HIST 101 Final – Flashcards

Flashcard maker : Livia Baldwin
1. Examine the process and the transition from the more traditional “putting-out” system to the rise of the factory system (make sure you learn all about the spinning and weaving machines.) What would be the economic and social implications of this change? (Class notes and Bentley & Ziegler, chapter 29)
Putting Out System: Entrepreneurs in early modern Europe paid people to work on materials in their households in order to avoid guild restrictions on prices and wages. This system of production centered on the household and usually involved less than 10 people. It was a lousy and inefficient way to mass-produce goods.

Changing world:
• The worlds population was rapidly growing with a greater demand for goods.
• Modernity was being adopted – global communication, the ability to produce food and useful goods increased enormously.
• Industrialization -humankinds ability to exercise material power and manipulate and alternate its environment for out benefit (not a new concept), mass production of goods by machines set up in factories and driven by generated power.
• America became laboratories for Europeans to experiment.
• Advances in science and technology.

Factory system:
• Weaving machine became a necessity – unstoppable results, European entrepreneurs realized that if we put workers and machines in one pace with generated power will provide good results – beginning of factories.
• Protectionism: economic policy of restraining trade between countries through tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and other gov regulations made to discourage imports. Some English capitalist passed law of protectionism to help English merchants compete with Indian cotton textiles.
• Opposition to machines in England – Luddites were English craftsmen who broke machines that were taking their jobs away.
• Factories used women and children because had smaller hands and could pay them less.
• Espionage occurred – would send spys to other countries to steal ideas.
• Gave rise to the assembly line – most efficient way to produce goods in short amout of time.
• Could produce mass quantity of goods better and cheaper including guns.

Economic/Social implications:
• 2 hemispheres economically became 1.
• New transportation system – beginning of railroad systems. News traveled faster, goods could be transported from point a to point b.
• Society split up into 2 classes: Bourgeoisie/capitalist class and working class.
• Child labor became common, 10 people living in 1 room, Unions of organized labor, pollution, family fell apart, people leaving to go to cities to find a job, overcrowded cities.
• Europeans could produce goods cheaper and better than anyone else and in greater volume.

8. Learn about the causes of World War I. How was it a global and modern war? Major consequences of the war for both Europe and the wider world. (Class notes and also, Bentley & Ziegler, Chapter33)
Europe before WWI: 5 major super powers: Austria Hungary, France, England, Russia, Germany all had Christianity in common and used it as a tool to lead the whole world. They each became heavily industrialized and were all imperial powers. French was the dominant intellectual language. Had more in common than anyone in the world. Partitioned Africa amongst themselves, their presence was seen almost everywhere and the whole world was controlled by just a few countries. There were many national groups who desired to have their own nation-state (independent country). The idea of nationalism. Europe had lot in common – 1 civilization with 1 predominant culture. Tension began to appear between multinational empires. Discuss alliances before major incident.

Alliances: Triple Entente: UK, France, Russia and small countries like Serbia and Romania. The central powers were Germany and Austre Hungary.

Causes: Archduke Franz Ferdinand was heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne. His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated Austria-Hungary’s declaration of war against Serbia. Serbians wanted to cause chaos to achieve independence. Ferdinand was touring the city and was shot. Gavrilo Princip was a member of the secret radical organization, Black Hand (Union or Death). Its political objective was to create the Greater Serbia. Austria sent Serbia Ultamatiums to the Serbian government that were impossible to follow because they wanted to start a war. Serbians accepted at first until they made impossible ones. Aus-Hun got ready to invade Serbia and soon became European affair.

How it was a global and modern war: it forced the countries to ally themselves. Imperialism made it a global and modern war – allys forced to help eachother because it benefited them.

Major consequences for Europe: many independent countries ame out of it. US got involved because of guns. Financial loss and high death toll. Treaty of Versailles. divided countries. Modernity and industrialization. Competing modern technologies. Economic disorder. Influenza. Did not end political tension in Europe. Made Germany accept the blame for war for mobilizing Serbia because the balance of power was tipping and Germany was a new rival. 9 new countries. Dadaism. Surrealism. Existentialism.

Consequences for the wider world: Colonialism weakened.

Goals?: What was ultimate goal? To achieve soverinty (political independence).

3. Chinua Achebe’s novel Things Fall Apart is a good portrayal of an African society in a pre-New Colonialism era. Focus your study on Okonkwo’s relationship with his society, which formed his values and traditions. Compare those norms with the arrival of Christian missionaries and the introduction of the European laws and values.
Okonkwo – respected leader in the Umuofia tribe of the Igbo people, he lives in fear of being weak and becoming his father – a man known for his laziness and cowardice(Unoka). Okonkwo attempts to be his father’s polar opposite, he builds his home and reputation as a precocious wrestler and hard-working farmer. Okonkwo’s efforts pay off big time and he becomes wealthy through his crops (yams) and scores three wives.
An accidental murder takes place and Okonkwo ends up adopting a boy from another village. The boy is named Ikemefuna and Okonkwo comes to love him like a son. In fact, he loves him more than his natural son, Nwoye. After three years, though, the tribe decides that Ikemefuna must die. When the men of Umuofia take Ikemefuna into the forest to slaughter him, Okonkwo actually participates in the murder. Although he’s just killed his adoptive son, Okonkwo shows no emotion because he wants to be seen as Mr. Macho and not be weak like his own father was. Inside, though, Okonkwo feels painful guilt and regret. But since Okonkwo was so wrapped up in being tough and emotionless, he alienates himself from Nwoye, who was like a brother to Ikemefuna.
Later on, during a funeral, Okonkwo accidentally shoots and kills a boy. For his crime, the town exiles him for seven years to his mother’s homeland, Mbanta. There, he learns about the coming of the white missionaries whose arrival signals the beginning of the end for the Igbo people. They bring Christianity and win over Igbo outcasts as their first converts. As the Christian religion gains legitimacy, more and more Igbo people are converted. Just when Okonkwo has finished his seven-year sentence and is allowed to return home, his son Nwoye converts to Christianity. Okonkwo disowns his son. Eventually, the Igbo attempt to talk to the missionaries, but the Christians capture the Igbo leaders and jail them for several days until the villagers cough up some ransom money. Contemplating revenge, the Igbo people hold a war council and Okonkwo is one of the biggest advocates for aggressive action. However, during the council, a court messenger from the missionaries arrives and tells the men to stop the meeting. Enraged, Okonkwo kills him. Realizing that his clan will not go to war against the white men, the proud, devastated Okonkwo hangs himself.

Okonowo: fear of weakness and becoming his father. No longer able to function within his changing society. Tragic Hero, manly values conflict with unmanly ones and bring his destruction. Okonkwo experiences both pre- and post-European imperial era. Exiled because killing a clansman is a crime against the earth goddess.

Nwoye: oldest son, struggles in Okonkwo’s shadow. Is taught gentler form of masculinity by Ikemefuna. Joins forces with missionaries after Ikemefunas death and finds peace in leaving from Ok’s tyranny.

Umofia political/judicial structure: Turn of the 19th century, dramatic changes occurred in Igbo culture and society as a result of imperialism. We see two different manners in which crimes of murdering a clansman are treated: Okonkwo is exiled for seven years under Igbo laws while another man, Aneto, is hanged by the white court for a similar crime. Strict rules and expectations. We also see two different examples of courts and justice. In the traditional Igbo system of justice, villagers bring their complaints to a group of nine elders dressed as masked gods, and the group jointly and publicly settles disputes. However, when the white men arrive, they set up their own court which settles disputes in favor of the highest bidder and isn’t above secretly ambushing respected clansmen who come to court to have a civilized discussion. Ancestors take on divine nature and serve as judges in legal trials. Sin defined as crime against the gods which call for quick and severe punishment, justice served only when payment given. Entire community suffers when punishment not dolled out.

Umofias social/economic structure: What would happen if mother had twins – left in the forest to die because they are considered an abomination. Economic system: agrarian, agricultural society, based on yam crop. Survival depends on earths cycle of seasons. Make medicine with herbs. The earth goddess is also revered and feared; as farmers, the Umuofia rely completely on the produce of the land and are subject to drought and flooding. The earth goddess is seen as in control of the weather and productivity of the land, so much of the clan’s social structure is set around not displeasing the earth goddess. Achebe’s descriptions of the isolation of the Umuofia people and their complete dependence on their natural setting make their culture and practices understandable to a Western audience.

Umofias religious structure: The Umuofia clan has an elaborate religious system largely based on their natural environment. Surrounded by dense, dark woods, the forest is both respected and feared as a chief god, the Evil Forest. Religious: polytheistic religion where gods are manifestations of nature and its elements, contrasts Christianity

Europeans: Europeans came to the tribe of Umofia and their main goals were to obtain raw materials and open new markets. They brought government control, a religious mission, and economic incentive. The British had to intervene directly and forcefully to control the local population. The civilized and rich life the Igbo lived before the arrival of Europeans and the ruinous social and cultural consequences that the arrival of European missionaries brought.

Point of the book: Achebe wrote Things Fall Apart as a sharp criticism of imperialism, or the European colonization of countries outside of the European continent (especially Africa and the Americas). The novel also critiques Joseph Conrad’s famous novel, Heart of Darkness, which documented the African natives from an imperialist’s (or white colonizer’s) point of view.

5. Learn how and why Japan became industrialized (make sure you review your notes on the movie; Meiji Transformation). Learn also about hollow modernization of the Latin American countries. (Also Bentley & Ziegler pp. 724-728, 634-636 & chapter 30)
Japan status/why it wanted to be industrialized: Wanted to build a modern nation based on Western influence. Transformed into industrialized society. In 1871 the Meiji leaders left on a mission to revise unfair treaties that benefited the West, but were astonished by new transportation system. They failed to negotiate treaties, and learned modernity and the political parliamentary system from their first mission. Their first destination was the US and they felt wonder and admiration for the West. They had to learn to modernize from the West.They realized the next step was education and that no country can progress without an educated population.

How they became industrialized: School systems were built and developed western learning, Japan was emerging as a literate society. Fu stressed the needs for broader reform. 1872 – schools first began. Class became Japans foundation for building a skilled labor force. Their education system became very crucial for society. New industrial labor force, Japan dominated the silk industry. New class of industry workers grew. Coal became the main power source. 1st railroad built in 1872 which caused a new lifestyle for the Japanese. It became a new society where education was the key to societys future and technology was the key to civilazations future. They needed a good parliamentary system so they went on a 2nd study abroad trip and learned from Germany’s conservative constitution which gave most of the power to the government not the people. Industry: gov take to first initiative to set up factory and privatize.

Latin America Hollow Modernization: Political change without social change. No civil rights, protection before the law, and election of the officials. Status of Indian, Mestizos, Mulattos, poor whites , and slaves did not change at all. Rich class was ruling and nother changed, free trade was promoted but no civil rights and the election process was a sham. Hollow Modernization refers to growth without development. Countries grew wealthy through exports but wealth concentrated in hands of the few, potential didn’t benefit the population.

13. Ngugi’s Weep Not, Child. In reviewing the book, think about how it offers insights into the kind of issues that have been discussed in the lectures and in other readings. In Weep Not, Child the lesson is about the political struggle for independence in the African colony of Kenya. (Class and open discussion notes)

(Ngugi’s novel Weep Not, Child illustrates political Struggle for emancipation of the British colony of Kenya in Africa. Describe in detail the two approaches for independence that were taken in this novel, resentment of Boro and Ngotho towards Jacobo and Mr. Howlands, who Njoroge was and what kind of role he played in this novel, and finally explain the outcome of Boro and Ngotho’s actions on him(Njoroge.)

Summary: Set in a Gikuyu village in Kenya during the 1952-1960 Emergency, a tumultuous and violent period which would eventually lead to Kenya’s independence from Britain. Nyokabi offers her youngest son, Njoroge, an opportunity to go to school. He enthusiastically accepts, even though he knows it will be a financial stretch for the family. Although Kamau is only slightly older than Njoroge, he has already been apprenticed to a carpenter, and will pursue that instead of going to school. Both boys hope that their training will lead them to a happy and successful future. The village is located near Kipanga, a larger town where many of the villagers work. Kipanga is home to many colorful characters, including a funny barber who tells colorful stories about his experiences fighting in World War II. On this day, Njoroge and Kamau’s father, Ngotho, is spending time in Kipanga. He soon returns home, proud that his son will be the first in the family to attend school. Ngotho works as a farmer for a British land-owner, Mr. Howlands, on land that Ngotho’s family once owned.
Njoroge initially has a hard time adjusting to life at school, but his old friend Mwihaki helps him. Mwihaki is the daughter of Jacobo, a rich Gikuyu pyrethrum farmer who owns the land that Ngotho and his family live on. One evening, Ngotho tells his wives and children – Kori, Boro, Kamau, and Njoroge – stories about how the British stole the Gikuyu land. These events particularly upset Boro, who believes his father complicit in the injustice by working for Mr. Howlands. Boro has been troubled ever since he lost his brother when they were fighting together in World War II. Njoroge enjoys learning how to read – and eventually, how to speak English. He continues to bond with Mwihaki, and also dedicates himself to studying the Bible. He sees parallels between the Gikuyu struggle and the oppression of the Israelites. Meanwhile, Kamau is frustrated by the slow pace at which his boss, Nganga, teaches him. Word spreads through the community about a strike to advocate for more rights for Africans. Ngotho wants to participate, but is worried that Mr. Howlands will fire him. He decides to walk out anyway, and attends a rally where Boro and his friend Kiarie are scheduled to speak. The police bring in Jacobo, who urges the strikers to return to work. Ngotho is so enraged by Jacobo that he rushes the stage and attacks him, which starts a riot. The riot is put down immediately, and has dire consequences for Ngotho’s family – he is fired from his job and evicted from Jacobo’s land. Fortunately, Nganga allows the family to move onto his land. Two and a half years pass. Njoroge’s hero, the revolutionary Jomo Kenyatta, is arrested. Meanwhile, there are many incidents of violence by the Mau Mau, one of the revolutionary groups. The whole culture is in a state of flux and worry. Njoroge’s older brothers Kori and Boro both have run-ins with the police. An atmosphere of fear permeates the village; people are afraid not just of the police, but also of the Mau Mau, which slits the throats of suspected traitors. Mr. Howlands and Jacobo plot ways to arrest Ngotho, whom they both resent for his insubordination and his attack on Jacobo. They arrange for Kori and Njeri (Ngotho’s first wife) to be arrested, although Mr. Howlands is reluctant to harm Ngotho because he remembers how much his old employee loved the land. Meanwhile, Njoroge’s school is threatened by the Mau Mau, but he continues to attend at Kamau’s advice. One day, Mwihaki returns to the villages after several years away at boarding school. She and Njoroge are happy to see each other, and she invites him into her home, where he is surprised that Jacobo is so kind to him. They promise to be together after she graduates. Not much later, Njoroge and some friends go on a church retreat. However, the retreat is stopped by the police, who murder their group leader for his attitude of independence. Meanwhile, Boro plots ways to murder Jacobo. Njoroge is promoted to high school, and Mwihaki, whose grades are not as strong, attends a teaching college. The differences between them become more apparent – Mwihaki is frustrated and hopeless about the state of the country, whereas Njoroge believes that educated young people have the power to change the future. At high school, Njoroge flourishes. One day, he meets Stephen Howlands, the son of Mr. Howlands. The two boys realize that they have much in common, and discuss the reasons that they were afraid to talk to each other as children. At nineteen, Njoroge is pulled out of school to be interrogated by the police. Jacobo has been murdered, and they believe that Ngotho is involved. Njoroge is tortured mercilessly, but he refuses to give up any information. The police reveal that Ngotho has already confessed to the murder and that they have castrated him. During the torture, Njoroge passes out, and Mr. Howlands, who has been present at the interrogation, arranges for Njoroge to be released.
As it turns out, Ngotho did not commit the murder; he only confessed to help Kamau, who was being detained as a suspect. In fact, Boro killed Jacobo; he believed that it was the only way to avenge his brother’s death in the war. Mr. Howlands eventually realized that Ngotho’s confession was false, but allowed him to be tortured anyway. However, he could not bring himself to execute Ngotho. Several days later, Ngotho dies. Njoroge and Boro visit him before he dies, and after Boro sees his father’s condition, he murders Mr. Howlands in the white man’s home. After Ngotho’s death, Njoroge is obliged to give up his education and to work in a dress shop. These events emotionally destroy Njoroge, and he goes to the one source of comfort he has left: Mwihaki. They admit that they love each other, but that they cannot be together because they are obliged to support their families, both of which are now missing a father. Njoroge tries to kill himself, but Nyokabi stops him and brings him home.

Ngotho – father, supports his family by working as a farmer for Mr Howlands who owns the land that used to belong to his father, joins protest – is fired and has to move for attacking Jacobo. Eventually takes blame for his death and is tortured to death.
Njoroge – primary protagonist, and Ngotho’s youngest son. He is the first in his family to attend school, and he aspires to use his education to make Kenya a better place. The challenges to his optimism in large part constitute the novel’s primary arc.
Mr Howlands

Representation: This tumultuous time period saw the emergence of Kenyan revolutionary groups against the British colonists. The novel’s aim is to explore an entire culture in flux and on the verge of violence, through several perspectives. Weep Not, Child illustrates political Struggle for emancipation of the British colony of Kenya in Africa

2 approaches for independence: Mau Mau revolutionary movement and KAU Kenyan African Union

Resentment of Boro and Ngotho towards Jacobo and Mr. Howlands: Boro killed Jacobo to avenge his brothers death in war, Ngotho resents Howlands for owning his fathers land.

Njoroge and his role: is taking the peaceful approach of peace by using education and patience to help Kenya.

Outcome of Boro and Ngotho’s actions on Njoroge: Njoroge has to give up his education to work in a dress store to support his family after father dies and brother kills the white man. Also cannot be with Mwihaki because they both have to support their families which are both missing fathers, also trys to hang himself.

What was important about education: Njoroges brothers have to fund his education after Ngotho loses his job, his job is to become as educated as possible, ends up being the thing he has to give up. He thinks education is the light of Kenya, convinced it is the only way to bring peace. He shows how hard some people have to work for education.

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