Informative Essay on History of Psychology

Flashcard maker : Marie Florence
Interactive dualism
Descartes’ concept that the mind and the body are two separate entities but they casually interact with each other to produce conscious experience
Theological psychology
which functions belong to the immortal soul and which functions belong to the body? – definition
Buddha
the root of human suffering is our constant wanting and craving
Confucius
people must be understood as best as possible, treated accordingly, and if suitable, given the right positions in government for the society to benefit
plato, socrates
mind is separate from the body, mind continues to exist after death, ideas are innate
Aristotle
the mind is not separate from the body, knowledge grows from experience (opposing \”ideas are innate\” and \”mind is separate from the body\”)
Augustine de hippo, thomas aquinas
which functions belong to the immortal soul and which to the biological body?
Descartes
Interactive Dualism – the mind and the body are separate entities that casually interact to produce conscious experience
John Locke
the mind is a tabula rasa; knowledge is determined only by experience derived from sense perception
Immanuel Kant
there are three irreducible faculties of mind: knowledge, feeling, desire – Critique of Judgement
Christian Wolff
Distinction between Rational and Empirical Psychology
McKeen Cattell, Dewey
functionalists, investigated mental testing, patterns of development in children, the effectiveness of educational practices, behavioural differences between the sexes
Edward titchener
founder of structuralism
william james
founder of functionalism
Wundt
psychology should be modeled after fields such as chemistry and physics, primary focus is consciousness.
Hall
america’s first research laboratory, first psychology journal, driving force behind apa
Structuralism
once trained, the subjects were exposed to auditory tones, optical illusions, and visual stimuli under carefully controlled and systematically varied conditions and were asked to analyze what they experienced
Functionalists
were interested in how people adapt their behaviour to the demands of the world around them
Behaviourism, applied psychology
disciplines functionalism gave rise to
Behaviourists
came to view psychology’s mission as an attempt to relate overt behaviours to observable events in the environment
Hermann von helmholtz
known for his mathematics of the eye, theories of vision, ideas on the visual perception of space, color vision research, and on the sensation of tone, perception of sound, and empiricism
Gustav fechner
because the mind is susceptible to measurement and mathematical treatment, psychology has the potential to become a quantified science
Seligman
developed positive psychology
Positive psychology
uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence
Skinner
according to him, only behaviours can be quantifiable and thus can be studied scientifically. He argued that psychology can understand and predict behaviour adequately without resorting to physiological explanations, \”organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes\”; trained animals to perform unnatural behaviours
Watson
founded behaviourism, proposed that psychologists abandon the study of consciousness altogether, believed that behavior was the result of enrivonmental factors.
Pavlov
Showed that dogs can be made to salivate in response to an auditory stimulus such as tone
Freud
worked with patients and undergone self-exploration; according to him, the unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness byt that nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour. Stirred up controversy because it placed an emphasis on sex and at that time, people were more sexually repressed than they are now.
Rogers
human behaviour is primarily governed by the individual’s sense of self, which animals presumably lack.
Maslow
along with Rogers, maintained that to fully understand human behaviour, psychologists must take into account the fundamental human drive toward personal growth
Piaget
study of children’s cognitive development
Chomsky
Elicited new interest in the psychological underpinnings of language
Simon
Groundbreaking research on problem solving
Olds
electrical stimulation of the brain could evoke emotional responses such as pleasure and rage in animals
Sperry
showed that the right and left halves of the brain are specialized to handle different types of mental tasks
Hubel, Wiesel
Nobel prize-winning work on how visual signals are processed in the brain
Buss, Daly, Wilson, Cosmides, Tooby
Studies on a range of topics including mating preferences, jealousy, aggression, sexual behaviour, language, decision making, personality, development

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