History 7B Midterm

Flashcard maker : Matthew Carle
15th amendment
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or previous condition of servitude, Ratified 1870. One of the \”Reconstruction Amendments\”. Provided that no government in the United States shall prevent a citizen from voting based on the citizen’s race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
sherman anti-trust act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions; 1890
woodrow wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women’s suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
marcus garvey
African American leader durin the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.\”Black is Beautiful\” movement. Made the universal negro improvement association and put branches wherever there were a lot of black people; liked to celebrate the black race and have pride. \”back to africa\” movement–>liberia…kind of a fail
panic of 1893
Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
dollar diplomacy
Foriegn Policy idea by Taft to make countries dependant on the U.S. by heavily investing in their economies
gentlemen’s agreement
1907 agreement between the United States and Japan that restricted Japanese immigration; japan wouldn’t let anyone else come to america if the us would stop being so mean to the japanese in terms of discrimination and farming and stop restricting immigration; an informal agreement
pullman strike
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the \”company town\”, Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing, 1894 – nonviolent strike (brought down the railway system in most of the West) at the Pullman Palace Car Co. over wages – Prez. Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery
booker t washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book \”Up from Slavery.\”; wanted black support groups; wanted to grow the black middle class to do technical work, etc, then gradually get political power and more rights. opposed w e b dubois who was a harvard educated northerner who thought that booker t washington’s plan was totally unacceptable. African americans should insist immediately on getting their rights. attack now!
william jennings bryan
This Democratic candidate ran for president most famously in 1896 (and again in 1900). His goal of \”free silver\” (unlimited coinage of silver) won him the support of the Populist Party. Though a gifted orator, he lost the election to Republican William McKinley. He ran again for president and lost in 1900. Later he opposed America’s imperialist actions, and in the 1920s, he made his mark as a leader of the fundamentalist cause and prosecuting attorney in the Scopes Monkey Trial.
isolationism
a policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations; the belief that industrial expansion, western settlement, and the growth of the federal government kept the US out of foreign affairs; the oposite of expansionism; before 1898 debates on whether the US was isolationist
manifest destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from \”sea to sea,\” from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory. popular around time of indian wars(late 1800s)
robber barons
Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.; a negative part of industrialization and capitalism; examples are carnegie(steal) and rockefeller(oil). monopoly holders
harlem renaissance
a flowering of african american culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in african american culture and pride in being an african american. african americans from the north and south had a cultural renaissance in Harlem, NY in the 1920s. Things like the \”cotton club.\” While rich whites were interested in black culture, things were still very much segregated. Whites owned the black nightclubs and things were still segregated inside.
american bison
destroyed by U.S. army. only 500,000 exist today and 7,000 of them are purebread. used by indians for many things; declined because of the us final solution…snipers and guns…us army trying to wipe out the indian tribes by taking one of their main resources. they are pretty much extinct today because of this…the worst part is that they didn’t even use the bodies for anything good(kinda used for fur trade to make money)
the red scare
a period of time in american history when the government went after \”reds\” (communists) and others with radical views; started in 1919; an outbreak of fear and violence especially towards immigrants of eastern europe and political extremists
columbian exposition
an exposition held in Chicago in 1893 to honor the four-hundredth anniversary of Columbus’s first voyage; so-called dream of loveliness; visited by over 27 million people; raised American artistic standards and promote city planning; was a revival of classical architectural forms, and a setback for realism
agrarian myth
The notion that the farmer and farm life symbolized the essence of America, that farmers were the back-bone of a republic–independent, self-sufficient, incorruptible, and non-materialistic, and that farm life was pleasant, peaceful, and satisfying.
frederick law olmsted
United States landscape architect primarily responsible for the design of Central Park in New York City (1822-1903)
great migration
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920; blacks moved out of the south to detroit, chicago, philly, new york, and eventually a lot of californians
jim crow
The system of racial segregation in the South that was created in the late nineteenth century following the end of slavery. Jim Crow laws written in the 1880s and 1890s mandated segregation in public facilities. social rules that were never really law, but just like segregation and stuff. basically getting around black codes legally to enforce segregation; disenfranchisement; violence; banned interracial marriage; segregation laws; if defied people would be hung, mutilated, lynched, burned alive
radio
a communication system based on broadcasting electromagnetic waves
ferris wheel
rotating mechanism consisting of a large upright wheel with suspended seats that remain upright as the wheel turns
cinema
a theater where films are shown
supermarkets
large stores specializing in groceries with self-service and wide assortments
flappers
carefree young women with short, \”bobbed\” hair, heavy makeup, and short skirts. The flapper symbolized the new \”liberated\” woman of the 1920s. Many people saw the bold, boyish look and shocking behavior of flappers as a sign of changing morals. Though hardly typical of American women, the flapper image reinforced the idea that women now had more freedom. All about style; fringe on dresses; short hair cuts; make up!; straight style dresses showing arms and legs but no feminine body structure stuff; perpetuated in magazines, movies, and radio; department store windows; decrease in sexual morals-> creation of birth control!! peer groups dominated social life/less than family did
ellis island
Immigration processing center that open in New York Harbor in 1892, an island in New York Bay that was formerly the principal immigration station for the United States, Inspection station for immigrants arriving on the East Coast
daniel burnham
designed the slender 285-foot tower in 1902, the Flatiron Building, Chicago architect, Revived classical Greek and Roman architeculture in his designs. part of the columbian exposition in chicago; inspiration for the \”city beautiful\” movement, which was led by an architect of the original great white city…daniel burnham. the movement strove to impose a similar order and symmetry on the disordered life of cities around the country. pretty rare when planners could overcome the obstacles of private landowners and urban politics
frederick jackson turner
United States historian who stressed the role of the western frontier in American history (1861-1951), American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems. romantic vision of the frotier; paper entitled the significance of the frontier in american history\”…experience of western expansion had stimulated individualism, nationalism, and democracy; kept opportunities for advancement alive; and made americans the distinctive people that they were. the frotier has gone and with its going has closed the first period of american history
theodore roosevelt
1901-1909, 26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, \”Square Deal,\” Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War, Roosevelt Diplomacy, which allowed for aggressive foreign policy. \”big stick\” = the US Navy
1917 espionage act
Imposed penalties up to $10,000/ 20 yrs in prison for anyone aiding enemy, inciting insubordination, disloyalty, or refusal to serve in armed forces, or those interfering with war effort during WWI
roosevelt corollary
Roosevelt’s 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
spanish american war
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans’ fight for independence, War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba’s independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
transcontinental railroad
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California’s railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
american federation of labor
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, The first federation of labor unions in the United States. Founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886
middle class
A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers; made more popular by transportation, grew in the gilded age
emancipation proclamation
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
hayes-tilden compromise
Also known as the Compromise of 1877, it resolved the disputed presidential election of 1876, giving Republican Hayes the presidency in exchange for removing troops from the South and ending reconstruction

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