Historiography

Flashcard maker : Ruth Jones
Christopher Shannon
Christopher Shannon examines how an anthropological definition of culture shaped the central political and social narratives of the Cold War era. In the middle decades of the twentieth century, American intellectuals understood culture as a \”whole way of life\” and a \”pattern of values\” in order to account for and accommodate differences between America and other countries, and within America itself. Shannon locates the ideological origins of current debates about multiculturalism in the pluralist thought of \”consensus\” liberalism. The emphasis on individualism in contemporary identity politics
\”After Monographs\”
Meanwhile, Christopher Shannon challenges the tyranny of the monograph and argues that all history books (whether they acknowledge it or not) are \”morally charged narratives.\” Most of what goes on in the academy, argues Shannon in \”After Monographs: A Critique of Christian Scholarship as Professional Practice,\” is little more than an ongoing attempt to legitimize \”the modern secular world\” (183). Shannon suggests that Christian historians might best challenge this legitimacy by telling explicitly providentialist stories and by critiquing the equally providentialist assumptions of secular monographs.
\”Inferring agency from action\”
is problematic,
Shannon tells us, because interpreting the facts presupposes
philosophical assumptions that may not be accurate. Many historians
would agree that Peiss’ method is flawed and limits the sources to say
what she wants them to say. A logical historical methodology that
recognizes the complexity of discerning human motivation can correct
Peiss’ error. But Shannon is right to point out that interpretation
presupposes an intellectual tradition or philosophy
Martin Luther
Sola scriptura
is the Christian doctrine that the Bible is the supreme authority in all matters of doctrine and practice. Sola scriptura does not deny that other authorities govern Christian life and devotion, but sees them all as subordinate to and corrected by the written word of God.

Sola scriptura is a formal principle of many Protestant Christian denominations, and one of the five solas. It was a foundational doctrinal principle of the Protestant Reformation held by the Reformers, who taught that authentication of Scripture is governed by the discernible excellence of the text as well as the personal witness of the Holy Spirit to the heart of each man. Some Evangelical and Baptist denominations state the doctrine of sola scriptura more strongly: Scripture is self-authenticating, clear (perspicuous) to the rational reader, its own interpreter (\”Scripture interprets Scripture\”), and sufficient of itself to be the final authority of Christian doctrine.

Historia, allegoria, anagoria, and aetiologia
the (historical) fact, the deeper meaning,
Aetiologia is the justification or explanation of a claim or statement by showing cause and effect
\”Medieval Gemeinschaft vs. modern Gesellschaft\”
Coined by Ferdinand Tonnies; Two distinct forms of human relationships present in all human societies and existing in continuous interaction with each other. Gemeinschaft: human relations are an end in themselves; shared experiences; driven by the natural will; informal duty or obligation. Gesellschaft: human relations driven by the rational will; trust depersonalized and based on self-interested agreements. The expansion of Gesellschaft came with the emergence of a capitalist society at the expense of gemeinschaft. Gemeinschaft was reintroduced with the modern nation state, took wars in some cases to achieve a symbiosis of 2Gs. Feudalism allowed for the flourish of gemeinschaft in medieval history as individuals relied wholly on each other for support and survival. However, as the individualism of capitalism arose.
John Henry Newman
An Anglican priest and leader of a renewal in the Anglican Church. Took Catholicism seriously. Newman found himself drawn to the Catholic Church because it had historical roots leading back to the Apostles. In 1845, after intense discernment, he converted to Catholicism and became a Catholic Priest. His writings about his decision to convert about the intellectual life made him a renowned figure worldwide, and he was honored by being made Cardinal.
\”The Idea of a University\”
*1852: John Henry Newma
John Holloway- deflection of nature
\”Marsden settlement\”
-Marden is not ashamed of being a Christian, he lets that influence the way he writes and he thinks that will make him a better historian
Confessing History
Mark R. Schwehn
‘Should paternal love be contingent to any degree upon the performance’
R. G. Collingwood
\”idea of History\” Collingwood pointed out a fundamental difference between knowing things in the present (or in the natural sciences) and knowing history. To come to know things in the present or about things in the natural sciences, \”real\” things can be observed, as they are in existence or that have substance right now.

The problem with coming to know things about history is that while past human actions actually or really happened, they took place in the past. The actions, then, have no real existence or substance at the point in time that the historian is studying them. Based on the understanding that the events and actions that historians study have already happened, they are finished and so cannot actually be observed. Collingwood maintained that historians must use their imaginations to reconstruct and understand the past. Because human events that have already taken place cannot be observed, he argued that they must be imagined.

Augustine’s Confessions
a kind of religious autobiography; a philosophical treatise on the concept of time; a meditation on God and the person.
Cornerstone of Catholicism, first auto biography, showed childhood was important, praises God for divine intervention
\”The Hedgehog and the Fox\”
the fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing\”. A description of the way people view and interpret history. Some view history as foxes and will pull from many sources while others view history as hedgehogs and will pull from one single truth or lense. Berlin concludes that Tolstoy was by nature a fox, but a hedgehog by conscience.
\”Modern Science and the Dehumanization of Man\”
Phillip Sherrard (1976) Comments that the initial awe and imagination have left the world, calls for a return to the natural (Rousseau and quotes Voltaire). The loss of memory associated with modern science forebodes a deeper ignorance that is spreading through mankind. This is a passive acquiescence to history and life
Philip Sherrard
\”Modern Science and the Dehumanization of Man\” –
\”Science and the Savages\” (Chesterton)
\”National Life from the Standpoint of Science\”
Karl Pearson (1857-1936) was an English mathematician, eugenics, and supporter of the
concept of Social Darwinism. In an address delivered in Newcastle, England, during the
Second Boer War (1899-1902), Pearson propounded his ideas on the subject. Pearson takes
the concept of evolution and survival of the fittest as defined by Charles Darwin and applies it
to nations and races, arguing that only through struggle, war, and the eventual domination of
the inferior race by the superior race—which he defines as European civilization—can
civilization progress. Without this competition and suffering, or by mixing with the lower
races, the high state of civilization will stagnate and degenerate. Pearson’s ideas represent a
widely held notion during his time. In an age of extraordinary scientific achievements, they
enjoyed widespread success in part because of their alleged scientific nature, in a manner
similar to Marx’s purported \”scientific socialism.\”
Reinhold Niebuhr
Influential liberal protestant clergyman who crusaded against what he perceived as the drift away from Christian foundations for over five decades after WWI.He was vehemently against fascism, communism, and pacifism, and divided the world into \”children of light\” and \”children of darkness.\”
Sir Herbert Butterfield
Butterfield’s main interests were historiography, the history of science, 18th century constitutional history, Christianity and history as well as the theory of international politics.[4] He delivered the Gifford Lectures at the University of Glasgow in 1965. As a deeply religious Protestant, Butterfield was highly concerned with religious issues, but he did not believe that historians could uncover the hand of God in history. At the height of the Cold War, he warned that conflicts between self-righteous value systems could be catastrophic
Butterfield’s 1949 book Christianity and History, asks if history provides answers to the meaning of life, answering in the negative:
Positivism
A philosophy developed by the French count of Saint-Simon. Positivists believed that social and economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress. Popular in France and Latin America.
\”Preaching through History\”
\”The Problems of Preaching through History,\” so you can imagine how LaGrand would respond to a call for undergraduate curricula to tell a \”very partisan story\” that takes the study of God’s actions in the world as its center. Like Shannon, LaGrand appeals to Augustine: not in search of a pre-Reformation, pre-modern interpretive tradition, but for the reminder \”to resist conflating the ‘things of God’ with the ‘things of humans.’ We know that God acts, and we see examples of God’s providence around us. But in looking at the sweep of human history wearing the lenses we have on this side of the final day of judgment, we should not try to do providential history
James B. Lagrand
Mary Wollstonecraft
British feminist of the eighteenth century who argued for women’s equality with men, even in voting, in her 1792 \”Vindication of the Rights of Women.\”
Edward Gibbon
(1737 – 1794) Author of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, published in 1776, one of the first modern histories that attempted to explain the past as a guide to the future.
David Hume
Scottish philosopher whose sceptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses
Author of An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding
Cast into doubt the existence of cause and effect as objective reality
Michael Kugler
Thomas L. Haskell

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