history 3 – History

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The ideology of progressivism, insofar as it had one, generally stressed trying to meet the special needs of each identifiable private interest. was rooted in firm and fixed standards of morality and truth. called for redistribution of incomes from wealthy to poor and a socialist approach to government. mixed a liberal concern for the poor with a conservative wish to control social disorder.
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mixed a liberal concern for the poor with a conservative wish to control social disorder. Paternalistic by nature, progressives often imposed their solution, no matter what the poor or oppressed saw as their own best interest.
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McClure’s magazine pioneered a new style of journalism featuring writers like Lincoln Steffens who presented carefully researched exposĂ©s of corporate and government abuses. provided voter information to reveal where candidates stood and whose money they accepted. scientifically analyzed social problems and proposed solutions. employed a gritty realism that portrayed life in the slums.
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presented carefully researched exposés of corporate and government abuses. A new breed of journalists investigated wrongdoers, named them in print, and described their misdeeds in vivid detail.
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Journalists who exposed corruption in government and industry were called yellow journalists. do-gooders. mudslingers. muckrakers.
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muckrakers. By documenting dishonesty and blight, muckrakers not only aroused people but also educated them.
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A popular new way of thinking called pragmatism asked the question, “Do I have to?” “Will it sell?” “Does it work?” “Is it right?”
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“does it work” According to William James, pragmatism’s most famous proponent, pragmatism meant “looking towards last things, fruits, consequences, or facts.”
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The belief that laws are to be interpreted according to experience and the needs of a changing society is best described as the progressive method. sociological jurisprudence. behaviorism. pragmatism.
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sociological jurisprudence. Brandeis’s famous legal brief in Muller v. Oregon contained 102 pages describing the effect of long hours on working women and only 15 pages of legal precedents.
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What was the subject of the Keating-Owen Act? child labor immigration female birth control female suffrage
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child labor Although eventually struck down by the Supreme Court, the law focused greater attention on the abuses of child labor.
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Margaret Sanger worked to provide women with information about birth control. voting rights. economic freedom. fashion.
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birth control By distributing information on contraception, she hoped to free women from unwanted pregnancies and illegal “back alley” abortions that claimed lives.
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What was the key difference between Alice Paul’s Congressional Union and the activities of the National American Woman Suffrage Association? The National American Woman Suffrage Association pursued a national strategy. The Congressional Union was more militant in its tactics. The National American Woman Suffrage Association advocated suffrage for black women, along with whites. The Congressional Union was more closely aligned with French suffragists.
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The Congressional Union was more militant in its tactics. In 1914 Paul formed the Congressional Union, dedicated to enacting national women’s suffrage at any cost.
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On the issue of racial discrimination, progressives generally used white supremacy arguments to break the power of northern urban political machines. fought Jim Crow laws and lynching. advocated segregated facilities in the North. ignored the question altogether.
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ignored the question altogether. Most progressives paid little attention to the misery suffered by African Americans
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W.E.B. Du Bois opposed the creation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). called on the “talented tenth” to publicly oppose segregation, disenfranchisement, and discrimination. worked with Booker T. Washington to create the Atlanta Compromise. focused on improving the lot of the black working classes.
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called on the “talented tenth” to publicly oppose segregation, disenfranchisement, and discrimination Du Bois called on the “talented tenth,” a cultured black vanguard, to blaze a trail of protest. He also founded the Niagara Movement for political and economic equality.
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The new science called ________ gave respectability to the idea that new immigrants to the U.S. were biologically inferior. eugenics neurogenics genetics biochemistry
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eugenics The eugenics movement believed that heredity largely shaped human behavior and advocated selective breeding for human improvement.
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For the most part, how did progressives respond to an increase in the number of immigrants? They promoted eugenicist policies. They embraced immigrant traditions. They stressed Americanization programs. They worked for a more liberal immigration policy.
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They stressed Americanization programs. They sought to “Americanize” the foreign-born by teaching them middle-class ways.
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Based on the attitudes that progressives had toward immigration, alcohol consumption, prostitution, and racial discrimination, what can you conclude about who constituted the progressives? The progressives were primarily based in Washington, committed to national issues. The progressives were a diverse group with sometimes conflicting positions. The progressives were made up of whites, committed to racial purity. The progressives were women, committed to social reform through apolitical means.
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The progressives were a diverse group with sometimes conflicting positions. The middle-class reformers attempted to convert this riot of diversity into a more uniform society.
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why was Theodore Roosevelt’s intervention in the 1902 anthracite coal strike important? It showed that the Republican Party had more diversity than previously believed. It showed that he would intervene on behalf of labor, as well as management. It showed that he sought to increase the powers of the president. It showed that he supported labor interests more than business interests.
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It showed that he would intervene on behalf of labor, as well as management. Seldom had a president acted so boldly and never on behalf of strikers.
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theodore Roosevelt saw government’s role in implementing the “Square Deal” as intervention. capitalization. reform. mediation.
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mediation. Under his view, a big government stood astride, mediating when necessary, and ensuring fair results for all.
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What is an accurate comparison of the two competing brands of political progressivism in the 1912 presidential campaign (Theodore Roosevelt’s “New Nationalism” and Woodrow Wilson’s “New Freedom”)? The New Nationalism accepted concentrations of capital, labor, and government; the New Freedom stressed competitiveness among small business and reduced government power. Neither was truly progressive. Both welcomed assertive federal power and encouraged business growth. The New Nationalism supported business and ignored social justice concerns, while the New Freedom held to the reverse emphasis.
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The New Nationalism accepted concentrations of capital, labor, and government; the New Freedom stressed competitiveness among small business and reduced government power. Wilson’s New Freedom rejected the economic consolidation that Roosevelt embraced.
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Many historians consider it the most important reform of the early-twentieth century because it established the means for expanded federal action. It was the Sixteenth Amendment permitting graduated income taxes. the Nineteenth Amendment granting women’s suffrage. the Seventeenth Amendment providing for direct popular election of Senators. the Eighteenth Amendment authorizing prohibition.
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It was the Sixteenth Amendment permitting graduated income taxes. It eventually generated revenue for many new social programs.
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In 1913 a compromise was reached regarding the regulation of banking and this compromise was codified in the Clayton Antitrust Act. Sixteenth Amendment. Federal Reserve Act. Federal Trade Commission.
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Federal Reserve Act. The new Federal Reserve System contained 12 regional banks and created a central Federal Reserve Board in Washington, appointed by the president, to supervise the system.
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In the nineteenth century, the primary revenue source for the federal government was public land leases and use fees. alcohol taxes and customs duties. dividend taxes and customs duties. personal and corporate income taxes.
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alcohol taxes and customs duties. It did not shift to personal and corporate incomes until the passage of the Sixteenth Amendment in 1913.
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Woodrow Wilson’s executive style was different than Theodore Roosevelt’s in that Wilson ignored public opinion. was a bit of a maverick and lacked party discipline. shaped policy and legislation to a greater degree. took a laissez-faire approach towards industry.
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shaped policy and legislation to a greater degree. As president, Wilson was a model of progressive leadership.
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The “Brandeis Brief,” as innovated by Louis Brandeis in the case of Muller v. Oregon, was notable for what quality? It favored factual evidence over legal precedent. It offered the first persuasive argument that the Bill of Rights protected citizens from the actions of state governments. It made its case based on abstract appeals rather than on concrete examples. It established the principle that the traditions of law were constant and universal.
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It favored factual evidence over legal precedent.
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As a disciple of Emmeline Pankhurst, what was Alice Paul’s chief contribution to the woman suffrage movement? importing the militancy of the English woman suffrage movement to the United States adopting a grassroots strategy of persuasion and education from state to state arguing for women’s right to vote as means of strengthening the voting power of native-born whites pushing for the vote on the basis of women’s unique virtues rather than on the basis of pure gender equality
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importing the militancy of the English woman suffrage movement to the United States
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In response to widespread racial discrimination, W.E.B. Du Bois contended that African Americans’ education should focus on profitable vocational training because a broader liberal arts education was of no practical value. called on the elite “talented tenth” of the African-American community to assume leadership in the struggle for civil rights. insisted that only blacks could solve their own problems, so they should refuse any assistance from white reformers. advised blacks to be patient and accept the existence of the racial caste system until white society was more prepared to overcome its prejudices.
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called on the elite “talented tenth” of the African-American community to assume leadership in the struggle for civil rights.
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Which of the following statements about eugenics is least accurate? It encouraged the selective breeding of the human race to weed out “undesirable” traits. It was used to add respectability to the anti-immigrant movement. It was a fringe movement that obtained little popular attention or support. It won the support of some prominent progressives, including birth-control advocate Margaret Sanger.
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It was a fringe movement that obtained little popular attention or support.
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Robert La Follette’s progressive program became synonymous with which state, which he governed from 1901 to 1906? California Texas Massachusetts Wisconsin
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Wisconsin
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Which progressive reform allowed citizens to vote directly to enact or repeal laws? the referendum the recall the initiative the direct primary
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the referendum
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With regard to race relations, President Roosevelt did all the following except invite Booker T. Washington to dinner at the White House. appoint African Americans to important federal positions in several southern states. exonerate black troops unjustly accused of “shooting up” Brownsville, Texas. speak out against the practice of lynching.
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exonerate black troops unjustly accused of “shooting up” Brownsville, Texas.
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Upton Sinclair’s novel The Jungle played a significant role in advancing what reform? regulation of the food industry restrictions on child labor the direct election of U.S. senators the establishment of wildlife preserves
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regulation of the food industry
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What was the cornerstone of Woodrow Wilson’s New Freedom? ensuring that women, African Americans, and other marginalized groups would enjoy full political rights allowing businesses to expand and consolidate as the free market dictated guaranteeing individual freedoms through an active and expansive federal government opposing bigness in business and government alike
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opposing bigness in business and government alike
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The accomplishments of the Wilson administration included all the following except lowering protective tariffs. the racial integration of federal offices. the implementation of a graduated income tax. the creation of the Federal Reserve System to regulate credit and the money supply.
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the racial integration of federal offices.
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Under the Roosevelt Corollary, the U.S. agreed to abstain from interfering in the internal affairs of the Caribbean nations. established a system of mutual financial and commercial obligations with Panama. declared the canal zone open to all nations. justified intervention in the internal affairs of Caribbean countries.
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justified intervention in the internal affairs of Caribbean countries. As a progressive leader, Roosevelt felt that the U.S. had a right to make certain demands in the Caribbean.
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Taft’s dollar diplomacy was intended to accomplish all of the following except tie debt-ridden nations to the U.S. instead of Europe. promote American corporate interests overseas through the use of armed force. encourage private corporations to invest abroad. foster prosperity in nations abroad.
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promote American corporate interests overseas through the use of armed force. Taft felt that his aims could be accomplished through money rather than force.
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Dollar diplomacy failed in the Caribbean because Woodrow Wilson didn’t like it. Taft never visited the area. it was linked closely with unpopular regimes, banks, and corporations. people were afraid of it.
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it was linked closely with unpopular regimes, banks, and corporations. Taft used money to gain the upper hand in the Caribbean but it failed there because those nations needed more than money to keep them afloat.
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Taft’s efforts in dollar diplomacy in Asia resulted in which of the following? Japan becoming suspicious of all foreigners. America quickly ending dollar diplomacy there. Russia threatening to invade China. Southern Chinese provinces rebelling against foreign intrusion and overthrowing the monarchy.
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Southern Chinese provinces rebelling against foreign intrusion and overthrowing the monarchy. The Chinese became suspicious of America’s motives with all of its investments in China, and this in turn caused the Chinese to rebel.
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Wilson added which of the following to the principles of American diplomacy? All of these answers are correct. a belief that displays of military might were more effective than negotiation a sense of the fundamental equality of all peoples and nations a missionary commitment to spreading his system of beliefs across the world
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a missionary commitment to spreading his system of beliefs across the world Wilson felt that it was the duty of the United States to spread its beliefs in justice and democracy around the world.
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How did Wilson use missionary diplomacy to gain headway in Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic? He spoke about the ideals of democracy to the masses. He sent troops to protect U.S. interests. He cut off all ties. He gave ultimatums to the leaders of those nations.
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He sent troops to protect U.S. interests. Wilson realized that sometimes it was necessary to use force instead of just words and money to make his point.
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Wilson’s commitment to neutrality in the World War stemmed from his profound conviction that aggressive, threatening nationalism would arise from the chaos of war. it was his Christian duty to impose America’s will on the world. the U.S. had no security interests outside the Western Hemisphere. a neutral United States could lead the warring nations to a “peace without victory.”
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a neutral United States could lead the warring nations to a “peace without victory.” Wilson had a firm belief that America could lead warring nations to a new world order that would abolish selfish nationalism, power politics, and a host of other ills that had torn the world apart over the past few decades.
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Why was the sinking of the Lusitania a turning point in America entering the war? It was an American ship and all passengers were lost. Wilson issued an order to the attacker, Germany, which, if not followed, would lead the U.S. into entering the war. It was a military vessel carrying large amounts of arms, which were all lost at sea. Its sinking prompted the United States to support the British.
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Wilson issued an order to the attacker, Germany, which, if not followed, would lead the U.S. into entering the war. Wilson had threatened Germany to “strict accountability” for any losses from submarine warfare.
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The inflammatory Zimmerman Telegram proposed that in the event of war between the U.S. and Germany Germany would unleash unrestricted submarine warfare on U.S. merchant vessels. the U.S. would take over the German colonies once the Central Powers were defeated. Mexico would attack the U.S. German nationals within the U.S. would be held in internment camps.
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Mexico would attack the U.S. The telegram was from the German foreign secretary to the Kaiser’s ambassador in Mexico. If America entered the war, Germany would support Mexico with money and weapons to attack the United States.
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Which event was most important in causing Woodrow Wilson to ask Congress for a declaration of war? the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany the revelation of atrocities committed by the German military the sinking of the Lusitania the resignation of Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan
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the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany With the German’s announcement that unrestricted submarine warfare would resume, Wilson’s dream of neutrality collapsed.
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Why was Germany so maligned during discussions at Versailles? The German soldiers had not stopped fighting after the armistice was signed. People felt Germany was to blame for everything. Germany had joined forces with the Russians. Germany wanted to further spread its empire around the world.
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People felt Germany was to blame for everything. Due to Germany’s brutality during the war, especially with regards to the U-boat attacks, the Allies were eager to see Germany brought to its knees. Germany was saddled with responsibility for the war and had to pay $33 billion in reparations, as well as be disarmed.
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What did Wilson hope to achieve with the League of Nations? Countries bound to respect and protect each other and isolate aggressors. The disarmament of all nations. The United States would be considered a superior power. Germany and Russia would not be trusted.
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Countries bound to respect and protect each other and isolate aggressors. Wilson hoped that the League of Nations would be like a check and balances situation, where no nation could become too powerful or threaten another nation’s independence, territory, or trade.
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The Treaty of Versailles never received Senate ratification because Wilson himself came to oppose it. Wilson refused to compromise with Republicans who opposed the treaty. It would have destroyed U.S. national security. The vast majority of Americans came to oppose it.
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Wilson refused to compromise with Republicans who opposed the treaty . Many senators could not support the Treaty of Versailles or the League of Nations because they took too much power away from the United States. They didn’t like that the right to declare war was moved from Congress to the League of Nations. Neither Wilson nor his detractors would give an inch so the treaty and its provisions essentially died on the floor.
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Why were legislators like Henry Cabot Lodge opposed to Wilson’s proposal for a League of Nations? They personally detested Wilson and his supporters. They believed such a League would rearm Germany. They wanted to develop a League after the emotional tenor of wartime subsided. They wanted to preserve American sovereignty in foreign affairs.
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They wanted to preserve American sovereignty in foreign affairs. Lodge worried that the League would force Americans to subject themselves to “the will of other nations.”
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Why were Americans so concerned about radicalism following World War I? The soaring enrollment in leftist groups. Terrorist activity and postwar strikes created chaos. Eugene Debs escaped from jail, potentially resurrecting the Socialists. Many Bolsheviks and Socialists were elected to positions of power in the United States.
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Terrorist activity and postwar strikes created chaos. The spontaneous violence and extremism occurred because Americans believed they were under attack. The menace of radicalism was overblown.
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Under the “Roosevelt Corollary” to the Monroe Doctrine, the United States claimed for itself the right to police the internal affairs of other American nations. returned control of the Panama Canal to Panama. agreed to abstain from interfering in the internal affairs of Caribbean nations and to prevent other powers from interfering in them. declared that it would not permit further colonization anywhere in the world.
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claimed for itself the right to police the internal affairs of other American nations.
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As part of Roosevelt’s gentlemen’s agreement,… As part of Roosevelt’s “gentlemen’s agreement,” what did Japan receive in return for a promise to block future Japanese immigration to the United States? a pledge to not send any U.S. warships to Hawaii or the Philippines without prior approval from Japan the granting of full American citizenship to all Japanese immigrants already settled in the United States American recognition of Japan’s annexation of Manchuria from China an end to the segregation of Japanese students in San Francisco schools
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an end to the segregation of Japanese students in San Francisco schools
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The Central Powers and their allies in World War I consisted of all the following except Russia. Austria-Hungary. Turkey. Germany.
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russia
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Wilson’s initial commitment to neutrality in World War I stemmed from his conviction that the United States could lead the warring nations to a “peace without victory” if it remained neutral. would be able to expand its imperial holdings after the major belligerents had exhausted each other. had no security interests outside the Western Hemisphere. had no right to interfere in the affairs of foreign countries.
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could lead the warring nations to a “peace without victory” if it remained neutral.
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Although Wilson suffered numerous setbacks in the negotiations that led to the Treaty of Versailles, he did succeed in ensuring that the treaty did not place blame for the war on the losers alone. convincing Britain to acquiesce to free trade and freedom of the seas. creating a dozen new states on the basis of national self-determination. preventing Britain and France from demanding onerous reparations from Germany.
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creating a dozen new states on the basis of national self-determination.
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The roaring economy of the 1920s involved all of the following except a revolution in thinking, in which advertising persuaded consumers to buy now rather than save. a consumer-goods revolution that gave the United States the highest living standards on earth. a revolution in labor relations, marked by new growth in the size and influence of labor unions. a productivity revolution based on technology.
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a revolution in labor relations, marked by new growth in the size and influence of labor unions. After the problems with unions and striking workers immediately after the war, employers were suspicious of unions and therefore did whatever they could to diminish their influence amongst their workers.
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Henry Ford’s great contribution to modern industrial culture was his canny use of product diversification to appeal to a wide range of individual tastes. the invention of the gasoline engine. his sensitivity to the needs of the modern worker. his commitment to standardization and assembly-line mass production.
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his commitment to standardization and assembly-line mass production. Henry Ford was the first major manufacturer to modernize production using the assembly line. This increased output.
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The advertising industry warned people against buying on credit. insinuated but did not emphasize health, popularity, and social status. All of the answers are correct. shifted during the 1920s from emphasizing products to stressing a consumer’s desires.
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shifted during the 1920s from emphasizing products to stressing a consumer’s desires. Advertising became more about what people wanted and less about what they needed. Advertisers learned that people could be persuaded to believe almost anything.
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Why did employers’ groups implement welfare capitalism as part of their American Plan (1921)? They sought to increase production. They were moved by religious paternalism. They hoped to work with unions on these programs. They hoped to prevent regulatory legislation.
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They sought to increase production. Companies pledged to care for their employees and give them incentives for working hard.
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Changes in attitudes toward women in the 1920s did not include the cultural acceptance of the dissemination of birth control. caused a significant increase in the number of women in the workforce. opened the door for women to most professions. resulted primarily from changes caused by World War I.
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resulted primarily from changes caused by World War I. Because women had such an active role in the workforce during World War I, it seemed silly to arrest them for things like smoking in public or driving in a car without a man. With the 1920s came a new attitude towards women and their role in society.
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Marcus Garvey called for African Americans to do all of the following except pursue racial integration. return to Africa. stand up and help themselves. be proud of themselves.
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pursue racial integration. Garvey felt that the best way for African Americans to help themselves and be proud of who they were was to go back to Africa.
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The renaissance in African American culture in Harlem resulted in a surge of literature, painting, and sculpture. an exploration of street life in cities, folkways of the rural South, and the primitivism of preindustrial cultures. support of artists by some white patrons. All of these answers are correct.
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All of these answers are correct. The Harlem Renaissance drew on the the growing assertiveness of African Americans as well as on the alineation of white intellectuals.
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What legacy might Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association have had? It caused greater attention to be paid to black intellectuals in Harlem and elsewhere. It caused many African Americans to work to improve their neighborhoods. It caused many African Americans to embrace black nationalism. It caused the federal government to investigate seemingly radical behavior by blacks.
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It caused many African Americans to embrace black nationalism. Garvey hoped to return African Americans to Africa and Africa to Africans.
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What propelled the “culture wars” between traditionalists and proponents of modern city life? the fear that the “sins” of the city were tempting the young people the fear of anything foreign and/or anti-religious All of these answers are correct. the fear that small-town life and values, the rural roots of America, were disappearing
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All of these answers are correct. Traditionalists were afraid that the new mass media generated by the cities was corrupting the young and filtering out the wholesomeness that small-town America had been built on. Nativism further fueled the fire between those in America and those hoping to emigrate to America from other nations.
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The National Origins Acts of 1921 and 1924 cut down the number of immigrants by disallowing immigration from south of the border. capping the total number and limiting the entry of immigrants. limiting all immigrants over a certain age. limiting those from Asian and South American countries.
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capping the total number and limiting the entry of immigrants. Hearing the cry of nativists and labor leaders, the government set immigration limits that involved capping the total number of immigrants who could gain entry each year and by limiting the number of immigrants who could enter the United States from a specific country to a percentage of the population from that country already living in America as of 1890.
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Which of the following groups generally supported the Prohibition movement? labor leaders Catholics social scientists All of these answers are correct.
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All of these answers are correct. Many groups backed prohibition because it supported a healthy family life and workforce.
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There was renewed interest in the KKK because there were more African Americans in America. the Klan reflected the insecurities of the New Era. there was renewed interest in the reconstructed South. Klan leaders had become more vocal.
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the Klan reflected the insecurities of the New Era. The modern Klan was different from the Reconstruction Klan. The modern Klan only admitted native-born, white, Protestant Americans and added “uppity women” and new immigrants to the list of those who were causing problems in society. The modern Klansmen played on the fears of other Americans who opposed the more liberal changes in society.
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Speculation, which had taken over the stock market, was troubling to financial analysts because it benefited the wealthy. caused the Federal Reserve to lower interest rates. was based on expectations that weren’t always realistic. wasn’t a fair way of doing business. .
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was based on expectations that weren’t always realistic. The bullish market had created aggressive buyers of stocks, who acted without a lot of information. The frenzy of buying pushed stock prices to dizzying heights. Financial analysts were concerned because they knew that this way of trading could not last long
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The Great Crash caused the Depression. amaged the economy and broke the unbounded optimism of the New Era. caused a surge in worldwide trade, as people scrambled for scarce goods. All of these answers are correct.
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damaged the economy and broke the unbounded optimism of the New Era. Thousands of middle-class investors lost their savings and their futures, but the biggest problem was with the commercial banks. With the closure of hundreds of banks, the prosperity and optimism so many had experienced through the 1920s disappeared.
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Overexpansion negatively affected business by the end of the 1920s because the labor unions were breathing down the companies’ necks. people no longer wanted the products. there were too many companies producing goods. the demand for goods decreased, which meant that inventories climbed and companies lost money.
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the demand for goods decreased, which meant that inventories climbed and companies lost money. Companies lost money when the supply of goods outweighed the demand. In the end, these companies did all of the wrong things, such as expanding factories and increasing productivity, to make money. Instead, they should have paid their employees better so that the employees could buy some of the products they worked so hard to make.
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Coolidge’s administration contributed to the economic problems by levying high taxes on the middle class. allowing big business to operate unchecked. exerting too much control over banks. None of these answers are correct.
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allowing big business to operate unchecked. One of the problems of the 1920s was that big business was allowed to operate largely unchecked by anyone. There was rampant insider trading and shady deals as big business ruled the economy. Coolidge and Mellon had built a system that put a lot of faith in big business and its ability to generate wealth.
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Unemployment was a sign of a troubled economy because it showed that big businesses didn’t value their workers. companies suffered from overexpansion, reduced demand, and weak management. people didn’t want to work in industrialized businesses anymore. big businesses were consolidating many of their positions.
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companies suffered from overexpansion, reduced demand, and weak management. As companies dealt with overexpansion and faced a reduced demand for products, they started laying off workers. By 1929, some two million people were out of work in “sick” industries such as textiles, coal mining, lumber, and railroads.
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All the following were factors contributing to the booming economy of the 1920s except low prices of consumer goods. shrinking personal debt. enhanced productivity. increased purchasing power.
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shrinking personal debt.
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Developments in the 1920s economy included all the following except the emergence of new businesses made possible by the spread of automobile ownership. spread of consumption encouraged by advertising and credit. increasing predominance of oligopolies and corporations. growing strength, size, and influence of independent labor unions.
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growing strength, size, and influence of independent labor unions.
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Whose transatlantic solo flight made him one of the most renowned celebrities of the 1920s? George Carpentier Charles Lindbergh Joe “King” Oliver Christy Walsh
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Charles Lindbergh
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Marcus Garvey, Claude McKay, and Zora Neale Hurston were representative of the increased prominence of spectator sports in American society. growing assertiveness and racial pride of black Americans. new mingling of revivalism, consumerism, and new technologies. new cult of celebrity made possible by movies and radio.
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growing assertiveness and racial pride of black Americans.
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Traditionalists who resisted the changes of the 1920s were most likely to oppose religious pluralism. ethnic homogeneity. moral certainty. “neighborliness.”
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religious pluralism.
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The immigrants coming to the United States in the immediate aftermath of World War I were least likely to come from which of the following regions? Latin America Northwestern Europe Southern Europe Eastern Europe
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Northwestern Europe
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One of several factors that contributed to the bull market of the 1920s was the cancellation of European war debts and the strong economic stability of European markets. expanding prosperity of America’s agricultural sector. enhanced bargaining position and growing purchasing power of workers. increased availability of money and credit.
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increased availability of money and credit.
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The Great Depression resulted from all the following factors except the inability of factories to produce enough goods to meet consumer demands. uneven distribution of wealth accompanied by high rates of saving among the wealthiest Americans. decentralized banking system and the diversion of banking funds into speculative investments. excessive and unchecked influence that private corporations exerted over the economy.
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inability of factories to produce enough goods to meet consumer demands.
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radio bound the country together because all people liked the same programs. All of these answers are correct. people could listen to the same programs, no matter where they lived. people fell for the same gimmicks from advertisers.
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people could listen to the same programs, no matter where they lived. National broadcasts meant that people in Texas or New York could listen to the same programs or music as people in North Dakota or Florida.
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Movie studios lured viewers into movie houses during the Great Depression by showing movies that preserved traditional values and middle-class morality. slashing prices of movie tickets. only making movies with big-name stars. showing movies with a lot of violence and sex.
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showing movies that preserved traditional values and middle-class morality. Due to increased pressure from the Catholic Church, filmmakers created movies that were more tame and did not depict controversial subjects such as homosexuality, abortion, drug use, or sex.
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LULAC, or the League of United Latin American Citizens, aimed to do all of the following except stress desegregation of public schools. end discrimination in public facilities and on juries. include ethnic Mexicans. support Latino civil rights.
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include ethnic Mexicans. LULAC permitted only those Latinos who were American citizens to join the organization, which excluded hundreds of thousands of ethnic Mexicans who considered themselves Americans.
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What was the most important effect of the Dust Bowl? It caused a flood of migrants from the Great Plains to the West. It resulted in the formation of the United Farm Workers. It caused the government to regulate farming on unsuitable land. It caused Plains states to lose representation in Congress. Most Dust Bowl migrants ended up in California.
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It caused a flood of migrants from the Great Plains to the West. Wherever they landed, only one in two or three migrants actually found work.
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Roosevelt turned his attention to saving the banks first because he didn’t have a plan for dealing with other issues first. he was getting a lot of pressure from Congress to do it. bank leaders were begging for help. the Brains Trust believed that it was the first step to economic solvency.
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the Brains Trust believed that it was the first step to economic solvency. In order to stop the downturn, people needed to believe in banking again. Roosevelt’s first step was to close all of the banks in the country for four days. He then introduced emergency legislation that would give certain banks federal assistance, while more troubled banks would be brought through the storm with the help of federal conservators.
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The purpose of Roosevelt’s work programs was to get people working again as cheaply as possible. get people working again as well as make a difference in the community. spend the money in the administration’s coffers. show the electorate how hard he was trying.
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get people working again as well as make a difference in the community. Programs like the Civil Works Administration, Civilian Conservation Corps, and the Tennessee Valley Authority put people back to work as well as gave them a role in important public works projects that would have a lasting impact on the country.
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Roosevelt dealt with big business by instituting planning that would boost industrial activity and consumer spending. limiting the number of employees companies could fire. raising corporate taxes and passing legislation to break up monopolies. implementing a wide range of new financial regulations.
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instituting planning that would boost industrial activity and consumer spending. Roosevelt’s program for businesses was a way to not only ensure that companies would leave a legacy of capital improvements, but also give employees the means to make purchases. He felt that together, they could help stimulate the economy.
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New Deal planning for agriculture and industry depended primarily on There was no formal New Deal planning for agriculture and industry. federal agencies. private interests. state governments.
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private interests. Like planning for industry, New Deal planning for agriculture relied on private interests to act as the principal planner.
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One of the reasons there was dissent from the New Deal was that some wealthy executives felt that Roosevelt was an enemy of private property. people felt that change wasn’t happening quickly enough. some people felt that Roosevelt was a dictator in the making. All of these answers are correct.
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All of these answers are correct. As program after program that might or might not work came out of Washington, people got tired of waiting for change to come. Others were just wary of some of Roosevelt’s programs and felt that his motives weren’t always altruistic.
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One of Roosevelt’s biggest pushes during the Second Hundred Days was to continue supporting big business. make sure that he was well positioned to win reelection in 1936. continue bailing out the banks. get more Americans working through the Works Progress Administration.
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get more Americans working through the Works Progress Administration. For the Second Hundred Days, Roosevelt was prepared to push through legislation that would soften the impact of industrialism, protect the needy, and compensate for the boom-and-bust business cycle. Through the hard work and ingenuity of Harry Hopkins, the WPA mounted the largest work relief program in history.
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the Social Security Act aimed to pull back on the relationship between people and government. take money from the wealthy to give to the poor. help those who could not help themselves, as well as retirees and those who lost their jobs. protect the federal government coffers.
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help those who could not help themselves, as well as retirees and those who lost their jobs. With the Social Security Act, a new social contract was created between the government and the people, and government acknowledged a broad responsibility to protect the social rights of citizens.
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Roosevelt’s reelection in 1936 was due in large part to the fact that nobody knew his Republican contender. he stood up for those at the bottom of the economic ladder. he was supported solely by labor unions. he was supported by big business.
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he stood up for those at the bottom of the economic ladder. Roosevelt turned the election into a contest between the haves and the have-nots. He knew that organized money (big business and the wealthy) disliked him, and he was up to the challenge that would present. His major support came from the bottom of the economic ladder, those helped most by the New Deal. He was also backed by traditional Democratic support in the South, citizens of big cities, and labor.
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While women experienced many benefits of the New Deal, government insisted that women needed to be protected more than they needed to be employed. could not compete for certain jobs with men. should stay out of the political arena. needed to stay at home rather than work.
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needed to be protected more than they needed to be employed. While women had a great variety of jobs to choose from and they were welcomed into party politics, old conceptions of women’s roles were hard to shake. Many more programs were created to give women a place to live and relief money for their children than were to prepare them for employment.
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One way that workers challenged the “business as usual” stance in industry in the 1930s was to employ an “if you can’t beat them, join them” stategy. write memos to the leaders and demand to be heard. organize “sit-down strikes” in the factories and refuse to work. disengage from the union.
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organize “sit-down strikes” in the factories and refuse to work. Workers, emboldened by the Wagner Act, took matters into their own hands. They engaged in sit-ins and picket lines to show their displeasure with working conditions and wages.
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Why did a black majority vote Democratic in the election of 1934? Significant corruption disenfranchised blacks and their votes were recorded as Democratic. Despite discrimination, the New Deal helped many African Americans. They were following a long tradition of African American support for the Democrats. Many blacks came to assume leadership positions in locally controlled New Deal programs.
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Despite discrimination, the New Deal helped many African Americans. “Let Jesus lead you and Roosevelt feed you,” one black preacher told his congregation before the 1936 election. During that election, three of four black voters cast their ballots for Roosevelt.
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Why did union membership grow so precipitously over the course of the 1930s? Government support for unions allowed organization of unskilled workers to flourish. Unions pioneered new tactics—such as the sit-down strike—to win better contracts. Many unemployed workers joined unions in an effort to gain stable employment. For the most part, unions did not engage in strikes, winning popular support.
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Government support for unions allowed organization of unskilled workers to flourish. The newly formed Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) focused on unionizing unskilled workers.
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The ultimate outcome of Roosevelt’s court-packing plan was that the president was empowered, under certain conditions, to appoint up to six additional justices to the Supreme Court. the plan was defeated, but the Supreme Court became more favorable to New Deal legislation. judges were forced to retire at age 65. the Court retaliated by striking down even more New Deal legislation than before.
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the plan was defeated, but the Supreme Court became more favorable to New Deal legislation. Although the court had struck down New Deal legislation in the past, all of a sudden the Court reversed itself on several programs, such as the Wagner Act, that were critical to New Deal success on different fronts. This happened before Roosevelt had been able to pack the Court, which never took place.
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One economic tactic, advocated by economist John Maynard Keynes, that might have led the United States more quickly out of the Depression was for the government to increase spending and continue running deficits. for the president to raise taxes on the wealthy. to concentrate more effort on foreign trade. to take the shackles off of big business.
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for the government to increase spending and continue running deficits. This theory was meant to compensate for swings in the economy. Other nations had adopted this policy of “countercyclical” action, and had lifted their fortunes more quickly than the United States. However Roosevelt wasn’t comfortable with running budget deficits. In 1937, he decreased government spending and within six months, the economy had collapsed. It was not yet the time to stop spending.
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the New Deal legacy included all of the following except bringing an end to the Great Depression. preserving capitalism and strengthening democracy. modernizing and personalizing the American presidency. making an active government responsible for economic security in America.
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bringing an end to the Great Depression. Although the New Deal brought forth a tremendous number of good programs and helped people to have hope again, it did not bring the recovery from the Great Depression that Roosevelt and Americans had hoped for.
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One of the most important results of the New Deal was that the power of Congress increased. the Democratic Party had become very powerful. it bolstered the upper class. Americans knew that in hard times, the government would come to their aid.
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Americans knew that in hard times, the government would come to their aid. The New Deal did not accomplish everything it set out to, but it did build trust between Americans and their government.
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The Roosevelt coalition that took shape during the Great Depression tied all the following factions to the Democratic Party except white southerners. women and blacks. blue-collar workers. big business.
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big business.
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During the Great Depression, radio programs and movies tended to draw in audiences with lurid depictions of sexual depravity and violence. lose audiences precipitously as few could afford to enjoy such “luxuries.” celebrate traditional values and middle-class morality. accentuate the failings of capitalism and democracy, which the Depression had made so clear.
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celebrate traditional values and middle-class morality.
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Migrants uprooted by the Dust Bowl generally sought economic opportunities in which state? California Oklahoma Illinois Texas
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California
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The defining characteristic of the New Deal was cautious progressivism. ideological consistency. adherence to fixed economic principles. pragmatic experimentation.
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pragmatic experimentation.
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To preserve America’s banks, the government adopted all the following measures except placing troubled banks in the hands of federal conservators. nationalizing the banking system. providing federal insurance for bank deposits. proclaiming a four-day “bank holiday.”
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nationalizing the banking system.

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