History 150- Exam 1

Flashcard maker : Joel Boykin
Paleolithic/ Old Stone-age Era
-survival mode; live day to day; hunters and gatherers
-nomadic people: travelers
The Neolithic Revolution
-agriculture: farming & domesticating animals for the use of humans
-no need to move; much safer
-created a community
key to creating a civilization
-1st known civilization
-city states: independent from each other
-views on the afterlife: 1. you get tormented by evil spirits forever or 2. you are one of those evil spirits
Tigris & Euphrates
-rivers Mesopotamia was built on
-very violent; hard to travel on
-city state
-written language: Cuneiform (symbolic, consistent)
-city state under leadership of King Hammurabi
Code of Hammurabi
-first fully formed system of laws
-class-based: favored men and rich
-mostly trade rules
-rule by law: copied by many civilizations after him; laws work no matter where or when you are
-many gods
-Mesopotamia: pessimistic (believed they were sinical gods)
-life was simple, never much change
-the gods liked you and took care of you
-Nile River= very calm
-founders of Judaism
-monotheism (one god in control of everything)
-hebrew god
-sovereign (controls everything)
-transcendent (above&beyond nature)
-good (wants good things for you but its up to you)
-10 commandments
-free will
-human beings cause their own problems, therefore they can solve them
-dont need to look to supernatural powers to solve your day-to-day problems
-basis for all science
human value
-if Yahweh wants all humanity to succeed & he gave them a set of rules to follow, then every human being has value
-rational humanism
-Homer & the Iliad
-polis system
Trojan War
-Trojans vs Troy
-King Agamemnon leads Greek soldiers to battle
-Achilles: soldier who kills high ranking soldier of Troy and then is entitled to his wife
-K.A. gets mad b/c Achilles is more popular & wants to take the wife
-Achilles says no & leaves the field of battle & the Greeks begin to lose & his best friend is killed
Homer writes about:
-universal order: must follow no matter what
-arete: how a Greek person behaves in their day to day life; says every Greek should strive for excellence in mind & body
-gods of Olympus: introduction into how the gods behave; interfere & interact with humans
Polis system
-every city is independent (own god, own gov, own economy)
-middle of Greece, a lot of territory (rotten farm land), pretty powerful
-attack neighboring village & take hostage & turn them into slaves to work on their soil- helots
-military society (1/2 of arete)
– populous, along Mediterranean sea
-port city, most vibrant &wealthy city state
-poor soil, enslaved people like Sparta
Solon the Reformer
-594 BC becomes influential in the gov (traveled a lot)
-tells gov to stop trying to grow wheat & to make wine & olive oil & pottery
-1st international trade & cash crop
-Athens becomes extremely rich & buys back people sold into slavery
-spoke back to chorus; created dialogue in theater
-play-write: universal order
-Oedipus Rex
-philosophy: rationalism
-war hero & philosopher
-socratic method; dialectics
-father of (Greek) philosophy
-universal order (you have a purpose)
-corrupting the youth
-399 BC: The Apology… dies
-student of Socrates
-doesn’t believe in physical attraction to someone
-The Republic: Utopian literature
-believes society should be broken up into: rulers (best & most intelligent), soldiers (to protect rulers & society), & others (producers, provide food & everything society needs
-combines ideas of Plato & Socrates
-moderation: don’t let 1 thing rule your life
-give power to the \”middle class\”
-island off the East coast of Greece
-under control of Persian Empire
-fighting for independence & Athens wants to send ships for help
-don’t win independence & Athens trying to help makes Persia mad
Battle of Marathon
-490 BC; King Darius I (Persian ruler) sends over an expeditionary force to fight Athens
-Athenians beat the Persians
-soldier runs 26 miles to town to announce victory & Persia is mad again
Persian Wars
-King Xerxes: son of Darius
-480 BC wants to march through Greece & destroy every polis on the way to Athens
-unites political system against Persia
The Battle of Thermopylae
-300 Spartans & thousands of Persians
-fight to the teeth to buy time for southern polises
-still lost
-comes with plan to win Persian war
-turn it into a naval battle
-Athenians abandon the city & go to the shore
Battle of Selamis Bay
-480 BC
-Persians have giant ships & cannot maneuver them in close quarters
-Athenians destroy Persians
Battles of Plataea
-478 BC
-Spartans destroy the remnants of of the Persians on land
-polis system now = UNITED (but still divided)
Pelopponesian League
-Athens created this defense organization
-polises in this league pay taxes to Athens to build up military for defense (collect more than they need & become corrupt)
-polises begin to question Athens’s authority
Delian League
-smaller than Pelopponesian League, but still competitive defense league
Pelopponesian War
-civil war of Greece
-Pelopponesian League vs Delian League
-destroys Greece’s glory
-not sophisticated people
-not considered Greek
Philip of Macedonia
-leader of Macedonia
-wise military leader, in power when the rest of Greece is falling
-assassinated (maybe planned by son & wife)
Alexander the Great
-son of Philip of Macedonia
-comes to power (356-323 BC)
-fan of the Greeks, taught by Aristotle, loves Homer: wants to reestablish the idea of Arete around the world
-conquers territory (great warrior): Persia to India
-turns enemies into allies
-creating a world community
-dies of poison in 323 BC then empire is broken up into chunks
-Roman Republic (509-27 BC)
-Roman Empire (27 BC-476 AC)
-slow moving society but stable and long-lasting
-city state alone Tiber River & on Mediterranean Sea
-idea= unite Italy
-military = organized (enemies into allies)
-improvement for most city states they took over
-great seafaring people; trade throughout the Mediterranean
-even feel/ disposition
-hardly any emotion or reaction
-not vibrant like Greece
-powerful city-state from Northern Africa
-Romans run into them while trading in Med. sea & they both want control of the little islands in Med.
~ islands = great for trading
1st Punic War
-Rome vs Carthage (264- 241 BC)
-naval war that Rome wins: control over Sicily, Corsica & Sardinia
~ Rome now controls Mediterranean
2nd Punic War
-218-201 BC
-Carthage wants to take revenge on Rome & send an invading force that will bring Italy to its knees
-start at the Iberian Peninsula & work their way to Rome
-Hannibal = leader of war (never loses a battle in Europe)
Battle of Canae
-216 BC
-destroys an entire Roman legion of 60,000 (close to downtown Rome)
-for next decade Rome is surrounded by Carthageneans
-Rome sails out & invades Carthage to force Hannibal to leave & go protect his homeland
Battle of Zama
-202 BC Hannibal vs Scipio Africanus
-Scipio defeats Hannibal & Carthage is destroyed
Roman Republic
-starts b/c Rome defeated Carthage & they get all the land Carthage conquered on its way to Rome (during 2nd Punic War)
law of nations
-create laws/rules that will work no matter where you are in the Roman world
-culturally neutral
-supposed to work whenever you are
-greatest contribution of Roman Republic
transition from Roman Republic to Roman Empire
-Punic Wars start the transition; gives them power
-agriculture is greatly impacted (most people were farmers)
~farmers become soldiers then have no farms to return to bc someone else took over & then became an underclass
-old farm land taken over by extremely wealthy people who didn’t go off to war
-corruption: people bribe so they don’t have to give up their land to soldiers coming home
Julius Caesar
-politician, argues for reform for little people & for Rome to maintain reform for the wealth of all
-given military assignment in Gaul so people in senate can get rid of him
-Letters from Gaul: makes senate mad
-comes back to Rome (fights for position) & senate feels threatened
-Ides of March: kill him
Letters from Gaul
-Julius Caesar
-sent to Rome; combination of experiences
-make Caesar popular & senate gets mad
Ides of March
-March 15, 44 BC
-Julius Caesar is assassinated
-causes Roman culture to decline bc society is not longer ruled by law but by terror, money & violence
-becomes most powerful military person in Roman world
-Caesar’s adopted son
-27 BC: got rid of all enemies & offers senate his resignation, senates says no, & he says okay but i won’t be your king
-1st citizen -> prince
-takes on name Augustus Caesar
-1st emperor: sees Rome through transition of Republic to Empire
-maintains law of nations & rules from 27 BC – 14 AD
-early Christianity begins in Palestine (Judaism is most vibrant there)
-St. Paul
– fast rising (kept parts people liked & discarded parts people didn’t like)
-built right on top of the Roman world
-as it rises in popularity, the Roman Empire declines
4 sects of Judaism
1. Sadducees
2. Pharisees
3. Essenes
4. Zealots
-most powerful, wealthy of Jewish sects; elite
-control the temple
-most important to Romans bc they collected taxes from Jews
-believe in Mosaic Law
-ritualistic existence
Mosaic Law
-believed by Sadducees
– you must follow the rules in the Torah at all times
-God gives out his rewards on Earth only (no Heaven)
-most numerous of Jewish sects
-regular people
-future = afterlife
-oral tradition should be incorporated w/ Mosaic Law; morals
-Dead Sea Scrolls (discovered in 1947)
-believed in the end of days
end of days
-God is going to come & choose who has followed his word & who has not
-coming soon
-captive people (Romans controlling Jews against their will)
-Revolutionaries who want to create a Jewish homeland, fight for independence
-political agitators that Romans hate
-don’t pay taxes bc don’t have their independence
-(4 BC- 29 AD)
-represents the lower classes (Sadducees don’t like)
-preaches at a time when the afterlife is being questioned among Jews
-the end of days: we are facing something dramatic & if we are we will be sent a leader
-Messiah: someone to lead the Jews to the end of days (some sects see this as someone to lead them out from under Roman control-religious troublemaker)
-ethical vs rituals
-Romans think he’s a political threat— treason… crucifixion
John the Baptist
-baptized & trained Jesus
-believed in oral tradition & morality (how you behave)
-new sect of Judaism after Jesus’s death
-still Jewish, but follow Jesus’s word
Saul of Tarsus
-Jew living in Greece (5-67 AD)
-St. Paul
-transforms Jesus’s word into a religion (Christianity)
-travels & speaks to people throughout the Roman world
-discovers there are a lot of gentiles & says Jesus’s word isn’t supreme & that oral tradition is more important than written/ritual
-Jews not living in Palestine
-poor people
-don’t like rituals
Bishop of Rome
-leader of the church on Earth
-now have a society based on political, economic & religious aspects
Synoptic Gospels
-66 AD
-Matthew, Mark, Luke
-similar in length, content & emphasis
-110 AD
-longer & different emphasis than synoptic gospels
-Christians are being persecuted at this time & John’s writings emphasize Jesus’s persecution
Council of Nicaea
-325 AD
-called to answer ? of whether or not Jesus = God
Nicene Creed
-Jesus = God (+ Holy Spirit)
-outcome of Council of Nicaea
-Christianity now is fully defined
St. Jerome
-translates the Bible from greek & Hebrew to Latin
-makes it available for all educated people
St. Ambrose
-is the Roman Emperor above Christian low or under it?
-says emperor is w/in Christianity & not about it
-later Popes take this as they can give order to kings/ emperors
St. Augustine
-wrote book in 410 AD: City of God
-Christians have to prepare themselves for the city of God (Heaven)
-creates jobs for life (job passed down from generation to generation & you can’t quit)
-last Roman Emperor
-splits empire in 1/2
-new capital of 2nd 1/2 = Constantinople
-eastern Roman empire = Byzantine Empire (doesn’t fall when western portion does; Asian culture)
The Middle Ages
-Early MA: 500-1050
-High MA= 1050-1500
-defined on the ruins of the Roman Empire- Latifundia (people working there are bound to the land)
-new Latifundia
-each one has own rules, Lord, etc.
-unorganized b/c laws are different for each fiefdom
-people working on a fiefdom
-run fiefdom, in charge of peasants
-peasants give him food & more b/c he gives them protection
-has biggest house (secure place to stay in times of danger)… becomes castle
-castles create 1st warriors… knights
-certain kind of warfare, expensive (elite)
-become their own class & knighthood = birthright
-knights become more terrorizing to the people they’re trying to help bc they are itching to fight
Seasons of War
-Pope says there will be seasons of war
-attempt to stop terrorizing from knights
-sometimes made wars worse
-going back to idea of Arete
-you must be religious (loyal, Christian soldier), take on lady
-decentralization: independent, little towns
-improvised system
-not unified
-no real unity until he comes to power
-Charles the Great
-son of Pepin
-peak of Frankish leadership
-rules 768-814; dies in 814
-Defeats all of his enemies (Moors, Lombards, Bavarians, Saxons, Vikings)
-crowned as the Holy Roman Emperor
-early forms of Germanic tribes
-not able to establish authority bc Roman Empire was too tough
-rise when Roman Empire falls
Pope Gregory I
-reigns (590-604)
-descendent of Roman organization
-makes church the leader of the world community
-simplifies & standardizes religon
-leader of Franks
-1st Franks evert into an alliance w/ Christianity
-then Clovis converts to Christianity: 1st Frankish leader to do so (every leader after him is Christian)
Charles Martel
-Charles the Hammer
-descendent of Clovis
-Frankish leader who fights on behalf of the Christians
-muslims in Spain who terrorize people
Battle of Tours
-Charles Martel defeats the Moors
Pepin the Short
-son of Charles Martel
-defeats the Lombards & create the Papal states (753)
-guarantees protection of the papal states
-brings together the Franks & Christianity
-in Northern Italy
-threat to people bc Rome is in their way
Papal States
-area where Rome is now its own state (band across center of Italy)
Christmas Day, 800
-Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne as the Holy Roman Emperor (political/ military leadership)
-completely linked with religious leadership
Louis the Pious
-son of Charlemagne
-when Charlemagne dies in 814 he leaves his empire to Louis
-maintains the empire for 1 generation
-dies in 849
Treaty of Verdun
-divides the empire amongst Charlemagne’s 3 grandsons in 849
Charles the Bald
-gets the West section of Charlemagne’s empire; now France
Louis the German
-gets the East section of Charlemagne’s empire; now Germany
-gets the Middle Kingdom of Charlemagne’s empire

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