HIST 2112 Essay Question 2

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Racial Discrimination conducted in the U.S. after the Civil War
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The practice of differentiating among its citizens on the basis of their race, depriving blacks of human rights such as equal protection under the law, the right to vote and run for political office, and of equal access to education, housing and other public facilities and services
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The Emancipation Proclamation signed by President Abraham Lincoln at the height of the Civil War in 1863
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Ended the slavery of blacks, but it never was really accepted – especially in the South
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Martin Luther King Jr. (1)
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One of the major civil rights leaders and was active in the movement during the 1950s and 1960s
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Martin Luther King Jr. (2)
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Came to the nation’s attention when he spoke out against the arrest of Rosa Parks who would not give her seat up to a white man on public transport
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Martin Luther King Jr. (3)
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King utilized peaceful protest – following the teachings of Gandhi
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Martin Luther King Jr. (4)
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Was instrumental in forming the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
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Martin Luther King Jr. (5)
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In 1955, King was also instrumental in the Montgomery bus boycott that led to the Supreme Court prohibiting segregation on public transport
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Martin Luther King Jr. (6)
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\”I have a dream\” speech a. Captured America’s heart and proved King to be one of the world’s greatest public speakers b. Received the Nobel Peace Prize
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Rosa Parks (1)
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Instrumental in spurring on the civil rights movement in 1955
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Rosa Parks (2)
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Boarded a bus in Montgomery, Alabama and refused to give up her seat to a white man because the \”whites only\” seating area was full
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Rosa Parks (3)
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Her subsequent arrest led MLK Jr. to organize the Montgomery Bus Boycott of public transport, which lasted for over a year
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Rosa Parks (4)
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Due to the boycott, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on public transport was unconstitutional and the bus boycott finally ended
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Emmett Till (1)
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14 year old black boy murdered in Money, Mississippi
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Emmett Till (2)
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Visiting family, coming down from Chicago
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Emmett Till (3)
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He was beaten and shot through the head before being dumped in a river for whistling at a white woman as a dare from his friends
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Emmett Till (4)
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The 3 accused men were acquitted of murder but later admitted they were guilty
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Emmett Till (5)
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Till’s mother insisted that photographs were published in order that the world could see what had happened
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Malcolm X (1)
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Was a major figure in the civil rights movement and a figurehead for the Nation of Islam during the 1950s
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Malcolm X (2)
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X was a passionate and inspiring speaker who fought for independence for African-Americans using violent methods if necessary
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Malcolm X (3)
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To some, such as MLK Jr. who preached of peace, X was the flip side of the civil rights movement
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Malcolm X (4)
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If the American authorities did not want to deal with the peaceful protest of King, then Malcolm X would be the alternative
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Malcolm X (5)
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However, after falling out with the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X’s attitude changed to that of non-violent protest for integration
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President John F. Kennedy (1)
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Kennedy at first did not fully support the civil rights movement for fear of alienating voters
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President John F. Kennedy (2)
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However, he did plant the seeds for the Civil Rights Act of 1964
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President John F. Kennedy (3)
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After the riots in Birmingham, Kennedy decided to support the movement fully, regardless of whether or not he would lose the next election
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President John F. Kennedy (4)
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He supported the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom and had plans to implement a stronger civil rights act
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President Lyndon B. Johnson (1)
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Pushed forward the Civil Rights Act of 1964 despite great opposition
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Booker T. Washington (1)
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Fought for African-American rights to economic equality with whites
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Booker T. Washington (2)
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Believed that the black community had to gain economic independence and only then could they be seen as economic and social equals with whites
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Booker T. Washington (3)
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Founded the Tuskegee Institute to teach blacks self-induced economic skills
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Thurgood Marshall (1)
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Leader of the NAACP
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Thurgood Marshall (2)
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First black man to sit in the Supreme Court
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W.E.B. Du Bois (1)
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The polar opposite of Booker T. Washington
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W.E.B. Du Bois (2)
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Believed the blacks should pursue political reasoning for their rights because they didn’t have to gain them, they deserved them
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W.E.B. Du Bois (3)
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In his \”talented tenth\” speech, he demanded that the talented tenth of the black community be given full and immediate access to the mainstream of American life
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A. Phillip Randolph (1)
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Equally prominent labor and civil rights activist
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A. Phillip Randolph (2)
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Played a central role in Project C (protest in Birmingham, AL) and the March on Washington
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Ida B. Wells (1)
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1st black to file suit against racial discrimination on the railroads, she did this because she was denied a seat on a railroad car because she was black
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Ida B. Wells (2)
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Helped found the NAACP
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Plessy vs. Ferguson (1)
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Follows the requirement of TN and Mississippi for rail road cars to be separated by race
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Plessy vs. Ferguson (2)
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When Louisiana followed suit in 1890, dissidents challenged the law in the case, which Supreme Court decided in 1896
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Plessy vs. Ferguson (3)
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Supreme Court ruled that states had a right to create laws segregating public places such as schools, hotels and restaurants
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Williams vs. Mississippi (1)
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Supreme Court takes a careful look at various voting provisions and requirements Mississippi had put forward but it rules that Mississippi is not denying votes based on race
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Williams vs. Mississippi (2)
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Conservative white Democrats have taken away the vote from people who are inclined to not vote Democratic
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Gaines vs. Canada – University of Missouri (1)
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Wanted to be a lawyer in Missouri, staying in-state was necessary, but there was no in-state black law school
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Gaines vs. Canada – University of Missouri (2)
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NAACP pushes for Supreme Court to enforce the equal part of \”separate but equal\”
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Gaines vs. Canada – University of Missouri (3)
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In-state school for white means that an in-state school for blacks is required
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Smith vs. Allwright (1)
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Strikes down the White Primary because it prevented blacks from voting
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Smith vs. Allwright (2)
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Participation in primary was not extended to blacks in the South
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Smith vs. Allwright (3)
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The Supreme Court ruled that this was unconstitutional because it violated the 15th Amendment
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Smith vs. Allwright (4)
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Overturned Texas State law that authorized the Democratic Party to set its internal rules, including the use of white primaries
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McLaurin vs. Oklahoma – Oklahoma University (1)
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Leading up to Brown vs. Board of Education
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McLaurin vs. Oklahoma – Oklahoma University (2)
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Struck down the Oklahoma statue that mandated segregation in education; shows that the court is looking more closely at the equal part of separate but equal
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McLaurin vs. Oklahoma – Oklahoma University (3)
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McLaurin was at the grad school of Oklahoma University, but he was not allowed to be in the physical presence of the teacher or other students
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McLaurin vs. Oklahoma – Oklahoma University (4)
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OU tried to re-separate him from the students and by denying him the opportunity of interaction with the white teachers and white students, the school had again made his opportunity unequal
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McLaurin vs. Oklahoma – Oklahoma University (5)
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The court put an end to this
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Sweatt vs. Painter – University of Texas (1)
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Sweatt pursued admission into the University of Texas’ Law School which was known for having a phenomenal law school
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Sweatt vs. Painter – University of Texas (2)
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The Law School at the University of Texas had no separate school for blacks, so they set up a shitty one (with unqualified teachers, limited books, etc.) for Sweatt to attend
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Sweatt vs. Painter – University of Texas (3)
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There was nothing equal about the arrangement, so the court decided he must be admitted to the white version of the UT Law School
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Sweatt vs. Painter – University of Texas (4)
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This is a demonstration that the court is refusing to let the white schools merely pretend to be setting up equal opportunity in the black schools
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Brown vs. Board of Education (1)
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Struck down the separate but equal mandate
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SNCC (1)
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Founded by young people who emerged as leaders of the sit-in protest movement initiated in February 1 of 1960 by four black college students in Greensboro, NC
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SNCC (2)
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SNCC’s emergence as a force in the southern civil rights movement came largely through the involvement of students in the 1961 Freedom Rides, designed to test a 1960 Supreme Court ruling that declared segregation in interstate travel facilities unconstitutional
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SNCC (3)
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The Congress of Racial Equality initially sponsored the Freedom Rides that began in May 1961, but segregationists viciously attacked riders traveling through Alabama
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SNCC (4)
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At the August 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, SNCC chairman John Lewis was one of those scheduled to speak
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SNCC (5)
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He intended to criticize JFK’s proposed civil rights bill as \”too little, too late,\” and to refer to the movement as \”a serious revolution\”
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SNCC (6)
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He softened the tone of the delivered speech to appease A. Phillip Randolph and other march organizers, but, remained adamant that SNCC had \”great reservations\” regarding Kennedy’s proposed civil rights legislation
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SCLC (1)
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Formed just after the Montgomery Bus Boycott had ended
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SCLC (2)
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Main aim was to advance the cause of civil rights in America, but in a non-violent manner
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SCLC (3)
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The input into the SCLC came primarily from the church, which played a major part in the lives of blacks in the South and church leaders played a significant role in each black community in all parts of the South
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SCLC Basic Want #1
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White Americans not to stand by and meekly watch while wrongs are being committed against the black community. This point emphasized the belief by the SCLC that not all white Southerners were racist and gave the opportunity to bring whites on board the cause of the SCLC. By using the word ‘Negro’ in its original title, the movement effectively blanked out any chance that white Southerners might help them. The change in the title overcame this
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SCLC Basic Want #2
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Black Americans were encouraged to \”seek justice and reject all injustice\”
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SCLC Basic Want #3
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All those associated with SCLC had to accept the philosophy of non-violence regardless of the provocation. The SCLC’s motto was \”not one hair of one head of one white person shall be harmed\”
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SCLC (4)
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The SCLC assisted black Americans in registering to vote, it opened citizenship schools, but above all it preached the use of non-violence in all campaigns associated with its name. It wanted to present civil rights to America and the world as a moral issue
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How strategies and tactics of civil rights leaders changed after the mid 1950s (1)
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The movement pivoted into a characterization of major campaigns of civil non-violent resistance
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How strategies and tactics of civil rights leaders changed after the mid 1950s (2)
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Acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience produced crisis situations between activists and government authorities
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How strategies and tactics of civil rights leaders changed after the mid 1950s (3)
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Federal, state and local governments, businesses, and communities often had to respond immediately to these situations that highlighted the inequities faced by blacks
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Why the civil rights movement began to lose momentum in the mid 1960s (1)
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President Johnson attempted to overcome some of the problems in the North by proposing several bills, which had varying degrees of success for several reasons
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Why the civil rights movement began to lose momentum in the mid 1960s (2)
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He had originally hoped that the Voting Rights Act of 1965 would alleviate some of the racial tensions, making it easier for blacks to vote. However, the main problems at this time were being faced by those in the North and could not be solved as easily, although politically there was equality, the situation in economic and social terms was much worse and this lead to rioting in such areas between 1965-1968
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Why the civil rights movement began to lose momentum in the mid 1960s (3)
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Johnson’s later legislation was therefore designed to tackle the de facto segregation being faced. As previously mentioned, one of the key problems in the North was education – Johnson tried to overcome this by introducing the Elementary and Secondary School Act. However, he encountered several problems – local officials were reluctant to implement the act and ghetto peer pressure/traditions often prevented children from leaving their ghettos
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Why the civil rights movement began to lose momentum in the mid 1960s (4)
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Often bills would not even get this far because of intervention by Congress, particularly uncooperative southern members, who feared a white backlash. So many bills never really were able to be implemented, thus slowing down the civil rights movement

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