History 101 FINAL EXAM

Flashcard maker : Tiffany Hanchett
What was Mesopotamia?
described as the land between the Tigris-Euphrates rivers that the Sumerians developed
Sargon I
established the world’s first empire
Hammurabi
Babylonian king responsible for developing a code of laws
Gilgamesh
king who searched for power and immortality
Epic of Gilgamesh
an important primary source from the Sumerian civilization.
Who were the three kings known for unifying the Hebrews?
Saul, David and Solomon
During which kings reign did Israel reach its maximum power?
Solomon’s reign
Who had the largest empire in ancient times and who led that empire?
The Persians under Cyrus
Who was Cyrus?
Benevolent, diplomatic king
What is Zoroastrianism?
Developed in Persia and was based on ethical ideas and the struggle between good and evil
Mandate of Heaven
Introduced during the Zhou dynasty; explained the cycle of kings losing power and new dynasties emerging
What did Mencius say about the Mandate of Heaven?
People had the right to rebel against rulers who lost the mandate
Confucianism
focused on man’s behavior and ways to improve society
Daoism
the Way and advocated a passive citizen
Legalism
strict philosophy that supported an authoritarian chinese ruler like Qin
Wu Ti
chinese emperor who consolidated the most power in the East during the Han dynasty
Himalayan Mts.
divided india from Asia
Where did the Aryans come from?
came into Indian peninsula through Khyber pass
How did the Aryans influence the Indian People?
influenced religious and social character of the Indian people.
Who founded Indias first empire?
Chandragupta Maurya
Describe Ashoka and his reign
Ruler who converted to Buddhism and his reign was marked by peace and toleration
What did Buddha or Prince Gautama define?
defined the Middle Way to human happiness and taught the way to achieve nirvana or a release from suffering
Name two epic Indian poems
Mahabharata and Ramayana
What did the two epic Indian poems reveal?
revealed much about the civilization which was established along the Indus river
Describe the Iliad and Odyssey
recorded the Trojan War; demonstrates Homer’s attempts during the Dark Age to revive the Greek spirit
Ostracism
Introduced by Cleisthenes; a way to banish opponents of democracy
Hippocrates
father of medicine
Herodotus
father of history
Sparta
developed into a military state according to the system proposed by Lycurgus
How was Philip of Macedonia able to conquer Greece easily?
Sparta won the civil war (Peloponnesian War) with Athens, but all of Greece was weakened
Alexander the Great
Philips son; went on to conquer the Persian empire, Egypt and parts of India; wanted to unite the empire and blend the cultures
Hellenistic Age
developed and helped spread Greek culture throughout the East
Where was Rome built and how was its location important?
Built on the banks of the Tiber river and due to its location in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, trade became very important
Etruscans
controlled Latin tribes until 500 B.C.; taught Latins how to drain marshes, build arches and fight
What is the fasces symbol?
used by Etruscan kings; was an ax bound by a bundle of rods
Who were the patricians and plebeians?
Patricians were the upper class who controlled the republic; Plebeians were the lower class
Hannibal
a Carthaginian general who almost defeated Rome but Rome was very skilled and won all three Punic Wars
What did the Gracchi brother try to do? and what was the result?
tried to reform the Senate; they were both murdered
Describe Christianity in the first century
arose during the first century and would eventually spread throughout the Mediterranean and Roman empire due to the efforts of St. Paul
Who overthrew the last Roman emporer in the West?
Odovacar
What was Justinian?
One of the most famous Byzantine empires known for rebuilding Constantinople after massive earthquakes; publication of the legal Code of Justinian, and the building of Hagia Sophia, a cathedral
To what religion did Prince Vladamir of Russia convert his people to?
Orthodox Christianity
What did Ivan the Great do?
he was able to centralize his authority over the Muscovite princes and took the title of tsar; began building a modern Russian state
Where did Islam develop?
developed on Arabian peninsula
What is Jihad?
refers to the military force that was applied to conversion and conquest within Islam
What were the Five Pillars of Faith?
prayer, giving to the poor (alms), pilgrimage to mecca, fasting, and the recitation of the Islamic belief in Allah
Where did most education during the middle ages take place?
monasteries
What was Charlemagne known for?
conquest and efforts to establish political unity with an efficient government organization.
What was feudalism?
a decentralized government structure whereby a vassal swore loyalty and homage to a lord.
What was investiture?
involved a lord promising land to a vassal in return for his promise to fight
What is a fief?
land given to vassals by a lord
What is manorialism?
referred to the economic self-sufficiency of the manor
What English king was known for establishing \”common law?\”
Henry II
What was one of Magna Carta’s major principles?
no man is above the law
Who found the principality of Kiev?
Scandanavian Vikings
What is heresy?
the belief in doctorines offically condemned by the church
goal of the crusades
recapture holy land from the Muslims
movtives for the crusades
religious fervor, allowing the pope to assume leadership in liberating the Holy Land and the desire for military adventures
impact of the crusades
major impact was a revival of cities
how was the black death spread?
by black rats that were infested with fleas
What is a flagellant?
christian fanatics who beat themselves during the black death
where in italy did the Italian renaissance begin
northern cities of italy
What italian family controlled banking and politics?
the Medici family
who were the great triad of painters of the renaissance?
Michelangelo, DaVinci and Raphael
What was the Great Schism?
period between 1377 and 1417; time when two and sometimes three rival popes
What did the humanists from the renaissance period introduce?
reintroduced classical literature from Roman and Greek civilizations to the Western world
Who helped spread Islam through parts of India?
Mahmud of Ghanzi
Which dynasty is traditionally associated with indias golden age?
Gupta dynasty

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