instead of atishoo, is representing the ash from all of the burnt villages that were burnt in hopes of stopping the spread of the disease. All the dead fall down.
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meaning cont (ring a ring o’ rosies)
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Many people say that the song is baseless in comparison to the great plague
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reason 1 (meaning cont)
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The plague explanation did not appear until the mid-twentieth century.
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reason 2 (meaning cont)
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The symptoms described do not fit especially well with the Great Plague.
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reason 3 (meaning cont)
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The great variety of forms makes it unlikely that the modern form is the most ancient one, and the words on which the interpretation are based are not found in many of the earliest records of the rhyme.
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reason 4 (meaning cont)
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European and 19th-century versions of the rhyme suggest that this \”fall\” was not a literal falling down, but a curtsy or other form of bending movement that was common in other dramatic singing games.
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Dates (Black Death)
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– Started in Europe in 1328 – Lasted Until 1351 – Some outbreaks for the next 60 years
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Reasoning for naming (black death)
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– one symptom was the blackening of the skin – blackening occurred around the swellings or buboes – buboes were red, then dark purple or black
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Bloodletting (methods)
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– when blood was let, blood was vile looking and smelling – green mixed in with the black blood – very thick blood
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Spread (black death)
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– carried by fleas on rats and other small rodents – followed the trade routes to every country – believed to have started in the gobi desert
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symptoms cont (black death)
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– a very high fever, and delirium – the victim begins to vomit, and muscular pains – bleeding in the lungs, and mental disorientation
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methods cont. (black death)
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– black death was treated by lancing the buboes – applying a warm poultice of butter, onion and garlic – various other remedies were tried including tobacco, arsenic, lily root and dried toad

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