History of Jazz

Flashcard maker : Marguerite Castillo
Who’s the tenor saxophonist who reprized key head pieces with melodic phrases during improvisations?
Sonny Rollins
Davis album that popularized the modal jazz concept?
Kind of Blue
House drummer in Minton’s Playhouse?
Kenny Clarke
Who played 4/5 of the piano selections on Kind of Blue album?
Bill Evans
Who was the most gifted alto saxophonist in jazz history?
Charlie Parker
Who were the 2 saxophone players on the Kind of Blue album?
John Coltrane & Cannonball Adderley
Trumpet player known for his gorgeous tone, but died in a car crash at 25?
Clifford Brown
Who was the trumpeter and intellectual force behind bebop?
Dizzie Gillespie
Who was the arranger of the Miles Ahead, Porgy and Bess, & Sketches of Spain albums?
Gil Evans
Who was the most widely performed pianist after Ellington?
Thelonious Monk
What was Charlie Parker’s reinvention of Cherokee?
Ko Ko
Who was the Tenor sax player on the Round about Midnight album?
John Coltrane
What else did Mr. Parker’s legacy entail?
An addiction to heroin that other young musicians copied trying to be like him.
What is the name of the Ballad with Cootie Williams Big Band recorded in 1944?
Round Midnight
What was the first Miles Davis album recorded on Columbia Records?
Round About Midnight
Who is Bud Powell?
The most imitated Bebop pianists
Who was the Bassist/composer who took influences from the church, NO polyphony, etc.
Charles Mingus
Identify \”Fables of Faubus\”
Mingus piece satirizing Orville Faubus
What was Davis’ record company shortly after 1955 Newport Jazz appearance?
Columbia Records
Who was the tenor Saxophonist that adapted Lester Young & Charlie Parker’s style?
Dexter Gordon
What was the mute frequently used by Davis?
Harmon mute
What was Mingus’ tribute to Lester Young?
Goodbye Porkpie Hat
What was the movie Dexter Gordon received an Oscar for.
Round Midnight
What drummer was the central figurehead for the hard bop movement?
Art Blakely
Where’s Minton’s Playhouse located?
118th st Harlem, NY
What were Davis’ Mid 60’s quartet members and instruments?
Saxophone: Wayne Shorter
Piano: Herbie Hancock
Bass: Ron Carter
Drums: Jony Williams
Hard Bop’s central figurehead group?
Jazz messengers
What are harmonies built on fourths rather than thirds?
Quartal harmonies
Identify night in Tunisia?
1942 jazz piece adapting modern chord progressions with a Latin bass line
Ira Gitlers nickname for Coltrane’s early style?
Sheets of sound
Coltrane’s pivital 1959 album?
Giant Steps
What did Coltrane’s nickname refer to?
His rapid fire attempt to play every note in every chord.
Broadway tune that Coltrane turned into a big radio hit?
My Favorite Things
Coltrane’s instrumentation on his album inspired by a Broadway tune?
Tenor Sax
Pianist and drummer in Coltrane’s quartet?
McCoy Tyner & Elvin Jones
Autobiographical Coltrane tune?
A love supreme
1965 lb that took 10 musicians to improvise Coltrane’s style?
Ascension
Central figurehead for the hard bop movement?
Art Blakeley
Hard bop’s central figurehead’s group name?
Jazz Messengers
Co-founder of the Jazz Messengers that left to form his own quintet?
Horace Silver
Trumpet player known for his virtuoso technique and gorgeous tone that died in an automobile accident at 25?
Clifford Brown
What tenor sax player, known for his melodic phrases at the head of his pieces, earned praise for Saxophone Colossus?
Sonny Rollins
Most widely performed jazz composer after Ellington?
Thelonious Monk
What was \”Round Midnight\”?
A ballad with Cootie Williams Big Band recorded in 1944
What bassist/composer took influences from the church, swing, New Orleans polyphony, and Modern Classical music?
Charles Mingus
What was Fables of Faubus & Goodbye Pork Pie Hat?
Mingus Pieces that satirized Orville Faubus and his tribute to Lester Young
The name of the Miles Davis Nonet’s signiture lb?
Birth of the Cool
Who’s Gil Evans and what did he do in the nonet?
He was the non-instrument playing orchestrator
Who’s Gerry Mulligan and what’s his instrument?
Did most of the writing for Miles Davis’ Nonet, but gained his fame playing baritone sax
Instrument famous for it’s absence in Mulligan’s West Coast quartet?
Piano
Modern jazz quartet’s Pianist/founder?
John Lewis
Vibraphone soloist for the Modern Jazz Quartet?
Milt Jackson
Third Stream Music?
Synthesis of elements with ethnic or vernacular music
Dave Brubeck/ Paul Desmond’s instruments?
Piano/ Saxophone
What’s take 5?
1959 national hit on Brubeck’s Time Out lb
Where was Minton’s Playhouse located?
118 st. Harlem
Minton’s Playhouse house drummer?
Kenny Clarke
\”Most gifted alto sax player in jazz history\”?
Charlie Parker
Trumpet player who was the intellectual force behind bebop?
Dizzy Gilespie
What’s \”A Night in Tunisia\”
Exotic grove adapting modern chord changes and a Latin bass line
What was Charlie Parker’s reinvention of Cherokee called?
KoKo
What else did Parker’s legacy present?
An assumption that if you got hooked on heroin you would make it to the top
Most imitated bebop pianist?
Bud Powel
Tenor saxophonist that adapted the looseness of Lester Young with the rhythmic intricacies of Charlie Parker?
Dexter Gordon
Movie Dexter received an Oscar nomination for?
Round Midnight
Who’s Fat’s Waller, and what was \”\”Ain’t Misbehavin\”
James Johnson’s protege’ straddling the line between jazz and pop, while Ain’t Misbehavin was stride piano standard
Who’s Art Tatum?
Blind piano player that mastered the stride piano?
Viruoso?
Someone who excels in musical technique
Harmonic substitution?
Chord substitution used to add harmonic interest in jazz pieces?
Who”s the first electric guitar master, and what band leader gained him national exposure?
Charlie Christian: Benney Goodman band
Ellington bassist what recorded the first bass solos that departed from the walking bass style in favor of a freely melodic conception?
Jimmy Blanton
Drummer’s band that ruled the New York Savoy Ballroom in early 1930’s?
Chick Webb
Coleman Hawkins’ recording where he abandons the melody after the first few measures?
He initially recorded \”Body and Soul\” but then went into his own arpeggio style likened to a \”sexual release\”
With what big band did Ben Webster make his name?
Ellington’s Orchestra
What trumpet player has been called the most original and influential trumpeter of the Swing Era?
Roy Eldridge
Tenor Sax player that introduced the \”cool\”?
Lester Yong
First European jazz master?
Django Reinhardt
What’s Hugues Panassie’ and and Le jazz hot?
First jazz books to introduce the preeminent role of African Americans in jazz
Tenor sax player that Billie Holiday shared the most musically fertile jazz partnership?
Lester Young
1939 Billie Holiday song that dealt with lynching?
Strange Fruit
What’s \”A-Tisket, a-Tasket,\” and what big band made Billie Holiday famous?
Chick Web’s Big Band, where a-tisket a-taket was Webs best selling 1938 song based on a nursery rhyme
Impresario that formed Verve label on which Fitzgerald’s \”american songbook\” series was recorded?
Norman Granz
What’s timbre
Combination of a sounds quality distinguishing it from other qualities
What are some brass instruments found in jazz?
Trombone,Trumpet, Tuba
What’s a mute
physical device inserted into brass instruments bells to distort the timbre coming out
Name some trumpet mutes
Pixie, straight, cup, harmon, plunger
Reed instruments in jazz
Saxophone & clarinet
Different sax sizes?
alto, tenor, soprano, baritone
What makes soprano sax different from other sax’s appearance?
It’s body is straight & it’s the smallest
Rhythm sections main functions?
provide harmony, bass, and percussion
Default rhythm section instruments?
piano, string bass, drum set
Pissicato?
plucking the instruments strings
Instruments found in a drum set?
bass drum, snare drum, tom-tom’s, cycmbals
Other percussion instruments that augment the percussion section of a jazz band?
Bongos, congos, timbales, shakers
Beat
Pulse of the music piece
Tempo
Speed of a music piece
Meter
Organization of recurring pulses into pattens
Measure/bar
rhythmic unit lasting from one down beat to the next
Irregular meeter
meeter with beats of unequal size
Polyrhythm?
Simultaneous use of contrasting rhythms
Syncopation?
An occasional rhythmic disruptions contradicting the basic meter
Interval
Distance between two different pitches of a scale
Octave
two notes with the same letter
Scale
collection of pitches withing an octave
Tonic
first degree of a scale
Half step
smallest interval possible in western music
Wole step
made of two half steps
Variable intonation/ blue notes/ bent notes
tuning system allowing certain pitchers to fluctuate/notes where pitch is bent expressively
Harmony
the use of simultaneous notes, pitches, tones, chords
Chord
combination of of notes from performed simultaneously
Triad
Standard 3-note chord serving as tonal music bases
Harmonic progression
Series of chords placed in a strict rhythmic sequence
What repeating pattern is used for the arrangements of black keys on the keyboard?
alternating groups of two’s and three’s
What note falls immediately to the left of a group of 2black notes?
C
What are the two names for the second black note of a group of 2 black keys?
D# Eb
What are two names for the second dark key in a group of three dark keys?
G# Ab
What are the two names for the note a whole step down from G?
F Eb
Give two names for the note a whole step above Gb?
G# Ab
What note is a third above D?
F
What note is an octave above G?
G
In the major scale half steps fall between?
3-4 7-8
E major
E F# G# A B C# D# E
Ab major
Ab Bb C Db Eb F G Ab
Eb major
Eb F G Ab Bb C D Eb
Build the three Eb major chords
Eb G Bb, Ab C Eb, Bb D F
Build the three A major chords
B D F#, C# E G#, F# A C#
What’s meant by the term chorus?
A single statement of the jazz cycle defined by the musical form
What defines a 12 bar blues?
The 12 bar framework used for jazz improvisations
What is a turnaround?
A faster more complex series of chords used in the last 2bars or the last \”a\” section of an AABA formed jazz song leading to the beginning of the chorus
Head of a piece?
A composed section at the begging and end of a piece framing a small-combo performance
What’s a rhythm change?
Harmonic progression based on the song \”I got rhythm\”
What’s a big band arrangement?
composed scores with individual parts for each musician
Solo instrument associated with ragtime?
Piano
What’s a cakewalk?
Celebratory dance done in the 19th century
Ragtime derived from which musical form?
March form
Who’s the best known ragtime composer?
Scott Joplin
Maple Leaf Rag
1989 song that generated many royalties for Joplin
Treemonisha
1972 opera composed by Scot Joplin
What city did the earliest style of jazz emerge?
New Orleans
Congo Square?
Where African Americans were able to accumulate to sing and dance
Creoles of color?
Historic ethnic group other than Native Americans born in Louisiana
Where was the first important jazz musician born and what was his instrument?
Jelly Roll Morton, New Orleans, Piano
What are the front line N.O. jazz instruments?
Trumpet/cornet,trombone, clarinet
Where did \”tailgate style\” come from?
Trombone’s that had to sit on the tailgate of the truck because their slides would hit the other instrument s
Another name for the simultaneous multiple melodies from the three front line instruments?
Collective improvisation
What was Freddie Keppards instrument and what didn’t he famously do?
He toured with a handkerchief over his playing hand, but he didn’t allow Victor Talking Machine Company to steal his music by him not making samples
Who was the cornet player that led the group that made the first jazz record?
Nick LaRacca, lead the Original Dixieland jazz band to make the first acknowledged jazz record
What and when were the titles of the two sides of the first recorded jazz record made?
1917, \”Livery stable blues\” was one side, while \”Dixie jass band one step\” was on the other side
In what year, did what leader make the first black jazz band recording?
1922 Ory Creole Trombone
What’s dipermouth blues?
`One of the many numbers Henderson did with Armstrong
What were Sidney Bechet’s two instruments and what did he have to do with London?
He played soprano sax and clarinet and was recruited to play in a syncopated London orchestra.
In 1925 what changed the nature of the recording industry?
Electrical recording replaced acoustical
When and what was the 18 amendment and what was its effect on nightlife?
Made the drinking&selling of liquor illegal which caused much organized crime because it wasn’t regulated
Who’s Paul Whiteman and his NY Aeolian Hall 1924 concert?
First black 20th century pop superstar and that performance proved that jazz was a classical music form
What’s symphonic jazz?
Negro folk art and high European culture fusion
Principal Fletcher Henderson band arranger?
Don Redman
Influential cornet/trumpet player that joined Fletcher Henderson band in 1924?
Louis Armstrong
What’s Tin Pan alley?
Popular music written for the stage and cinema from 1890-1950’s
Describe a stride pianist’s left hand?
It strode up and down the piano playing low/high bass clefs
Who’s James P Johnson and what was Carolina Shout?
The father of stride piano and that was the standard test piece for the stride piano
Growl trumpeter in Ellington’s early bands?
Buber Miley
What’s east St. Louis Toodle-o?
One of Miley’s first works
Harlem nightclub that launched Ellington’s career?
Cotton Club
What city was Armstrong born?
New Orleans
What happened on New Years 1913 and what was Armstrong’s consequence?
He was apprehended for shooting blanks in the air which got him sent to a Home for Boys for 18 months
What was Armstrong’s band in Chicago and who became his second wife?
King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band and Lil Harden
Armstrong’s NY band?
Henderson’s dance band
Significance of hot 5/7 recordings?
Showed how jazz could showcase individual expression
\”Trumpet Style\” pianist who joined the Hot 5 1928?
Earl Hines
Bix Beidebecke & Frank Traumbauer’s instruments and what’s there masterpiece?
Cornet & sax, Singing the blues
First great solo saxophonist?
Coleman Hawkins
Fats Waller song, sung by Armstrong in the Broadway, Hot Chocolates?
Ain’t Misbehavin
Small group Armstrong led during late 1940’s?
The All Stars
Nickname for big band jazz
Swing
Differentiate Savoy Ballroom from Cotton Club
The Ballroom was enormous as it took an entire block, unlike the cotton club both blacks and whites where able to party at the same time
Lindy Hop?
A popular dance named after Charles Lindbergh
Head arrangement?
Unwritten arrangement created by the entire band
Radio program that gave Benny Goodman a national audience?
Lets Dance
Los Angeles venue that deemed Goodman that king of swing?
Palomar ballroom 1935
Year of Goodman’s Carnegie hall concert?
1938
Goodman’s trio/ quartet members?
Teddy Wilson: Piano, Gene Krupa: Drummer, Benny Goodman: Clarinet/ Lionel Hampton: Vibraphone
Jazz standard?
A permanent addition to the jazz repository
John Hammond
Jazz entrapeneur that helped launch many jazz careers
Urban headquarters for Southwestern 1930’s swing style?
Kansas City
Boogie Woogie?
Firm rhythmic foundations in the left hand with repetitive ostinato chains in the right
Boogie woogie associated instrument?
Piano
Ostinato?
repetitive chains
Meade Lux Lewis/ Honky Tonk Train Blues?
1920’s record to complicated to for 1930’s sheet music
Pianist/ arranger for Andy Kirk’s 12 joy clouds
Mary Lou Williams
Count Basie’s instrument
Stride piano
What city is stride piano associated with?
Kansas City
One – o – clock jump?
12 bar blues that gradually evolved with the new copy right laws
Count Basie’s rhythm 1930 section
Piano: Count Basie, Bass: Walter Page, Drums: Jo Joner, Guitar: Freddie Green
How did 1940’s new testament band differ from Basie’s earlier bands?
Used writer success instead of head arrangements
Avant-Garde rhythm characteristics?
Didn’t limit pieces to beats but preferred several pulses
Avant-Garde harmony characteristics?
Based patterns on the way musicians felt
Avant-Garde melody characteristics?
Had no harmonic/ resolution rules
Headhunters keyboardist?
Herbie Handcock
Grover Washington & George Benson established what fusion of jazz, r&b, & funk?
Smooth Jazz
What jazz label did early hip hop artists sample?
Blue note
1980’s Neoclasic Trumpet player?
Wynton Marsalis
Marsalis’ Pulitzer prize winning oratorio?
Blood on the fields
Describe a spiritual?
Black religious song
Describe a field holler
Rhythmically loose vocal line sung by a field worker
Describe a work song
Songs that regulated physical activity, engaged workers attention, and was a hidden language speaking of attempts to run away
Typical arrangement of the words in each stanza of a blues song?
Follows distinctive assymetric 3line stanza
Typical Country Blues performer?
Solitary male in the rural south
Typical Classic blues performer?
Female’s accompanied by small bands
Wrote St. Lous Blues
W. C. Handy
Who/what’s Mamie Smith & crazy blues
She was the first to record a race record and spawned record companies attempts to produce the same sound
Empress of the blues?
Bessie Smith
Minsterly
Most popular & influential form of racist entertainment in the 19th century
Brass bands contribution to jazz?
It’s own compositional structure
Mood Indigo?
Ellington piece performed with both music a vocals in 1931
Johnny Hodges?
Alto sax player known for his bent note effect
First venue for Black Brown & Beige?
48 min Ellington composition played in Carnegie Hall 1943, which revitalized his career
Newport Jazz Festival?
Held in Newport Rode Island which helped revitalize his Ellinton’s career
Billy Strayhorn, \”Take the a train\”
Pianist, composer, arranger who became Ellington’s alter ego who composed the theme song for Ellington’s orchestra

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