History 110A CSUF midterm

Flashcard maker : Marie Florence
Hominids (6)
Members of the family Hominidae that contains humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans
Paleolithic era (6)
Period during which humans used tools of stone, bone, and wood and obtained food by gathering and hunting (250,000-9,000 BCE)
foraging (6)
A style of life in which people gain food by gathering plant products, trapping, or catching small animals and birds, and hunting larger prey
Neolithic era (6)
Period beginning in 9000 BCE during which humans obtained food by raising crops and animals and continued to use tools primarily of stone, bone, and wood.
Neanderthals (10)
Group of Homo erectus with brains as large as those of modern humans that flourished in Europe and western Asia between 150,000 and 30,000
Megafaunal extinction (13)
Die-off of large animals in many parts of the world about 15,000-10,000 BCE, caused by climate change and perhaps human hunting
division of labor (13)
differentiation of tasks by gender, age, training, status, or other social distinction
animism (15)
idea that people, animals, plants, natural occurrences, and other parts of the physical world have spirits
shamans (16)
spiritually adept men and women who communicated with the unseen world
agricultural revolution (17)
dramatic transformation in human history resulting from the change from foraging to raising crops and animals
domesticated (18)
plants and animals modified by selective breeding so as to serve human needs; domesticated animals will behave in specific ways and breed in captivity
horticulture (18)
crop raising done with hand tools and human power
pastoralism (22)
an economic system based of herding flocks or goats, sheep, cattle, or other animals
social hierarchies (24)
divisions between rich and poor, elites, and common people that have been a central feature of human society since the neolithic era
patriarchy (25)
social system in which men have more power and access to resources than women and some men are dominant over other men
Polytheism (39)
the worship of many gods and goddesses
cuneiform (40)
sumerian form of writing; the term describes the wedge-shaped marks made by a stylus
epic poem (41)
an oral or written narration of the achievements and sometimes the failures of heroes that embodies peoples’ ideas about themselves
hammurabi’s law code (42)
a proclamation issued by Babylonian king hammurabi to establish laws regulating many aspects of life
pharaoh (45)
the title given to the king of egypt in the new kingdom, from a word that meant \”great house\”
indo-european languages (48)
a large family of languages that includes english, most of the languages of modern europe, ancient greek, latin, persian, hindi, bengali, and sanskrit, the sacred tongue of ancient india
iron age (50)
period beginning about 1100 BCE when iron became the most important material for weapons and tools in some parts of the world
phoenicians (50)
people of the prosperous city-states in what is now Lebanon who traded and founded colonies throughout the Mediterranean and spread the phonetic
Yahweh (52)
all-powerful god of the hebrew people and the basis for the enduring religious traditions of Judaism
zoroastrianism (58)
religion based on the teachings of zoroaster that emphasized the individuals responsibility to choose between good and evil
Harappan
the first indian civilization; also known as the indus valley civilization
Aryans
the dominant people in north india after the decline of the indus valley civilization; they spoke an early form of sanskrit
rig veda
The earliest collection of Indian hymns, ritual texts, and philosophical treatises, it is the central source of information on early Aryans.
Brahmins
Priests of the Aryans; they supported the growth of royal power in return for royal confirmation of their own religious rights, power, and status
caste system
the indian system of dividing society into hereditary groups whose members interacted primarily within the group, and especially married within the group
samsara
the transmigration of souls by a continual process of rebirth
karma
the tally of good and bad deeds that determines the status of an individual’s next life
brahman
the unchanging ultimate reality, according to the upanishads
jainism
indian religion whose followers consider all life sacred and avoid destroying other life
Four Noble Truths
The buddhas message that pain and suffering are inescapable parts of life; suffering and anxiety are caused by human desires and attachments; people can understand and triumph over these weaknesses; and the triumph is made possible by following a simple code of conduct
eightfold path
the code of conduct set forth by the buddha in his first sermon, beginning with \”right conduct\” and ending with \”right contemplation\”
Mahayana
the \”great vehicle\” a tradition of buddhism that aspires to be more inclusive
bodhisattvas
buddhas-to-be who stayed in the world after enlightenment to help others on the path of salvation
dharma
the sanskrit word for moral law, central to both buddhist and hindu teaching
Mauryan empire
the first indian empire founded by chandragupta
code of manu
the codification of early indian law that lays down the family, caste, and commercial law
loess
soil deposited by wind; it is fertile and easy to work
anyang
one of the shang dynasty capitals from which the shang kinds ruled for more that two centuries
taotie
a stylized animal face commonly seen in chinese bronzes
logographic
a system of writing in which each word is represented by a single symbol, such as the chinese script
book of documents
one of the earliest chinese books, containing documents, speeches, and historical accounts about early Zhou rule
mandate of heaven
the theory that heaven gives the king a mandate to rule only as long as he rules in the interests of the people
shi
the lower ranks of chinese aristocracy; these men could serve in either military or civil capacities
book of songs
the earliest collection of chinese poetry; it provides glimpses of what life was like in the early zhou dynasty
warring states period
the period of chinese history between 403 bce and 221 bce when states fought each other and one state after another was destroyed
crossbow
a powerful mechanical bow developed during the warring states period
ren
the ultimate confucian virtue; it is translated as perfect goodness, benevolence, humanity, human-heartedness, and nobility
filial piety
reverent attitude of children to their parents extolled by confucius
dao
the way, a term used by daoists to refer to the natural order and by confucians to refer to the moral order
legalists
political theorists who emphasized the need for rigorous laws and laid the basis for chinas later bureaucratic government
yin and yang
a concept of complementary poles, one of which represents the feminine, dark, and receptive, and the other the masculine, bright, and assertive
polis
generally translated as \”city-state\” it was the basic political and institutional unit of ancient greece
hoplites
heavily armed citizens who served as infantrymen and fought to defend the polis
democracy
a type of greek government in which all citizens administered the workings of government
oligarchy
a type of greek government in which citizens who owned a certain amount of property ruled
mystery religions
belief systems that were characterized by secret doctrines, rituals of initiation, and sometimes the promise of rebirth or an afterlife
platonic ideals
in plates thought, the eternal unchanging ideal forms that are the essence of true reality
hellenistic
literally means like the greek; describes the period from the death of alexander the great in 323 bce to the roman conquest of egypt in 30 bce when greek culture spread
hellenization
the spread of greek ideas, culture, and traditions to non-greek groups across a wide area
epicureanism
a system of philosophy based on the teachings of epicurus, who viewed a life of contentment, free from fear and suffering, as the greatest good
stoicism
a philosophy based on the ideas of zeno that held that people could only be happy when living in accordance with nature and accepting whatever happened
senate
the assembly that was the main institution of power in the roman republic, originally composed only of aristocrats
consuls
primary executives in the roman republic, elected for one year terms, who commanded the army in battle, administered state business, and supervised financial affairs
patricians
the roman hereditary aristocracy, who held most of the political power in the republic
plebeians
the common people of rome, who were free but had few of the patricians advantages
punic wars
a series of three wars between rome and carthage in which rome emerged the victor
paterfamilias
the oldest dominant male of the family, who held great power over the lives of family members
pax romana
the \”roman peace\” a period during the first and second centuries ce of political stability and relative peace
messiah
in jewish belief, a savior who would bring a period of peace and happiness for jews; many christians came to believe that jesus was that messiah
pagan
originally referring to those who lived in the countryside, the term came to mean those who practiced religions other than judaism or christianity
bishop
a christian church official with jurisdiction over a certain area and the power to determine the correct interpretation of christian teachings
great wall
a rammed-earth fortification built along the northern border of china during the reign of the first emperor
confucian classics
the ancient texts recovered during the han dynasty that confucian scholars treated as sacred scriptures
records of the grand historian
a comprehensive history of china written by sima qian
silk road
the trade routes across central asia linking china to western eurasia
tributary system
a system first established during the han dynasty to regulate contact with foreign powers. states and tribes beyond its borders sent envoys bearing gifts and received gifts in return
eunuchs
castrated males who played an important role as palace servants
age of division
the period after the fall of the han dynasty when china was politically divided
grand canal
a canal, built during the sui dynasty, that connected the yellow and yangzi rivers, notable for strengthening chinas internal cohesion and economic development
pure land
a school of buddhism that taught that by calling on the buddha amitabha, one could achieve rebirth in amitabhas pure land paradise
chan
a school of buddhism (known in japan as zen) that rejected the authority of the sutras and claimed the superiority of mind-to-mind transmission of buddhist truths
shinto
the way of the gods, japans native religion
nara
japans capital and first true city, it was established in 710 and modeled o the tang capital of cahng’an

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