HESM 281: Test 1

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Who usually takes over the emergency medical care of a patient at the scene after an Emergency Medical Responder has initiated care?
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EMT’s
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Dressings, bandages and other equipment that have been used in emergency care should be replaced –
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As soon as possible
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Which of the following is NOT considered an EMS professional?
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Patient’s usual health care provider
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Which of the following is typically NOT a responsibility of most Emergency Medical Responders?
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Writing citations for the cause of vehicular accidents
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Which of the following has the highest level of emergency medical care training?
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Paramedics
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Who establishes protocols for the care an Emergency Medical Responder gives to a patient at the scene?
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The local EMS medical director
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What is the highest priority for an Emergency Medical Responder responding to an emergency scene?
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Safety
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Indirect medical control may include all the following EXCEPT
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a. offline direction provided by the medical director. b. developing protocols for how EMS providers provide patient care in different situations. c. setting standards for Emergency Medical Responder training. ***d. contacting the medical director by radio from the emergency scene.
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A person with a nonemergency chronic illness may suddenly experience an emergency situation as a result of that illness.
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TRUE
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Enhanced 9-1-1 systems automatically provide the dispatcher with the caller’s cellular telephone location.
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FALSE
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Emergency Medical Responders typically assume care of the patient from a citizen who was first on the scene and is giving first aid.
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TRUE
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An Emergency Medical Responder responsibility may include controlling or asking bystanders to help at the emergency scene.
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TRUE
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A common first reaction of a family member to a patient’s death is –
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Denial
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Which of the following is an inappropriate way to deal with the family members at the scene of a dying patient?
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a. Help maintain their privacy. ***b. Give false reassurances for the time being, until they are in a better position to cope. Correct c. Give the patient and family members as much control as possible over the situation.
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Critical incident stress –
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is a normal stress response to abnormal circumstances
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Critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) is –
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***a. voluntary. b. required in most EMS systems for all personnel involved in a critical incident. Incorrect c. mandatory if you miss work following a critical incident. d. provided by your personal physician or health care provider.
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You are at risk for infectious disease transmission when caring for –
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a. only patients known to carry disease. ***b. any patient you care for. Correct c. only patients you do not know. d. only patients who are bleeding.
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Body fluids that often transmit pathogens include blood and –
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a. saliva and urine. b. urine and semen. ***c. semen and vaginal secretions. Correct d. tears and saliva.
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How long may the hepatitis B virus survive in dried blood on a surface?
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a. A few minutes b. Up to an hour c. Up to a day ***d. Up to several days
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Who is recommended to receive the HBV vaccine?
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***a. Emergency Medical Responders and health care workers Correct b. Only those who have been exposed to a patient’s blood c. Everyone in the general population d. Only those required to by law
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Which of the following is NOT a standard guideline for preventing disease transmission?
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a. Wear eye protection when at risk for a blood splash. b. Wear medical examination gloves when providing most patient care. ***c. Ask patients about their medical history before touching them. Correct d. Disinfect equipment used in patient care.
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What may be a sign that you are allergic to latex gloves?
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***a. Skin rash Correct b. Fast pulse c. Slow blood clotting when cut d. Cyanotic skin appearance
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How long should you flush your eyes if blood splashed in your face while providing patient care?
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20 mins
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Which of the following is NOT an acceptable reason to park your vehicle in the roadway when arriving at an emergency scene?
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a. To protect the patient b. To protect any rescuers, including yourself ***c. The roadway is the only nearby place to park Correct d. To warn oncoming traffic if their view is blocked
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Which of these is the highest priority at a crime scene?
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a. Waiting for law enforcement personnel before approaching the patient ***b. Caring for the patient Correct c. Not touching the patient’s clothing d. Preserving specimens of all body fluids
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If you suspect the possibility of a fire inside a building to which you have been called for a medical emergency, but there is no actual sign of fire, which is the correct action to take?
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a. Do nothing until fire personnel arrive. b. Try to telephone anyone inside the building and ask them to carry the patient to the door. c. Run in quickly, breathing oxygen through a resuscitation mask. ***d. Touch the door before opening it, and do not open if it is hot.
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If a downed electrical wire is touching the roof of a vehicle in which there is an injured patient, you should
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a. not touch the wire or vehicle frame, but try to pull the patient out the window. ***b. wait for trained professionals or power company officials to first manage the electrical risk. Correct c. use something made of wood, like a tree limb, to push the wire away from the vehicle. d. put on several pairs of gloves to insulate yourself, then carefully open the door to extricate the patient.
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An unresponsive trauma patient is floating in shallow water. Which is a correct action?
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a. Throw a rope loop over the patient in order to pull him or her to the water’s edge. Incorrect b. Wade into the water, pull the patient to the shore and drag the patient to dry land in order to provide care. ***c. Float the patient to the water’s edge and provide care still in the water when possible. d. With help from a bystander, carry the patient onto the shore, holding the patient’s wrists and ankles.
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Stress can be prevented by maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
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FALSE
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Stress reactions can include anger, fear, anxiety, guilt or depression.
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TRUE
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Being on call is often stressful for both Emergency Medical Responders and family members.
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TRUE
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With a good diet and exercise program, anyone can cope by himself or herself with the effects of stress, even the severe stress caused by emergencies.
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FALSE
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Emergency Medical Responders can lower the risk of HIV infection by getting a vaccination.
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FALSE
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When you have worn gloves to provide patient care, and there are no tears or defects in the gloves, and you correctly removed the soiled gloves, it is unnecessary to wash your hands after caring for the patient.
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FALSE
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In a home setting, you may be at risk for hazardous fumes even if you do not smell anything or see any open or spilled containers.
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TRUE
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Which statement best defines the “standard of care” for Emergency Medical Responders?
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***a. The care a reasonable, prudent Emergency Medical Responder with similar training would give a patient in similar circumstances Correct b. The best job an Emergency Medical Responder can do, based on what is remembered from training c. The perfect level of care that Emergency Medical Responders ideally should strive to give d. The minimum care Emergency Medical Responders can give without being at risk for a lawsuit
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The consent a patient gives for receiving emergency care depends on –
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a. the severity of the injury. ***b. the information you provide to the patient. Correct c. the expected length of time before EMTs arrive. d. specific requirements in state law.
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A trauma patient is in great pain when you arrive at the scene. You state who you are and ask for consent to provide care. The patient grimaces but nods. Consent in this case is said to be –
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Expressed
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For which patient is consent NOT implied?
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a. A child without a parent or guardian present b. An unresponsive adult ***c. A patient whose religious convictions prevent giving expressed consent Correct d. A severely intoxicated patient
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A severely injured victim refuses your care. You should –
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a. argue with the victim and, if necessary, explain the fallacy of his or her beliefs. b. assume the victim is under the influence of alcohol or drugs and give care anyway. c. ask a law enforcement official for legal permission to give treatment. ***d. inform the victim again why care is needed and what may happen if care is refused.
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Touching a victim to provide care without consent may make you legally guilty of –
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Battery
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A DNR order typically refers only to –
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treatment to resuscitate a patient.
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Failing to continue a patient’s care until EMTs take over may make you guilty of –
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abandonment
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Which of the following is NOT a condition for a finding of negligence?
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a. There must be a breach of duty. ***b. The patient must have refused consent. Correct c. The patient must suffer injury or damage. d. There must be a duty to act.
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You fail to look for a patient’s medical insignia and therefore give inappropriate treatment when the patient is having a diabetic emergency. Can this factor be considered if the patient later sues you for negligence?
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a. No, you are not under any obligation to look for medical insignia. b. No, you are obligated only to look at a medical insignia if you happen upon it during your assessment or treatment. c. Yes, you must look for medical insignia, including searching the patient’s wallet or purse. ***d. Yes, you should always check for medical insignia, which may give you important information related to treatment.
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If a law enforcement officer asks you not to touch the patient because evidence of a crime may be disturbed, your best action is to –
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***a. give required medical care but be careful to avoid disturbing evidence unless necessary. b. do not touch the patient but wait for responding EMTs to give emergency care. Incorrect c. contact the patient’s attorney to secure permission to give treatment. d. allow law enforcement personnel to remove the patient’s clothing and any other objects before beginning to provide care.
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Which of the following types of incidents does not usually require you to make a report to the appropriate authorities?
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a. Child abuse b. Exposure to the patient’s blood c. A vehicular crash ***d. An intoxicated patient
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When should you complete your written report of emergency care given?
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ASAP
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If a competent adult victim refuses medical care, you can still provide treatment if it is necessary to save the person’s life.
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FALSE
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Other adults or family members cannot refuse care for an unresponsive adult patient without a formal advance directive.
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TRUE
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Maintaining professionalism in all communications is most important for which reason?
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a. It helps you control everyone on the scene. b. It ensures that others will stay quiet when you are talking. ***c. It helps patients trust you. Correct d. It helps prevent lawsuits against Emergency Medical Responders.
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Which of the following is an effective principle of communication at emergency scenes?
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a. Always use medical language with EMTs so that they know you have training. ***b. Control your body language to help prevent further frightening or upsetting an emotional patient. Correct c. Do not make eye contact with the patient or family members when you are providing information about a severe injury. d. If the patient seems frightened or very upset, speaking sternly will help command his or her attention.
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When you radio dispatch after arriving at the scene and assessing the patient, which information should you NOT provide to the dispatcher?
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***a. The identity of the patient Correct b. The patient’s condition c. Any need for law enforcement d. A dangerous hazardous materials situation
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What is the meaning of the saying, “If it’s not documented, it wasn’t done”?
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Be sure to document everything because the written report will have more validity later on than what you remember.
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When are quotation marks used in written call reports?
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To indicate the patient’s own words for subjective symptoms, such as writing, The patient felt “like my skin was on fire.”
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Which of the following is an active listening skill to use with a patient to ensure effective communication?
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***a. Paraphrase what the patient tells you, to ensure you understand. Correct b. Remain silent for 15 seconds each time the patient speaks, to ensure everything has been said. c. Kneel down so that your face is below the patient’s, to demonstrate your willingness to listen. d. Move your body as close as you can to the patient’s, to provide emotional support when the patient speaks.
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Which of the following is generally NOT a barrier to communication?
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a. Pain and discomfort b. The patient’s cultural differences from you ***c. The patient’s educational level Correct d. The presence of medical equipment
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An open-ended interview question would be most appropriate to gain which of the following types of information from a patient?
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a. Whether there is feeling in the patient’s fingers ***b. The location of the patient’s pain Correct c. If the patient is choking d. Whether the patient has ever had a seizure before
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Which of the following questions to a patient would likely produce the best information?
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a. “I bet your arm really hurts, doesn’t it?” b. “What word would best describe how your arm feels?” c. “Would you say your arm pain is more like crushing pain or a sharp stabbing pain?” ***d. “How does your arm feel?”
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Which of these is the medical word part that means “slow”?
answer

Brady-
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When you need to move quickly to provide emergency care, speak to the patient emotionally and urgently to ensure cooperation.
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FALSE
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Positioning yourself very close to the patient may make the patient feel intimidated or fearful.
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TRUE
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If a patient seems slow or unable to answer an open-ended question about a symptom, ask a leading question to help stimulate an answer, such as “Does your chest pain feel crushing?”
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FALSE
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When communicating with a patient with a visual impairment, remain silent for lengthy periods to encourage the patient to say whatever he or she wants to say.
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FALSE
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In confusion or an effort to please you, some patients may nod or say “Yes” without actually knowing your meaning.
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TRUE
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Which of these statements is true? Select one: a. The wrist is distal to the elbow. Correct b. The elbow is proximal to the shoulder. c. The spine is lateral to the shoulder. d. When lying prone, the head is inferior to the spine.
answer

a. The wrist is distal to the elbow. Correct
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Where in the respiratory system is a foreign body most likely to cause an obstruction? Select one: a. Alveoli b. Pharynx Correct c. Epiglottis d. Trachea
answer

b. Pharynx Correct
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What is the muscle primarily responsible for the breathing process? Select one: a. Airway b. Alveoli c. Trachea d. Diaphragm
answer

d. Diaphragm
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How might a drug overdose typically affect breathing? Select one: a. By causing the lungs to fill with fluid, keeping air away from alveoli b. By paralyzing the accessory muscles of breathing, preventing the lungs from receiving air c. By severely depressing nervous system functions, slowing or stopping breathing Correct d. By preventing body tissues from being able to receive oxygen from the blood
answer

c. By severely depressing nervous system functions, slowing or stopping breathing Correct
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Which statement is true about differences between the adult and infant respiratory systems? Select one: a. In infants, anatomical structures are smaller and the airway is more easily obstructed. Correct b. In infants, the diaphragm is poorly developed, with rib muscles doing most of the work of breathing. c. In infants, the gagging reflex is poorly developed, resulting in frequent aspiration of vomited substances. d. In infants, nasal airway passages have not yet developed and all breathing must be done through the mouth.
answer

a. In infants, anatomical structures are smaller and the airway is more easily obstructed. Correct
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Which of the following is NOT transported by blood? Select one: a. Heat b. Nutrients c. Electrical impulses that control heart rate Correct d. Carbon dioxide
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c. Electrical impulses that control heart rate Correct
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In which of the following arteries is a pulse NOT commonly taken in patients? Select one: a. Radial artery b. Tibial artery Correct c. Carotid artery d. Brachial artery
answer

b. Tibial artery Correct
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Compared to the average adult heart rate at rest, which of these factors does NOT involve a faster heart rate? Select one: a. Being an infant b. Sleeping Correct c. Having a fever d. Exercising
answer

b. Sleeping Correct
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How soon do cells in vital organs such as the brain begin to die after the heart stops? Select one: a. An hour b. A few minutes Correct c. A few seconds d. About 20 minutes
answer

b. A few minutes Correct
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From which blood vessels is bleeding more likely to be severe? Select one: a. Veins b. Capillaries c. Arteries Correct d. Vessels near the skin surface
answer

c. Arteries Correct
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An acute myocardial infarction is also known as a(n) – Select one: a. stroke. b. embolism. c. arrhythmia. d. heart attack.
answer

d. heart attack.
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Vertebral fractures are likely to cause – Select one: a. severe bleeding. b. muscular spasms that look like seizures. c. instant death. d. nervous system damage.
answer

d. nervous system damage.
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Which body system controls the functioning of most other body systems? Select one: a. Respiratory system b. Nervous system Correct c. Endocrine system d. Circulatory system
answer

b. Nervous system Correct
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Injury in what body area may cause paralysis elsewhere in the body? Select one: a. Spine Correct b. Lungs c. Heart d. Aorta
answer

Spine
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Altered mental status does NOT commonly result from which of the following conditions? Select one: a. Poisoning b. Stroke c. Delayed digestion Correct d. Diabetic emergency
answer

c. Delayed digestion Correct
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How does the skin help regulate body temperature? Select one: a. Like muscles, movement of skin tissues generate heat. b. Dilation of blood vessels brings heat to the surface to dissipate. Correct c. Evaporation of water from the skin helps the body conserve heat. d. Blood vessel constriction in the skin helps radiate heat to the environment.
answer

b. Dilation of blood vessels brings heat to the surface to dissipate. Correct
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What skin condition may signal that blood oxygen levels are low? Select one: a. Cool and clammy Correct b. Sudden appearance of rash c. Yellow or greenish tint of nailbeds d. Flushed and hot to the touch
answer

a. Cool and clammy Correct
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When can pathogens enter the body through the skin? Select one: a. Any time, through normal skin pores b. Only with a compromised immune system c. With any break in the skin Correct d. Only with injured arteries
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c. With any break in the skin Correct
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Which of the following organs is not protected by the skeletal system and thus is more easily damaged by trauma? Select one: a. Brain b. Heart c. Urinary bladder d. Intestines
answer

d. Intestines
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Persistent diarrhea is likely to be more serious in – Select one: a. an infant. Correct b. a young adult. c. a diabetic. d. a stroke victim.
answer

a. an infant. Correct
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A common disease of the endocrine system is – Select one: a. epilepsy. b. diabetes. Correct c. atherosclerosis. d. gastritis.
answer

b. diabetes. Correct
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A tetanus booster is generally recommended every ____ year(s). Select one: a. 1 b. 3 c. 5 d. 10
answer

10
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A vaccine is available for – Select one: a. HIV. b. hepatitis B. Correct c. hepatitis C. d. TB.
answer

b. hepatitis B. Correct
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Arteries are generally deeper in the body than veins and are more protected and less likely to be damaged by injuries. Select one: True Correct False
answer

true
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Most bone fractures are life threatening. Select one: True False
answer

false
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Pain is not always present with serious injuries and conditions. Select one: True Correct False
answer

true

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