History 1302 final exam review

Flashcard maker : Edwin Holland
COLD WAR
the state of hostility, without direct military conflict, that developed between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II
SOVIET APPROACH TO POST-WAR GERMANY
US APPROACH TO POST-WAR GERMANY
GEORGE KENNAN
He was an American diplomat and ambassador best known as \”the father of containment\” and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War.
CONTAINMENT
a U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
TRUMAN DOCTRINE
President Truman’s policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
MARSHALL PLAN
a plan for aiding the European nations in economic recovery after World War II in order to stabilize and rebuild their countries and prevent the spread of communism.
BERLIN AIRLIFT
Successful effort by the United States and Britain to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to a Soviet blockade of all land and canal routes to the divided city.
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
CHINESE CIVIL WAR
War between communist Mao Zedong and nationalist Chaing-Kai Shek. The communists took over and forced the nationalists to retreat to Taiwan
INCHON LANDING
The landing of UN troops, by General Douglas MacArthur, behind enemy lines at Inchon in Korea. In order to push back the North Korean troops.
GEN. MACAUTHUR VS. TRUMAN
TRUMAN AND CIVIL RIGHTS
Was the first president to initiate the fight for civil rights by desegregating the armed forces and introducing civil rights legislation in Congress.
TAFT-HARTLY ACT
Anti-union law passed by 80th congress, made closed shops illegal, allowed states to pass right work law
DIXIECRATS
southern Democrats who opposed Truman’s position on civil rights. They caused a split in the Democratic party.
ALGER HISS
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury.
SENATOR JOSEPH MCCARTHY
1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov’t, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; \”McCarthyism\” was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists
VENONA PROJECT
A long-running and highly secret collaboration between United States intelligence agencies and the United Kingdom’s MI5 and GCHQ that involved the cryptanalysis of messages sent by several Soviet intelligence agencies, starting in the 1940s.
THE \”NEW LOOK\”
Eisenhowers, less expensive and more agressive foreign policy., Massive Retaliation – first comprehensive nuclear policy
– reliance on deterrence and retaliation
– nukes replace conventional warfare
NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV
became LEADER of USSR after Stalin. Aimed to get rid of stalin legacies and politics. He critized stalin.
GENEVA ACCORDS
a 1954 peace agreement that divided Vietnam into Communist-controlled North Vietnam and non-Communist South Vietnam until unification elections could be held in 1956, temporarily divided vietnam along the 17th parallel
HO CHI MINH
leader of North Vietnam, Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)
NGO DINH DIEM
South Vietnam non-Communist leader, U.S. picked , American ally in South Vietnam from 1954 to 1963; his repressive regime caused the Communist Viet Cong to thrive in the South and required increasing American military aid to stop a Communist takeover. he was killed in a coup in 1963.
FIDEL CASTRO
Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the corrupt regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state. He was prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and has been president of the government and First Secretary of the Communist Party since 1976.
U2 INCIDENT
The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
BROWN VS. BOARD OF EDUCATION OF TOPEKA
declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students and denying black children equal educational opportunities unconstitutional., Overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson saying that different schools for black & White students made unequal opportunity.
SCLC
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
ORVAL FAUBUS
He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of Little Rock public schools during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied the United States Supreme Court by ordering the Arkansas National Guard to stop African American students from attending Little Rock Central High School
EISENHOWER AND LITTLE ROCK DESEGREGATION
CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1957
primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted by Congress in the United States since Reconstruction.
FLEXIBLE RESPONSE
The buildup of conventional troops and weapons to allow a nation to fight a limited war without using nuclear weapons.
BAY OF PIGS
An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
JAMES MEREDITH
He was a civil rights advocate who spurred a riot at the University of Mississippi. The riot was caused by angry whites who did not want Meredith to register at the university. The result was forced government action, showing that segregation was no longer government policy.
FREEDON RIDERS
The black and white people that decided to ride on a bus together to the South to draw attention., brought a federal ban on segregation in all interstate travel

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