HIST 007B Exam 2

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In the late nineteenth century, the most striking feature of the American party system was its
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remarkable stability
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In American politics during the late nineteenth century
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Republicans usually held a majority in the Senate
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An examination of American voters in the late nineteenth century reveals
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voter turnout for both presidential and nonpresidential elections was very high
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The high degree of party loyalty in the late nineteenth century is explained primarily by
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a voter’s regional background
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In the late nineteenth century, Democrats tended to attract the greater numbers of
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Catholics
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In the late nineteenth century, a voter’s party identification was usually a reflection of
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cultural background
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Throughout the late nineteenth century, the federal government
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was relatively inactive
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In the late nineteenth century, as veterans of the Civil War retired,
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a majority of the black and white male population in the North received federal pensions
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The political battles between Stalwarts and Half-Breeds constituted a fight
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between traditionalists and reformers
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James A. Garfield
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was assassinated by an unsuccessful office seeker
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Chester A. Arthur
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supported the Pendleton Act as part of civil service reform
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In the election of 1884, \”Mugwumps\” were
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unhappy Republicans who threatened to vote for the Democrats
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As president, Grover Cleveland
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was a fiscal conservative
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The election of 1888
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involved clear economic differences between the major parties
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The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
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was used by the federal government against labor unions
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In the late nineteenth century, the issue of primary interest to the Republican Party was
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supporting high tariffs
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As a result of the McKinley Tariff of 1890
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Republicans suffered significant political losses that year
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In 1892, President Grover Cleveland
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followed policies similar to those of his first term
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The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
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both A and B
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In the late nineteenth century, the Granger Laws supported the interests of
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farmers
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What statement regarding the national Grange movement is FALSE?
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It was greatly strengthened by the end of the economic depression in the late 1870s
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Compared to the Grange movement, The Farmers’ Alliances
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were more national in scale
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The election of 1892
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saw the debut of the People’s Party
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In the 1890s, Populism appealed to
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all of the above
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In 1892, the People’s Party called for
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a government network of crop warehouses
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In the late nineteenth century, American Populism
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favored the direct election of United States senators
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The Panic of 1893
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triggered the nation’s most severe depression up to that point
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The economic decline that followed the Panic of 1893 demonstrated
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the degree to which the American economy had become interconnected
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In 1894, Jacob Coxey and his supporters
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called for a public works program for the unemployed
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To many middle-class Americans, the major labor upheavals of the late nineteenth century
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were dangerous signs of social instability
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In 1873, the Congressional law that officially discontinued silver coinage
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became known to critics as the \”Crime of `73.\”
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In the 1890s, farmers favored the federal government’s coinage of silver because
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it would result in an inflation of currency
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The Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 called for the federal government to
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purchase silver
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In the 1890s, President Grover Cleveland faced the severe economic problem of
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declining gold reserves
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As the Republican Party approached the 1896 election, they were
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confident of victory
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In 1896, the Democratic political platform
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adopted several, but not all, major Populist issues
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The \”Cross of Gold\” speech was given in 1896 by
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William Jennings Bryan
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The \”Cross of Gold\” speech appealed primarily to
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farmers
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In the campaign of 1896, President William McKinley
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campaigned largely from his house
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The 1896 election results saw
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the Populist movement suffer a crippling defeat
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In 1896, the major issue of William McKinley’s administration was
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the desire for higher tariffs
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American agriculture during the 1890s benefited from
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foreign crop failures
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In the 1890s, the interest in American expansion overseas was motivated by
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fears that domestic natural resources would soon be in limited supply
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Arguments used by Social Darwinists in the United States to justify expansionism
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contended all nations were engaged in a constant struggle to survive
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The author who called on the United States to increase its naval forces in his book, The Influence of Sea Power upon History, was
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Alfred T. Mahan
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The author of The Influence of Sea Power upon History believed the United States
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should take possession of the Hawaiian Islands
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In 1895, the United States and Great Britain were involved in a serious boundary dispute involving British Guiana and
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Venezuela
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Prior to its annexation by the United States in 1898, Hawaii
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was largely governed by a monarchy
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When Hawaii was annexed in 1898
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American marines were used to carry out the action.
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In the late nineteenth century, the United States’ interest in Samoa saw competition from
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Germany
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The Spanish-American War began primarily because of events in
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Cuba
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In 1898, pressure for the American entry into war in Cuba came from
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Cuban émigrés living in the United States
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In the late nineteenth century, the term \”yellow press\” referred to
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all of the above
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In reporting the sinking of the Maine, the New York Journal and the New York World
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were highly sensational and biased
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In 1898, a letter stolen from Dupuy de Lome, Spain’s minister to Washington, was controversial because it
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described William McKinley as a weak president
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Later evidence related to the explosion that sank the Maine suggested the likely cause was
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an accident in an engine room
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Which of the following statements regarding the Spanish-American War is FALSE?
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U.S. Army soldiers were well-equipped and supplied
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As in the Civil War, the bulk of U.S. soldiers in the Spanish-American War came from
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National Guard units
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The story of race and the Spanish-American War saw
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a significant number of black troops in the American forces
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In the early stage of the Spanish-American War, Commodore George Dewey destroyed the Spanish fleet in
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Manila Bay
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In the Spanish-American War, Theodore Roosevelt’s famous charge in the battle of San Juan Hill
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all of the above
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The Foraker Act of 1900
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established an American colonial government over Puerto Rico
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The greatest American debate over the consequences of the Spanish-American War involved
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the status of the Philippines
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The treaty concluding the Spanish-American War
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transferred the Philippines and Puerto Rico to the United States
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Criticism within the United States of American colonialism included all the following EXCEPT
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the financial costs of administering colonies would require burdensome taxes
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In 1899, those who favored the annexation of the Philippines argued
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both A and B
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In 1899, supporters of the annexation of the Philippines argued the United States had set a precedent for taking land while treating its inhabitants as dependents in the case of
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the federal government’s treatment of American Indians
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The presidential election of 1900
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found the American public largely in favor of national colonialism
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In the early 1900s, which American dependency did NOT receive territorial status?
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Cuba
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The 1901 Platt Amendment was directed at
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Cuba
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According to the terms of the 1901 Platt Amendment
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the United States had the right to intervene in Cuba to protect lives
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In the early twentieth century, Cuba
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was occupied by troops from the United States for years at a time
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Beginning in 1898, the United States’s war in the Philippines
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lasted for years and resulted in thousands of American deaths
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In its war in the Philippines, the United State’s military
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both A and B
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The Philippines achieved independence from the United States
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following World War II
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The \”Open Door notes\”
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were directed to imperial powers in Europe and Asia
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In 1900, the \”Open Door notes\”
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were unilaterally adopted by the United States
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In 1900, the Chinese Boxer Rebellion was directed at
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all foreigners in China
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The Spanish-American War revealed to American military planners
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the need to improve glaring deficiencies in the army
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While progressivism has many meanings it tended to be based on the central assumption
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that American society was capable of improvement
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At the turn of the twentieth century, progressive activists
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were \”antimonopoly\” and feared concentrated power
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The term \”muckrakers\” referred to
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journalists
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At the turn of the twentieth century, Lincoln Steffens wrote extensively of the need to reform
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urban political organizations
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In 1904, Ida Tarbell published a highly critical study on
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urban \”boss rule.\”
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In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the \”Social Gospel\” was
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an effort to make religious faith a tool of social reform
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At the turn of the twentieth century, the leaders of the settlement house movement
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directed their attention at the living conditions in cities
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At the turn of the twentieth century, leaders in the settlement house movement tended to be
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female
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The settlement house movement of the early twentieth century helped spawn the profession of
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social work
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In his 1899 book, A Theory of the Leisure Class, Thorstein Veblen argued
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modern cities should rely on a handful of experts to solve their social problems
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In regards to organizing the professions during the progressive era
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by World War I, all states had established professional bar associations
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In 1901, one of the first professions to organize on a national level was in the field of
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medicine
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In regards to women and the professions during the progressive era
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social work was generally thought to be an appropriate career for women
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The most distinctive quality of women in professions during the progressive era was
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they were concentrated in the \”helping\” professions
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During the progressive era, the \”new woman\” was a product of
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all of the above
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The term \”Boston marriage\” refers to
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two women who lived together
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In regards to divorce in the United States during the progressive era,
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more than ten percent of all marriages ended in divorce.
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During the progressive era, the women’s club movement
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had a national organization to coordinate club activities
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During the progressive era, clubs for African American women
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frequently embraced controversial issues
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During the progressive era, clubwomen generally
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both A and B
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During the progressive era, the woman suffrage movement
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became the single largest reform movement of the early twentieth century
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During the progressive era, supporters of woman suffrage argued that female voters
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deserved the vote because of their unique traits as women
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During the progressive era, significant voting rights for women were first won in
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Far West
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In the year prior to the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment
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both A and B
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In 1916, Alice Paul and the National Women’s Party
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neither A nor B
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Prior to the adoption of the secret ballot, voter ballots were printed and distributed by
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the political parties themselves
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During the progressive era, one of the first targets for political reformers was
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municipal governments
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During the progressive era, opponents of political reform included many members of all of the following EXCEPT
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the middle-class
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During the progressive era, reformers of city government frequently tried to
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create city-managers
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The initiative and referendum were progressive era political reforms designed to weaken
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state legislatures
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The recall and direct primary were progressive era political reforms designed to weaken
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political parties
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As governor of Wisconsin, the progressive reformer Robert La Follette helped create
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direct primary
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During the progressive era, the power of the political parties
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declined as did voter turnout
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During the progressive era, political \”interest groups\”
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were a product of the progressive era
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During the progressive era, important sources for social reform included
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New York’s Tammany Hall political machine
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In the aftermath of the 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist fire in New York City
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strict regulations with effective enforcement were imposed on factory owners
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For western states during the progressive era, the major target for political reformers was
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the federal government
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All of the following were progressive reformers from western states EXCEPT
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Alfred E. Smith
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A major reason progressive political reforms, such as the direct primary, were quickly embraced in the western states was
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political parties were weak in this region
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In regards to race, during the progressive era
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both A and B
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During the progressive era, W. E. B. Du Bois asserted all the following EXCEPT
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the principal tool for gaining civil rights was to elect blacks to public office
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The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was
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neither A nor B
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The temperance crusade
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was supported by most business employers
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The Women’s Christian Temperance Union
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was, at one time, the largest women’s organization in American history
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Between 1914 and 1919, the temperance movement
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gained momentum as a result of World War I
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In regards to the immigrant population in the United States, progressive reformers
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both A and B
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In the early twentieth century, the theories of eugenics
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supported the restriction of immigration by nationality
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During the progressive era, the Socialist Party of America
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grew stronger
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During the progressive era, the acknowledged leader of American socialism was
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Eugene Debs
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In the 1912 presidential election, the Socialist Party candidate
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both A and B
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During the early twentieth century, the Industrial Workers of the World
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advocated a single union for all workers
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World War I hurt the socialist movement in the United States because
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the war generated anti-radical feelings in the country
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Herbert Croly argued in his 1909 book, The Promise of American Life
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it was important that the federal government was led by a strong president
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The Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution dealt with
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the electoral college
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When Theodore Roosevelt assumed the presidency in 1901
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neither A nor B
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In regards to his political ideology, Theodore Roosevelt was
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in many respects, decidedly conservative
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When he assumed the presidency in 1901, Theodore Roosevelt
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the youngest American ever to hold that office
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During Theodore Roosevelt’s first three years as president
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he believed that public opinion alone would eliminate most corporate abuses
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In the 1902 strike by the United Mine Workers, President Theodore Roosevelt
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ordered federal arbitration
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In the election of 1904, Theodore Roosevelt
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easily won his party nomination and the general election
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All of the following legislation was passed during Theodore Roosevelt’s administration EXCEPT
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Interstate Commerce Act
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Upton Sinclair’s 1906 novel, The Jungle encouraged the federal government to regulate the
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meatpacking industry
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When it came to environmental issues, Theodore Roosevelt
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both A and B
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As an environmental conservationist, President Theodore Roosevelt
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added extensive areas of land to the national forest system
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The first director of the National Forest Service was
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Gifford Pinchot
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The Sierra Club was founded by
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John Muir
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Which statement regarding the controversy over Hetch Hetchy Valley is FALSE?
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Theodore Roosevelt led the fight in favor of building a dam at Hetch Hetchy
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The Panic of 1907 was caused by
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neither A nor B
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In 1908, Theodore Roosevelt did not run for another term as president because
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in 1904 he had promised not to run again
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In the election of 1908, William Howard Taft
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was hand-picked by Theodore Roosevelt to succeed him
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As president, William Howard Taft
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neither A nor B
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The Payne-Aldrich Tariff of 1909
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resulted in President William H. Taft losing favor with progressives
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In 1909, a controversy involving Richard Ballinger and Gifford Pinchot saw
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President William H. Taft fire Pinchot for insubordination
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In 1910, in Osawatomie, Kansas, Theodore Roosevelt announced a set of political principles that called for
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greater activism by the federal government
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In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran for president, in part, because
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the Taft administration implied Roosevelt had acted improperly as president
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In the presidential campaign of 1912,
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Theodore Roosevelt ran on a third-party ticket
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The 1912 presidential election was an ideological contest between
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both A and B
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In the 1912 presidential election results
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Woodrow Wilson won only a plurality of the popular vote
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In his political program known as \”New Freedom,\” Woodrow Wilson believed trusts
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should be ended altogether
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As president, Woodrow Wilson
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more tightly controlled his executive power than had Theodore Roosevelt
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During President Woodrow Wilson’s first term, Colonel Edward House
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was one of Wilson’s closest advisors
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The 1913 Underwood-Simmons Tariff
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was intended to weaken the power of business trusts
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In 1913, as a result of the Sixteenth Amendment, Congress
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passed a graduated income tax
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In 1913, a major reform of American banking was achieved with the creation of the
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Federal Reserve Act
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The Federal Reserve Act
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created a new type of paper currency
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The Federal Trade Commission Act
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determined whether business practices were acceptable to the government
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By the fall of 1914, President Woodrow Wilson
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believed his reform program had largely been accomplished.)
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In 1914, President Woodrow Wilson
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neither A nor B
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After the elections of 1914, President Woodrow Wilson
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began another round of progressive legislation
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The 1916 Keating-Owen Act was the first federal law regulating
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child labor
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The Supreme Court, in two rulings related to the 1916 Keating-Owen Act,
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struck down reform legislation
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President Theodore Roosevelt defined \”civilized\” and \”uncivilized\” nations on the basis of
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both A and B
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President Theodore Roosevelt’s policies in regard to Asia were intended
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to prevent any single nation from being dominant
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As a result of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-1905
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President Theodore Roosevelt agreed to mediate an end to the conflict
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As part of his Asian diplomacy, President Theodore Roosevelt
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both A and B
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The 1904 \”Roosevelt Corollary\”
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stated that the U.S. had a right to intervene in the affairs of neighboring countries
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Prior to the United States’ construction of the Panama Canal,
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the French had failed to build a canal at the same site
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In order to secure control of the Panama Canal zone, the United States
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assisted a revolution in Panama
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\”Dollar Diplomacy\” is to be associated primarily with the administration of
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William Howard Taft
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The policy idea behind \”Dollar Diplomacy\” was
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to extend investments by the United States in less-developed regions
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The diplomatic efforts by President Woodrow Wilson towards Latin America
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were similar to Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft
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In the early twentieth century, United States actions toward Mexico included
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both A and B
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In his dealings with Pancho Villa, President Woodrow Wilson
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ordered a military expedition into Mexico to capture Villa

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