History 111 Final Exam Identification’s

Flashcard maker : Kelly Fisher
The Anti-Federalists
The Anti-Federalists opposed ratification of the Constitution and were typified by:
-A desire to establish a weak central government (as had been created by the Articles of Confederation.
-A corresponding desire for strong state governments
-support of many small farmers and small landowners
* They believed the constitution did not equally divide power among the three branches of government. They also worried about giving the federal government the power to regulate commerce.
Martin Van Buren
-Was a Key organizer of the Democratic Party, a dominant figure in the Second Party System.
-8th President of United States
-Van Buren advocated lower tariffs and free trade, and by doing so maintained support of the South for the Democratic Party.
The Mammoth Cheese
-Puritan Settlers from the town of Cheshire made a \”Mammoth Cheese\” weighing roughly 1200 to 1600 pounds. Transported it to Washington D.C. to Jefferson..
-\” While the cheese did serve to praise Jefferson, the town also made a political statement in its letter to Jefferson, noting that \”the cheese was procured by the personal labor of freeborn farmers with the voluntary and cheerful aid of their wives and daughters, without the assistance of a single slave.\”
The State of Deseret
-Was a proposed state of the United States.
– Covered much of the south west, next to California.
-as part of the Compromise of 1850, the Utah Territory was created by Act of Congress
-The State of Deseret, a reference to the honeybee in The Book of Mormon.
The War of 1812
-War between Britain and America caused by…
-British impressment of American sailors
-The British seizure of American ships
-British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier.

-Britain burned the White House and the Capital building.
-The war was basically a draw.
-The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.

The Fugitive Slave Law
-Passed in 1850
-Federal law made it easier for slaveholders to recapture runaway slaves
-This law ordered every U.S. government officer to help slave owners get their runaway slaves back.
-It also made it easier for kidnappers to take free blacks
-The law became an object of hatred in the North.
The Corrupt Bargain
-4 main \”Republican\” candidates in the election of 1824: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, William Crawford, and Henry Clay.
-No candidate won the majority of electoral votes.
-BELIEVED THAT Clay convinced the house to elect John Quincy Adams as President. Adams agreed to make Clay the Secretary of State for getting him into office.
-People felt that there was a \”corrupt bargain\” because Andrew Jackson had the popular vote but wasn’t elected.
Stephen A. Douglas
– Ran against Abe Lincoln’s Presidency.
-Speaker of the House
-Pushed the Compromise of 1850 through Congress.
-Became the leading Northern Democrat and supporter of popular sovereignty
-Author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act
The Cult of Domesticity
-Men dominated American families
-Men were legal guardians of the children, owned whatever family members produced or earned, and had the legal authority to oppose his daughter’s choice of husband.
-In the 1830’s women gained the right to own and convey property, write a will, and keep possession of her own property instead of giving it her husband.
-Divorce also was liberalized by states.
-A woman who achieved mastery in religion, morality, domestic arts, and music and literature lived up to the middle class ideal of the cult of domesticity.
The Impending Crisis of the South, by Hinton R. Helper
-Helper did not think slavery was morally wrong—he in fact became a rabid white supremacist after the war—but he believed it did not provide a proper economic model to advance the South.
-South had negative reaction to book.
– Believed the North was doing the smart way.
-Helper claimed, indicated slave-owners had successfully infringed on freedom of speech.
-To end slavery, Helper backed re-colonization of slaves to Africa, and even advocated slave-against-master violence if necessary.
The Market Revolution
-Shift from a home-based, often agricultural, economy to one based on money and the buying and selling of goods
Sociology for the South, by George Fitzhugh
-Fitzhugh was an American social theorist who published racial and slavery-based sociological theories in the antebellum era.
-Most powerful attack on the philosophical foundations of free society.
-Argued that free labor and free markets enriched the strong while crushing the weak.
-Advocated slavery for poor whites as well as blacks.
The Second Great Awakening
-Second religious revival in the United States in which masses of people would gather to pray and many souls were \”saved\”.
-The Methodists and Baptists became the most abundant religion from heavy recruiting.
-The Second Great Awakening renewed religion as the center of American culture and redefined American religions
-Encouraged a culture of evangelicalism responsible for an upswing in prison reform, the temperance cause, the feminist movement, and abolition.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
-1854
-Sponsored by Senator Stephen Douglas
-Create the territories of Kansas and Nebraska
-Repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820
-Allowed settlers in those territories to determine if they would allow slavery within their boundaries.
Walker’s Appeal, by David Walker
-1829
-Walker was a black slave.
-Most radical of all anti-slavery documents
-Called for slaves to revolt against their masters.
-The goal of his appeal was to instill pride in his black readers and give hope that someday change would come.
-It spoke out against colonization
The American/Know-Nothing Party
-The movement originated in New York in 1843 as the American Republican Party.
-When a member was asked about its activities, he was supposed to reply, \”I know nothing.\”
-Empowered by popular fears that the country was being overwhelmed by German and Irish Catholic immigrants.
-Wanted to limit immigration due to those fears.
James K. Polk
-Slave owning southerner dedicated to Democratic party.
-\”dark horse\” candidate for president, and he won the election.
-Favored American expansion, especially advocating the annexation of Texas, California, and Oregon.
-Friend and follower of Andrew Jackson.
-Believed in separation of the treasury and the federal government from the banking system. -He was a nationalist who believed in Manifest Destiny.
Emancipation
-Executive order issued by abraham lincoln on january 1, 1863
-Freed slaves in all regions in rebellion against the union.
Abolitionism
-Militant effort to do away with slavery.
-abolitionism was a movement to end the slave trade and set slaves free.
-Became a major issue in the 1830s and dominated politics after 1840.
-Congress became a battleground between pro and anti-slavery forces from the 1830’s to the Civil War.
Reconstruction
-Period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union.
Seneca Falls
-Site of the women’s rights convention
-Met in July in 1848
-In the Wesleyan Chapel
-300 men and women attended.
-At the convention, they vote in the Seneca Falls Declaration, which was signed by 32 men.

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