Histology Practice 1

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Columnar cells lining the small intestine show a brush border of microvilli on the apical surface
Nonkeratinized cells exfoliate from the surface of the skin
False- they provide a moist and slippery surface and are well suited to resist stress. Ex- vagina
In an epithelium, there is almost no extracellular matrix
The 4 primary tissue types found in adult organs are:
___ lines body cavities, covers the body surface, and forms the lining of many organs
Epithelial tissue
An epithelium with all cells tall and narrow and with every cell touching the basement membrane is called _____
Simple columnar
The basement membrane is found between
Epithelium and connective tissue
____ epithelium allows for rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs
Simple squamous
Most kidney tubules are made of this tissue specialized for absorption and secretion
Simple cuboidal epithelium
__ is the most widespread epithelium in the body, whereas __ epithelium is rare
Stratified squamous; stratified columnar
__ cells in simple columnar and pseudostratified columnar epithelium produce protective mucous coatings over the mucous membranes
All cells in this tissue reach the basement membrane and only cells that reach the free surface have cilia
Pseudostratified columnar
__ epithelium found in the bladder resembles __ epithelium, but the apical cells are rounded, not flattened
Transitional; stratified squamous
___ epithelium provides a moist and slippery surface and is well suited to resist stress, as in the __
Nonkeratinized; vagina
__ epithelium is associated with rapid transport of substances through a membrane, whereas __ epithelium is associated with resistance to abrasion
Simple squamous; stratified squamous
These features are common to all connective tissue
•Most cells are not in direct contact with each other
•Cells usually occupy less space then extracellular material
•Protein fibers are usually present in ground substance
•most of them are highly vascular
__ tissue is highly vascular, whereas __ is not
Areolar; cartilage
Fibrous connective tissues have these features in common
•Very conspicuous fibers
•The presence of fibroblasts
•The presence of collagen
•Ground substance with a gelatinous to rubbery consistency
The shape of a person’s external ear is given by
Elastic cartilage
Types of fibrous connective tissue
•Reticular tissue
•Dense regular connective tissue
•Dense irregular connective tissue
•Areolar tissue
New triglycerides are constantly synthesized and stored and others are hydrolyzed and released into circulation mostly cells in
Adipose tissue
__ secrete the rubbery matrix of cartilage, whereas __ produce the fibers and ground substance that form the matrix of fibrous connective tissue
Chondroblasts; fibroblasts
All these substances account for the gelatinous consistency of connective tissue ground substance
-Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)
-Chondroitin sulfate
-Hyaluronic acid
Collagenous fibers are very abundant in
-Deeper portion of the skin
Fibroblasts and protein fibers are associated with both
-Dense regular and dense irregular connective tissues
__ is found in the heart, and one of it’s functions is to __
Blood; transport nutrients to the tissues
___ exhibits a lot of apparently empty space, and is found in many serous membranes
Areolar tissue
Skeletal muscle is described as
Striated(lined) and voluntary
In the intestine, __ ensure that most digested nutrients pass through the epithelial cells and not between them
Tight junctions
__ secrete __ into __
Endocrine glands; hormones; the blood
__ glands secrete mucin, which combines with water to form a thick and sticky product, whereas __ glands produce a relatively watery fluid
Mucous; serous
__ glands (such as tear glands) have vesicles that release their secretion by exocytosis, whereas __ glands (such as oil-producing glands) secrete a mixture of disintegrated cells and their products
Merocrine; holocrine
This membrane lines passageways that open to the exterior environment
Mucous membrane
Macrophages __ in the healing of a skin wound
Phagocytize and digest tissue debris
Epithelial tissue
-Functions in absorption
-Epithelial cells can be cube or column shaped
-Epithelial cells do NOT secrete a ground substance
-epithelial cells are typically arranged in layers
Epithelial tissue is composed of cells and matrix
False – composed of cells
Epithelium that consists of more then one layer of cells is called
Functions of simple columnar epithelium
-Secretion of mucous
-Movement of egg through uterine tube
-Movement of embryo through uterine tube
Filtration is a function of simple columnar epithelium
Reticular connective tissue
-Provides support framework for the spleen
-found in the bone marrow
Areolar tissue
-forms the basement membrane of epithelia
-Found in tissues that hold muscles together
-Forms the serous membrane of the lungs
Adipose tissue
-Stores energy
-Found immediately deep to the skin
Hyaline Cartilage
-Lines the surfaces of movable joints
-Provides a low friction surface
-Holds open passages so we can breathe
Elastic Cartilage
-Forms the pinna(external part) of the ear
-Allows structures to stretch and return to original shape
-Found in the intervertebral discs
-Absorbs compressive forces in the spine
-Site of mineral storage
-The matrix is hydroxyapatite
-Provides a cavity for the brain
Dense Regular CT
-Main tissue found in structure that help muscles attach to bones
-Resists tensile forces from one direction
Dense Irregular CT
-Found in the deeper layer of the skin
-Resists tensile forces from several directions
Functions of epithelial tissue
Where is non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium is found?
Simple squamous epithelium allows for rapid diffusion
The microvilli on simple columnar epithelium helps to maximize absorption
Transitional epithelium of the urinary bladder can change shape to accommodate bladder wall stretching
Functions of connective tissue
-Hormone transport
-Energy storage
-Protecting the vital organs
-Forming the structural framework of the liver
-Supporting the internal frame of the body
Components of the matrix of connective tissue
-Collagen Fibers
-Ground Substance
Cells found in connective tissue
-red blood cell
Functions associated with the excitability of cells
-The ability to make a cell shorter then it’s length
-The ability of one cell to transmit electric signals to another cell
-The ability to create movement of a bone relative of to another bone
Skeletal Muscle
-Moves the skeleton
-Multi nucleated
Cardiac Muscle
-Contracts without nervous innervation
-Connected by intercalated discs
Smooth Muscle
-Mostly found in the viscera
-Helps propel contents through a tubular organ
-Contributes to the cytoskeleton
-Prevents cells from being pulled apart
-Hook-like J-shaped proteins connect to one another
-The hemi-version prevents cells from being pulled from basement membrane
Gap Junctions
-Allow passage of ions from one cell to another
-Allow electrical stimulation to pass from cell to cell
-Comprised of connexons
Tight Junctions
-Forms a water resistant seal between cells
-Make sure intestinal substances pass through the epithelial cells, not between them
-Secretes hormones
-Releases products into the blood steam
Example- the gland that secretes cortisol
-Secretes enzymes
-Releases products into a duct or onto a surface
-Goblet cells
-Contains septa, dividing the gland into lobes
-Sweat glands
The clear gel that usually surrounds cells is called interstitial fluid
Smooth and cardiac muscles are under involuntary control
The duct of an endocrine gland leads into the bloodstream rather then an epithelial surface

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