History of the Modern Middle East Cleveland/Bunton

Flashcard maker : Deloris Connelly
*Austrian Archduke
*started WWI
Enver Pasha
*Decided that the Ottoman Empire should join the Central Powers
*Fan of germans
*where an independent Turkish republic emerged out of the Ottoman defeat in WWI
Liman von Sanders
German general
Gallipoli campain
focused on forcing open the Dardanelles and capturing Istanbul to cut the Ottomans off from Germany
Mustafa Kemal
father of modern turkey, known as (Ataturk) let Turkey through an intensive period of reform that sought to eliminate vestiges of the Ottoman past and orient Turkey even more towards the West.
Jamal Pasha
*led Ottoman army of 80,000 men across the Sinai peninsula to strick against the suez Canal
*governor of the provinces of Greater Syria
*known as the the blood shedder
*arrested many arab leaders out of fear of disloyalty
Edmund Allenby
*Faught the Ottomans in Palestine
*British General
Arab Revolt
*conducted guerrilla operations behind Ottoman Lines
*captured Damascus
Armistice of Mudros
*unconditional surrender
*Ended War in Middle
*ended the Ottman Empire
*After Ottomans retreated to Anatolia
Husayn ibn Ali
*appointed to the office of amir of Mecca
*proclaimed the Arab Revolt
*King of an Arab state after the war ended
*took over Mecca with a tribal force against the ottomans
Husayn-McMahon correspondence
an exchange of teny letters that lie at the root of an immense controversy over whether Britian pledged to support an independent Arab state and then reneged on the pledge
told the Arabs that if they revolted against the Ottomans the British would support them with weapons
Amir Faysal
*commanded Husayn’s forces
*Husayn’s son
*King of Syria
*Became first king of Iraq
Constantinople Agreement
*signed by Britain, France, and Russia
*allowed Russia the right to annex Istanbul and the Turkish Straits
*Never Implemented
Sykes-Picot Agreement
An agreement between Britain and France that stated they would divide the levant into territories of direct and indirect control. They placed Palestine under undefined international administration. Britain got Irag and Jordan, as France got Lebanon and Syria.
Balfour Declaration
British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI
San Remo Conference
Terms of the British Mandate over Palestine. Includes terms to create a Jewish national home.
Treaty of Sevres
Treaty that stripped the Ottoman Empire of all of its land except for Turkey.
Henri Gouraud
*French General
*easily defeated Faysal’s army and forced him into exile
Amir Abdallah
Faysal’s older brother. Placed in throne by British to create dependent regime that might bring order to tribal regions. Used position to carve out position in region. Allegiance rewarded with independence in 1946. Assassinated by Pales. outside al aqsa mosque- pales. distrusted him, saw as accomplice to Britain
Was created by the British government in hopes to keep nomadic tribes out of Syria
Mehmet VI Vahideddin
*the last sultan
Treaty of Lausanne
The 1923 treaty that ended the Turkish War and recognized the territorial integrity of a truly independent Turkey
Ahmad Shah
This man ruled Persia from 1909 until he was overthrown in the 1920s. He was an ineffective ruler who was unable to prevent internal rioting
Reza Khan
He was the military officer in Iran who overthrew the Qajar dynasty and moved to Westernize. He retained a monarchy with himself at the helm and his Pahlavi dynasty was overthrown in a popular revolution. He was able to avoid imperial domination, modernize (builds factories roads and railroads and strengthens the army, adopts western alphabet, clothes, schools). Unlike Ataturk, however, he retained the monarchy with himself at the helm.

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