History 128 Exam 1

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Experience as slaves; society
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Freedom of African Americans was shaped by
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Increased
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Emancipation _____ the power of black men in the family.
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Emacipation
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The process of being set free from social, legal or political restrictions
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Churches
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Blacks left religious white controlled institutions by making _____ of their own.
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Northern missionary societies
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Blacks of all ages flocked to schools established by _____, the Freedmans bureau, and ex-slaves.
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The right to vote
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Became the former slaves desire for empowerment and equality.
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Land ownership
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Former slaves’ ideas of freedom were directly related to _____. Many former slaves insisted that through their unpaid labor, they had acquired a right to the land.
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The Freedmans bureau
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established schools, provided health care to the poor and aged, settling disputes, etc. It had fewer than 1,000 agents.
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Working free labor system
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The Freedmans bureau established a
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Black Codes
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New laws passed by southern governments that restricted blacks from voting, owning property, traveling to the North (If they signed a labor contract)
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Carpetbaggers
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northern-born white Republicans who made their homes in the South after the war, with many holding political office.
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Scalawags
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southern-born white Republicans. Some were wealthy (e.g., James Alcorn, a Mississippi planter) Most had been up-country non-slaveholders before the Civil War and some had been Unionists during the war.
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The 14th amendment
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It placed in the Constitution the principle of citizenship for all persons born in the United States and empowered the federal government to protect the rights of all Americans. It did not grant blacks the right to vote.
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1913
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By the year of ____ the United States produced one-third of the world’s industrial output.
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Industrial economy
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The 1880 census showed for the first time that a majority of the workforce engaged in nonfarming jobs. The growth of cities was vital for financing industrialization. Great Lakes region Pittsburgh Chicago
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Vertical integration
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the merging together of two or more businesses that are at different stages of production—for example, a food manufacturer and a chain of supermarkets. Andrew Carnegie was famous for this.
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Monopolies
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exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity. characterized by a lack of economic competition. Example: Rockefeller with oil industry, Carnegie with railroads
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Robber Baron
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Modern-day businesspeople who allegedly engage in unethical business tactics and questionable stock market transactions to build large personal fortunes. i.e Carnegie and Rockefeller.
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Captains of industry
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a business leader whose means of amassing a personal fortune contributes positively to the country in some way.
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Effects of industrialism
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Between 1880 and 1900, an average of 35,000 workers perished each year in factory and mine accidents, the highest rate in the industrial world.
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Sherman Antitrust Act
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passed in 1890, banned practices that restrained free trade. Liberty of Contract and the Courts
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Lochner v. New York
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voided a state law establishing ten hours per day or sixty per week as the maximum hours of work for bakers, citing that it infringed on individual freedom.
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The Knights of Labor
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organized all workers to improve social conditions. Labor raised the question of whether meaningful freedom could exist in a situation of extreme economic inequality.
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Middle Class Reformers
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Alarmed by fear of class warfare and the growing power of concentrated capital, social thinkers offered numerous plans for change. Henry George’s solution was the single tax.
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Walter Rauschenbusch
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insisted that freedom and spiritual self-development required an equalization of wealth and power and that unbridled competition mocked the Christian ideal of brotherhood.
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Social Gospel adherents
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established mission and relief programs in urban areas
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Lawrence strike
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demonstrated that workers sought not only higher wages but the opportunity to enjoy the finer things in life.
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Labor unions
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fought for the right to assemble and speak freely. The courts rejected the claims of these.
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Haymarket affair
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On May 1, 1886, some 350,000 workers in cities across the country demonstrated for an eight-hour day. A riot ensued after a bomb killed a policeman on May 4. Employers took the opportunity to paint the labor movement as a dangerous and un-American force prone to violence and controlled by foreign-born radicals. Seven of the eight men accused of plotting the Haymarket bombing were foreign-born.
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Social Darwinism
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Charles Darwin put forth the theory of evolution, whereby plant and animal species best suited to their environment took the place of those less able to adapt. argued that evolution was as natural process and that government must not interfere. Failure to advance in society was widely thought to indicate a lack of character.
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William G. Sumner
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The Social Darwinist believed that freedom required frank acceptance of inequality.
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Industrial freedom
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The right to work in safe conditions with breaks, disability, etc. Right to a fair wage, 8 hr work day Social welfare programs-in the early 1900s it meant workman’s comp, disability, retirement. Later on it meant poor people getting money from government, government funding.
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Social Safety Net
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catches them and make sure they don’t become poor by using the insurance programs that protect American workers.
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Henry Ford
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revolutionized manufacturing with the moving assembly line. He paid his employees five dollars a day so that they could afford to buy his car.
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Female white collar worker
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Blacks and immigrant women- unskilled, low wage work. White women: \”White-collar\” work (sales clerk, phone operator, secretary) Professions
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Margaret Sanger
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placed the issue of birth control at the heart of the new feminism distributed birth control information through the mail The Woman Rebel (newsletter) Family Limitations (pamphlet) Censored by U.S Post Office (1914) Way of preventing women from slipping into poverty.
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Margaret Sanger
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One of the most controversial women during the 1900s
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Margaret Sanger
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Opens first birth control clinic in Brooklyn, 1916 Planned parenthood, 1942
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Emma Goldman
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lectured on sexual freedom and access to birth control.
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Jane Addams
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Founded Hull House in Chicago.Organized women reformers spoke for the more democratic side of Progressivism, female freedom. The new woman was college educated, middle class, and devoted to providing social services. Settlement houses produced many female reformers.
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Woman Suffrage
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The campaign became a mass movement. By 1900, over half the states allowed women to vote in local elections dealing with school issues.
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Mass immigration
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1901-1914 there were 13 million immigrants
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Eastern and Southern Europeans
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Went to Ellis island in New York American cities
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Japanese and Mexicans
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Went to Angel island in San Francisco Western large scale agriculture California fruit fields Immigrants that didn’t wind up in factories in New York were found in Wisconsin in dairy farms.
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Progressives
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Male and female reformers (moderate) Favored government intervention Progressives could reject the traditional assumption that powerful government posed a threat to freedom because their understanding of freedom was itself in flux. John Dewey
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Progressives
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Drawing on the reform programs of the Gilded Age and the example of European legislation, Progressives sought to reinvigorate the idea of an activist, socially conscious government.
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Progressives
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Wanted: Better safety conditions for workers\”no industrial accidents\” \”Minimum safety and health standards\” eight hour work days Wanted a life outside of work Child labor laws Minimum wage Company life insurance Retirement insurance Workman’s compensation Unemployment insurance
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Radicals
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Bohemians, socialists and feminists Experimental, revolutionary, \”ahead of their time\” Bohemians in Greenwhich Village, NYC Reject traditions of nineteenth century Want to create something new
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Heterodoxy club
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club where the men and women would meet to talk about new society and the ideas they wanted to reject, such as women voting, working, etc
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Labor contract
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Blacks signed this. Enforced them to stay on the land that they worked on.
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Henry Johnson
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Who was President in time of the Black Codes
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Abraham Lincoln
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This president came after Henry Johnson, and enforced southern states to pass some kind of black code restricting blacks from voting.
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Henry Ford
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Treated his workers fairly so they wouldn’t have to form a union. He infringed on their rights and hated unions.
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Hull House
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Where immigrants could go to reform

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